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Question No: 1
Write a briefly on Idealism; also explain the following terminologies in the context of Idealism.
a) Role of Teacher
b) Teaching Method
c) Curriculum

Answer:
Idealism:
An idealist is someone who believes in high ideals and strives to make them real, even though they may be impossible. It’s often contrasted with pragmatist or realist, i.e. someone whose goals are less ambitious but more achievable.
This sense of “idealism” is very different from the way the word is used in philosophy. In philosophy, idealism is about the basic structure of reality: idealists hold that the most basic “unit” of reality is not material, but conceptual.
“Idealists are people who follow idealism beliefs that Ideas are the only true reality.”

a) Role of Teacher:
Idealist” way of thinking, the teacher plays a vital role in a child’s education especially in character formation because the pupils imitate the teacher. The teacher should be a role model for pupils and should exhibit the “ideal” behavior that is well-accepted by the society.
An idealist teacher encourages his/her pupils to think and ask more questions in an environment that is conducive for learning.
Young learners nowadays are very inquisitive and curious; and with the help of an idealist teacher, he/she cans the pupils in to discover new learning through asking questions.
However, the method of teaching in the Idealism philosophy follows a teacher-centered approach wherein the teacher selects the topic to be discussed and asks questions after the discussion, which is very typical. Students on the other hand, answer the questions then the teacher would provide feedback that would help the students improve themselves. With this, the students will be guided to be on the right track and come up with an answer that satisfies the teacher.
Being an idealist teacher has its strengths too, such as: encouraging thinking and cognition and providing character formation for students. Teachers are valuable in the learning process as they provide a systematic and holistic approach to learning.

b) Teaching Method:
The second method that suits idealism the most is the Socratic Method in which the teacher involves the students in learning activities. The teacher raises an issue and the students are encouraged to discuss it in a dialogue form and reach to a conclusion

c) Curriculum:
Idealism is a philosophy developed by Plato. One of the many tenets of idealism is that truth can be found through reasoning, intuition, and divine revelation. There is such as thin as absolute truth and the world is composed of ideas primarily.

For curriculum, idealist concepts come through when people believe that learning is mostly an intellectual process. Teaching connects ideas together when teaching the students. The education is highly structured and one of the best examples of this is the liberal arts education. The humanities are viewed as the most important subjects because these fields deal with ideas. The sciences are lower on the scale because they deal with observation.
Question:
Write a short note on three major branches of philosophy and how these branches play role in the process of curriculum development, explain with concrete examples.
Answer:
1. Axiology: the study of value; the investigation of its nature, criteria, that’s, what really makes something of value? Axiology is the philosophy or study of the nature of values, and deal with question in morality, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics.
Example:
“Question of morality is axiological, for example, is assisted suicide right or wrong? What is the nature of beauty? Is a question for axiology? Will I go to Heaven if I live a good life? Is axiological? Is there a Heaven and hell? A thing like that .That’s example shows the importance of Axiology. That’s reality, after a death start a life who called a real life. That’s Axiology.”

2. Epistemology: Epistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief. It analyzes the nature of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth, belief and justification. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge, as well as skepticism about different knowledge claims.
Example:
“Now a clever man would put the poison into his own goblet, because he would know that only a great fool would reach for what he was given. I am not a great fool, so I can clearly not choose the wine in front of you. But you must have known I was not a great fool, you would have counted on it, so I can clearly not choose the wine in front of me.”

' 3. Metaphysics: Metaphysics is the study of ultimate nature of reality, For instance, God exists or not? What is truth? What is permanent? What kinds of things also exist?
Example: A person is made up of two separate substance, body and soul. That’s metaphysics theory. GOD creates the universal, that’s truth. We cannot deny this reality. GOD is one. That’s true. GOD is everywhere. That’s reality any people cannot change this reality.
At the end, we say that all of these branches have much importance in the curriculum development. Curriculum development play important role in the students study.


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