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Study Program: B.ED. Secondary (1.5-year Program)

Question No: 1
Write a comprehensive note on contribution of Aristotle in the field of Education?
Answer:
Aristotle believed that education was central – the fulfilled person was an educated person… our thinking and practice as educators must be infused with a clear philosophy of life. Aristotle plays important role in the field of education.
He placed a strong emphasis on all round and ‘balanced’ development. Play, physical training, music, debate, and the study of science and philosophy were to all have their place in the forming of body, mind and soul.
Aristotle gave the basic model of scientific method as we know it today; so, in that sense, his ideas permeate almost every field of study. That’s reason he called a founder of scientific method. He is father of realism & the scientific method.
He plays an important role in the field of political science. He is a good political thinker. He wanted education to be done through reason and for students to have an active role in their education. He said that:
“Anything that we have to learn to do we learn by the actual doing of it…. We become just by doing just acts, temperate ones, brave by doing brave ones.” He believes that education should include ethics and political philosophy.
He did not believe on informal education. He says, we cannot teach in the isolation. He is good person. He played an important role in the study. He says music & literature useful development at a younger age and teaching of mathematics for higher education.
Scheme of Education:
Aristotelian education may be divided in to three periods.
1. First seven years
2. Seven to twenty-one
3. Twenty-one onwards
His views on realism or the idea that reality exists independent of the human mind and that reality can only be known through rigorous, systematic inquiry, is a fundamental precept of modern education. He played an important role in the Physics.

Question No: 2
Briefly compare the four Educational Philosophies, on following Indicators.
1. Truth
2. Role of teacher
3. Methods of Instruction
4. School Activities
5. School Building
Answer:
Educational Philosophies
1. Perennialism
2. Essentialism
3. Progressivism
4. Reconstructionism

There are four educational Philosophies. Now, I describe them step by step. First of all, I describe the Perennialism.

Perennialism:
Educational Perennialism is a normative educational philosophy. Perennialists believe that one should teach the things that are of everlasting pertinence to all people everywhere, and that the emphasis should be on principles, not facts.
Truth Role of the teacher Methods of the
Instruction School Activities School Building
Perennialist’s curriculum is a universal one on the view that all human beings possess the same essential nature.
The teachers do not allow the students interest or experiences to substantially dictate what they teach.
As an expert

Impart essential knowledge

Direct focused tasks

Coaching

Discussion

Lecture

Critical thinking

Grouping activities

Different curriculum

Nowadays you can find this philosophical approach in boarding schools, and every private school.

The buildings of this school are very good.

We built this according to the need.

Essentialism:
Educational essentialism is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn the traditional basic subjects thoroughly. In this philosophical school of thought, the aim is to install students with “essentials” of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-basics approach.
Truth Role of the teacher Methods of Instruction School Activities School Building
The teacher focuses on academic content for students to learn the basic skills.
Teachers emphasize mastery of subject matter. Critical Thinking

Problem solving Critical Thinking

The teacher delivers and the students receives Self essays

Questioning strategies Use in private schools

Traditional building

Progressivism:
Progressivism revolves around the students' needs, including teaching students to be good citizens as well as good learners, a concept known as focusing on the whole child.
Truth Role of the teacher Methods of Instruction School Activities School Building
Progressivism precedes essence.

Reality Cooperative learning

Direct focused tasks
Didactic Questions

Guest Speaker Self writing

Games Wonderful

Big building

Double story
Reconstructionism:
1 : A movement in 20th century American Judaism that advocates a creative adjustment to contemporary conditions through the cultivation of traditions and folkways shared by all Jews. 2: Advocacy of post-Civil War reconstruction.
Truth Role of the teacher Methods of Instruction School Activities School Building
To improve and reconstruct society education for change.
Focus on active learning and activities outside of school
Students spend time in the community to learn its problems

Cooperative learning

Guided Readings Group discussion

Personal practice Analysis
School should be the primary place to work on the reconstruction of society.

Amazing

Single story

Question No: 3
Define Paideia proposal and explain the implications of its objectives in the context of Pakistani school.
Answer:
Paideia Proposal:
Paideia is a word use for education in Greek. Paideia means a system of broad culture education. The Paideia Proposal is a system of liberal education intended for all children, including those who will never attend a university. The Paideia Proposal is a K-12 educational reform plan proposed by Mortimer Adler. Adler was a prolific author, and reference to the Paideia plan for educational reforms can be found in a number of his books.
Objectives:
1. Development of citizenship
2. Personal growth or self-important
3. Occupational preparation
Pakistani Schools:
In Pakistani schools try to achieve these three objectives. That’s very important in Pakistani schools. Ours school developed a good things in the student. Children, after acquiring proper education should be able to:
1. To earn a money
2. They become good citizen
3. They know the meaning of life
4. To function as intelligent & responsible citizen
5. Everyone love him
6. They enjoy the full lives
7. They participate in the political activities
8. They play important role in society
In our government school gave good education to students. In our private school gave good education to the students. Basic schooling must aim at turning the students into responsible citizens committed towards the betterment of the society. The basic aims of Pakistani schools are prepare children to earn a living when they are grown up. At the end we say that all schools are given the same educational opportunity, and must therefore make the most of it.
According to Adler, the purpose of schooling is to prepare children for a long life process of learning. School must encourage the students to continue their education even after their formal schooling ends.

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