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Question No: 1
Discuss Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory. Illustrate the difficulties that head teachers are likely to encounter in their efforts to fulfill each of this category of needs.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs:
Is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological review? Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' natural interest. His theories parallel many other theories of human development psychology. Some of which focus on outline the stages of growth in humans.
Furthermore, this theory is a key foundation in understanding how drive and motivation are related to when discussing human behavior. Each of these individual levels contains a certain amount of internal sensation that must be met in order for an individual to complete their hierarchy. The goal of Maslow's Theory is to attain
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs. I want to describe the Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs through this simple table in simple words.
Self actualization------------> Achieving one’s full potential
Esteem--------------------> Feeling of Accomplishment
Love/ Belonging---------> Intimate Relationship, Friends
Safety-----------------------> Security
Physiological-------------> Food, Water, Rest
Illustrate the difficulties that head teachers are likely to encounter in their efforts to fulfill each of this category of needs.
Some of the biggest challenges we face can appear discouraging difficult. Despite reform efforts, regular government reviews and ongoing calls for change, progress in addressing our most significant challenges is often slow and solutions continue to escape us.

It’s not that we don’t know what the challenges are. But their roots sometimes lie largely outside the reach of schools or in deeply invulnerable educational processes and structures that are difficult to change.

Three Challenges are here;

1. Raising the professional status of teaching:

A first challenge is to raise the status of teaching as a career choice, to attract more able people into teaching and to develop teaching as a knowledge-based profession. Attracting the best and brightest school departure to teaching is only a first step for top-performing nations. They also work to understand the nature of expert teaching and use this understanding to shape first teacher education programs, coaching and mentoring arrangements and ongoing professional development.
2. Promoting flexible learning arrangements focused on growth:

To provide more flexible learning arrangements in schools to better meet the needs of individual learners. The organization of schools and schooling also has been largely unchanged for decades. Although composite classes are common, students suffer to be grouped into year levels, by age, and to progress automatically with their age peers from one year of school to the next. A curriculum is developed for each year of school, students are placed in mixed-ability classes, teachers deliver the curriculum for the year level they are teaching, and students are measure and graded on how well they perform on that curriculum.
In this way, excellent progress becomes an expectation of every student, including those who are already more advanced.

3. Identifying and meeting the needs of children on trajectories of low achievement:

To identify as early as possible children who are at risk of falling behind in their learning and to address their individual learning needs. By Year 3, there are wide differences in children’s levels of achievement in learning areas such as reading and mathematics. Some children are already well behind year-level expectations, and many of these children remain behind throughout their schooling. They are locked into trajectories of ‘underperformance’ that often lead to separation, poor attendance and early exit from school.
Question No: 2
Discuss components of communication. What are the barriers to effective communication in the classroom? Explain with examples.
An understanding of the process of communication makes it easy to improve the process of communication. The process of business communication involves five components of communication, they are as follows:
• Sender
• Receiver
• Message
• Channel
• Feedback
1. Sender:
Sender is the person who creates the communication process. The sender should know the techniques of creating an effective communication process. These techniques include both verbal and non-verbal. Good writing and speaking skills, make easy and understandable arguments, good eye contact, command of grammar, sharing exact information are some of the techniques to be follow up for an effective communication.
2. Receiver:
Receiver is the other party who receives the message. A receiver is an individual or the whole audience, and the receiver can communicate either verbally or non-verbally. The best way of receiving message is to make an excellent eye contact, listen carefully and sitting up straight. Just focus on the message do not involve in any other activity else while receiving a message verbally.
3. Message:
It is most crucial component of communication. There are different ways in which messages can be sent and they can be presentation, written documents or an advertisement. The message transfers from the sender to receiver. It is not necessary that what the sender intends to send. The message is what is perceived by the receiver.
4. Channel:
The message travels from the sender to the receiver through a medium that is known as channel. There are many types of channels, like speakers, newspapers, T.V, internet and radio, as in the written form it may be a magazine, book or reports, etc. For every channel there are advantages and disadvantages too. For example, a disadvantage for a written communication is that the receiver is unable to evaluate the tone of the sender.
5. Feedback:
Feedback is the response of the receiver. The receiver has to give his response either by asking questions or by making comments. Feedback helps the sender to know that how his message has been interpreted. Remember feedback might be positive and negative and even feedback is also the part business communication process.

What are the barriers to effective communication in the classroom? Explain with examples
Some common barriers to effective communication in the classroom are listening barriers, perception barriers. Learning to recognize and overcome these barriers is essential in effective classroom communication. Effective listening is one of the most important factors in classroom communication.

Listening barriers:
Effective listening is one of the most important factors in classroom communication. Take the time to listen to what the other person is saying. When someone is speaking, you should not be thinking of your next response. Negative emotions may occur when certain words or body language is used. A teacher must also take care to keep emotional reactions to a minimum and focus on what the speaker is saying.
Perception Barriers:
Perception may be a barrier to effective communication in the classroom. Different people may receive and hear the same message but interpret it differently. Paying attention to detail is also important. Important aspects can be missed by not covering a subject in depth. A teacher should also learn to focus on both positive and negative aspects of a conversation.

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