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Please Discuss here about this assignment.Thanks

Our main purpose here discussion not just Solution

NG001 2nd Assignment idea solution nov 2012 

ENG001 2nd Assignment idea solution nov 2012

Idea Solution :


1st blank pronunciation
2nd blank encyclopedia dictionary
3rd blank = Abstract
4th blank = proportion
5th blank = complex sentence

question 2 answer

 

Every morpheme can be classified as either free or bound. These categories are mutually exclusive, and as such, a given morpheme will belong to exactly one of them.

 
Free morphemes can function independently as words (e.g. town, dog) and can appear with other lexemes (e.g. town hall, doghouse).
Bound morphemes appear only as parts of words, always in conjunction with a root and sometimes with other bound morphemes. For example, un- appears only accompanied by other morphemes to form a word. Most bound morphemes in English are affixes, particularly prefixes and suffixes, examples of suffixes are: tion, ation, ible, ing etc.. Bound morphemes that are not affixes are called cranberry morphemes, their nomenclature is derived from the bound, non-affix function of cran- in the word cranberry.

or

 

Morphemes

In linguistic terminology the minimal parts of words that we have analyzed above are called morphemes. Morphemes come in different varieties, depending on whether they are

free or bound and
inflectional or derivational
Free morphemes

Free morphemes can stand by themselves (i.e. they are what what we conventionally call words) and either tell us something about the world (free lexical morphemes) or play a role in grammar (free grammatical morphemes). Man, pizza, run and happy are instances of free lexical morphemes, while and, but, the and to are examples for free grammatical morphemes. It is important to note the difference between morphemes and phonemes: morphemes are the minimal meaning-bearing elements that a word consists of and are principally independent from sound. For example, the word zebra (ˈziːbrə) consists of six phones and two syllables, but it contains only a single morpheme. Ze- and -bra are not independent meaning-bearing components of the word zebra, making it monomorphemic. (Bra as a free morpheme does in fact mean something in English , but this meaning is entirely unrelated to the -bra in zebra.)

Bound morphemes

Not all morphemes can be used independently, however. Some need to be bound to a free morpheme. In English the information “plural number” is attached to a word that refers to some person, creature, concept or other nameable entity (in other words, to a noun) when encoded in a morpheme and cannot stand alone. Similarly the morpheme -er, used to describe “someone who performs a certain activity” (e.g. a dancer, a teacher or a baker) cannot stand on its own, but needs to be attached to a free morpheme (a verb in this case). Bound morphemes come in two varieties, derivational and inflectional, the core difference between the two being that the addition of derivational morphemes creates new words while the addition of inflectional words merely changes word form.

or

A free morpheme can be used all by itself. A bound morpheme has to be 
combined with one or more other morphemes. 
"to" is a free morpheme of English; it can be used alone, and can't be 
divided into smaller meaningful parts. The morpheme "-ing" is a bound 
morpheme, as in "walking," where it has been suffixed to "walk" to make a 
word.

or

  • Bound morphemes Bound morphemes (affixes) must be attached to the word. They are prefixes, infixes, suffixes and circumfixes. Such as {clude} as in include , exclude , preclude ) or they may be grammatical (such as {PLU} = plural as in boys , girls , and cats ).
  • 20. Free morphemes Free morphemes are those that can stand alone as words. Example:     girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happy

Boys is a word made up of two morphemes: boy (the stem, a free morpheme, one that can stand on its own) and -s (a bound morpheme, one that cannot stand on its own). 

Bedroom is a word made up of two free morphemes that can stand on their own ( bed and room).

 

free = has meaning
bound = has grammatical function

hope u understand now,

 

Proofreading is primarily about searching your writing for errors, both grammatical and typographical

Proofreading, or ‘copy checking’, originally referred to newspapers, where an editor would take typeset paper and check the text for errors against an original manuscript.  These days, even in newspapers and magazines, which often have their sub-editors proof on screen, it’s all done digitally.  Two printed resources are rarely checked against each other.  The notion of the activity itself is designed to address both issues of content and visual consistency.

Though everyone has a unique proofreading process, there are some general strategies that can be helpful to most writers. Begin improving your proofreading skills by trying out the guidelines listed below.

General Strategies

  • Take a break! Allow yourself some time between writing and proofing. Even a five-minute break is productive because it will help you get some distance from what you have written. The goal is to return with a fresh eye and mind.
  • Leave yourself enough time. Since many errors are made by speeding through writing and proofreading, you should take your time to look over your writing carefully. This will help you to catch errors you might otherwise miss. Always read through your writing slowly. If you read at a normal speed, you won't give your eyes sufficient time to spot errors.
  • Read aloud. Reading a paper aloud encourages you to read every little word.
  • Role-play. While reading, put yourself in your audience's shoes. Playing the role of the reader encourages you to see the paper as your audience might.
  • Get others involved. Asking a friend or a Writing Lab tutor to read your paper will let you get another perspective on your writing and a fresh reader will be able to help you catch mistakes that you might have overlooked.

Personalizing Proofreading

In addition to following the general guidelines above, individualizing your proofreading process to your needs will help you proofread more efficiently and effectively. You won't be able to check for everything (and you don't have to), so you should find out what your typical problem areas are and look for each type of error individually. Here's how:

  • Find out what errors you typically make. Review instructors' comments about your writing and/or review your paper with a Writing Lab tutor.
  • Learn how to fix those errors. Talk with your instructor and/or with a Writing Lab tutor. The instructor and the tutor can help you understand why you make the errors you do so that you can learn to avoid them.
  • Use specific strategies. Use the strategies detailed on the following pages to find and correct your particular errors in usage, sentence structure, and spelling and punctuation.

 

Q1. Name three sensitive areas of Proofreading. How can we polish up the final product/written material by proofreading these sensitive areas? (5 Marks)

 

 

 Answer:

            Proofreading is the final stage of the editing process, focusing on surface errors such as misspellings and mistakes in grammar and punctuation. Good writing always involves modification and revision, and proofreading is a fundamental part of this process.

 

Q2. Differentiate between free morpheme and bound morpheme. Give at least two examples each. (5 Marks)

 

Q3. Fill in the blanks with correct terms. (5 Marks)

 

  1. --------- involves using various symbols to represent sounds.
  2. A dictionary that contains geographical and biographical information is called an ----------.
  3. The opposite of a concrete noun is --------- noun.
  4. A ---------- links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
  1. -------------- contains one independent with one or more subordinate clauses joined by a subordinator.

here is Q3 solution

 Fill in the blanks with correct terms. (5 Marks)

 

  1. Pronunciation involves using various symbols to represent sounds.
  2. A dictionary that contains geographical and biographical information is called an encyclopedic dictionary
  3. The opposite of a concrete noun is a concrete noun.
  4. preposition links nounspronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
  1. COMPLEX SENTENCES contains one independent with one or more subordinate clauses joined by a subordinator.



q1 

Proofreading is the final stage of the editing process, focusing on surface errors such as misspellings and mistakes in grammar and punctuation. You should proofread only after you have finished all of your other editing revisions.

 

the final trial print, used to make corrections before the

final printing. So, the proofreader combs through the work looking for any glitches. These include spaces, punctuation, spelling, alignment, type font and style, and other details. This can involve comparing the final marked copy with the final trail print
Proofreading means examining your text carefully to find and correct typographical errors and mistakes in grammar, style, and spelling.Good writing always involves modification and revision, and proofreading is a fundamental part of this process. People need proofreaders in order to be sure that their work does not contain any mistakes.

General tips for proofreading

  • Read it out loud and also silently.
  • Read it backwards to focus on the spelling of words.
  • Read it upside down to focus on typology.
  • Use a spell checker and grammar checker as a first screening, but don't depend on them.
  • Have others read it.
  • Read it slowly.
  • Use a screen (a blank sheet of paper to cover the material not yet proofed).
  • Point with your finger to read one word at a time.
  • Don't proof for every type of mistake at once—do one proof for spelling, another for missing/additional spaces, consistency of word usage, font sizes, etc.
  • Keep a list of your most common errors (or of the writers you are proofing) and proof for those on separate "trips."
  • If you are editing within Word, use the "track changes" or "mark changes" function to make your comments apparent to other reviewers (additions and deletions can be set to appear in different colors).
  • Print it out and read it.
  • Read down columns in a table, even if you're supposed to read across the table to use the information. Columns may be easier to deal with than rows.
  • Use editor's flags. Put #s in the document where reviewers need to pay special attention, or next to items that need to be double-checked before the final proof print. Do a final search for all # flags and remove them.
  • Give a copy of the document to another person and keep a copy yourself. Take turns reading it out loud to each other. While one of you reads, the other one follows along to catch any errors and awkward-sounding phrases. This method also works well when proofing numbers and codes.
  • First, proof the body of the text. Then go back and proof the headings. Headings are prone to error because copy editors often don't focus on them.
  • Double check fonts that are unusual (italic, bold, or otherwise different).
  • Carefully read type in very tiny font.
  • Be careful that your eyes don't skip from one error to the next obvious error, missing subtle errors in between.
  • Double check proper names.
  • Double check little words: "or," "of," "it," and "is" are often interchanged.
  • Double check boilerplate text, like the company letterhead. Just because it's frequently used doesn't mean it's been carefully checked.
  • Double check whenever you're sure something is right—certainty is dangerous.
  • Closely review page numbers and other footer/header material for accuracy and correct order.

 

Why proofread? It’s the content that really matters, right?

Content is important. But like it or not, the way a paper looks affects the way others judge it. When you’ve worked hard to develop and present your ideas, you don’t want careless errors distracting your reader from what you have to say. It’s worth paying attention to the details that help you to make a good impression.

Most people devote only a few minutes to proofreading, hoping to catch any glaring errors that jump out from the page. But a quick and cursory reading, especially after you’ve been working long and hard on a paper, usually misses a lot. It’s better to work with a definite plan that helps you to search systematically for specific kinds of errors.

Sure, this takes a little extra time, but it pays off in the end. If you know that you have an effective way to catch errors when the paper is almost finished, you can worry less about editing while you are writing your first drafts. This makes the entire writing proccess more efficient.

Try to keep the editing and proofreading processes separate. When you are editing an early draft, you don’t want to be bothered with thinking about punctuation, grammar, and spelling. If your worrying about the spelling of a word or the placement of a comma, you’re not focusing on the more important task of developing and connecting ideas.

The proofreading process

You probably already use some of the strategies discussed below. Experiment with different tactics until you find a system that works well for you. The important thing is to make the process systematic and focused so that you catch as many errors as possible in the least amount of time.

  • Don’t rely entirely on spelling checkers. These can be useful tools but they are far from foolproof. Spell checkers have a limited dictionary, so some words that show up as misspelled may really just not be in their memory. In addition, spell checkers will not catch misspellings that form another valid word. For example, if you type “your” instead of “you’re,” “to” instead of “too,” or “there” instead of “their,” the spell checker won’t catch the error.

 

  • Grammar checkers can be even more problematic. These programs work with a limited number of rules, so they can’t identify every error and often make mistakes. They also fail to give thorough explanations to help you understand why a sentence should be revised. You may want to use a grammar checker to help you identify potential run-on sentences or too-frequent use of the passive voice, but you need to be able to evaluate the feedback it provides.

 

  • Proofread for only one kind of error at a time. If you try to identify and revise too many things at once, you risk losing focus, and your proofreading will be less effective. It’s easier to catch grammar errors if you aren’t checking punctuation and spelling at the same time. In addition, some of the techniques that work well for spotting one kind of mistake won’t catch others.

 

  • Read slow, and read every word. Try reading out loud, which forces you to say each word and also lets you hear how the words sound together. When you read silently or too quickly, you may skip over errors or make unconscious corrections.

 

  • Separate the text into individual sentences. This is another technique to help you to read every sentence carefully. Simply press the return key after every period so that every line begins a new sentence. Then read each sentence separately, looking for grammar, punctuation, or spelling errors. If you’re working with a printed copy, try using an opaque object like a ruler or a piece of paper to isolate the line you’re working on.

 

  • Circle every punctuation mark. This forces you to look at each one. As you circle, ask yourself if the punctuation is correct.

 

  • Read the paper backwards. This technique is helpful for checking spelling. Start with the last word on the last page and work your way back to the beginning, reading each word separately. Because content, punctuation, and grammar won’t make any sense, your focus will be entirely on the spelling of each word. You can also read backwards sentence by sentence to check grammar; this will help you avoid becoming distracted by content issues.

 

  • Proofreading is a learning process. You’re not just looking for errors that you recognize; you’re also learning to recognize and correct new errors. This is where handbooks and dictionaries come in. Keep the ones you find helpful close at hand as you proofread.

 

  • Ignorance may be bliss, but it won’t make you a better proofreader. You’ll often find things that don’t seem quite right to you, but you may not be quite sure what’s wrong either. A word looks like it might be misspelled, but the spell checker didn’t catch it. You think you need a comma between two words, but you’re not sure why. Should you use “that” instead of “which”? If you’re not sure about something, look it up.

 

  • The proofreading process becomes more efficient as you develop and practice a systematic strategy. You’ll learn to identify the specific areas of your own writing that need careful attention, and knowing that you have a sound method for finding errors will help you to focus more on developing your ideas while you are drafting the paper.

 

question 2 answer

 

Every morpheme can be classified as either free or bound. These categories are mutually exclusive, and as such, a given morpheme will belong to exactly one of them.

 
Free morphemes can function independently as words (e.g. town, dog) and can appear with other lexemes (e.g. town hall, doghouse).
Bound morphemes appear only as parts of words, always in conjunction with a root and sometimes with other bound morphemes. For example, un- appears only accompanied by other morphemes to form a word. Most bound morphemes in English are affixes, particularly prefixes and suffixes, examples of suffixes are: tion, ation, ible, ing etc.. Bound morphemes that are not affixes are called cranberry morphemes, their nomenclature is derived from the bound, non-affix function of cran- in the word cranberry.

or

 

Morphemes

In linguistic terminology the minimal parts of words that we have analyzed above are called morphemes. Morphemes come in different varieties, depending on whether they are

free or bound and
inflectional or derivational
Free morphemes

Free morphemes can stand by themselves (i.e. they are what what we conventionally call words) and either tell us something about the world (free lexical morphemes) or play a role in grammar (free grammatical morphemes). Man, pizza, run and happy are instances of free lexical morphemes, while and, but, the and to are examples for free grammatical morphemes. It is important to note the difference between morphemes and phonemes: morphemes are the minimal meaning-bearing elements that a word consists of and are principally independent from sound. For example, the word zebra (ˈziːbrə) consists of six phones and two syllables, but it contains only a single morpheme. Ze- and -bra are not independent meaning-bearing components of the word zebra, making it monomorphemic. (Bra as a free morpheme does in fact mean something in English , but this meaning is entirely unrelated to the -bra in zebra.)

Bound morphemes

Not all morphemes can be used independently, however. Some need to be bound to a free morpheme. In English the information “plural number” is attached to a word that refers to some person, creature, concept or other nameable entity (in other words, to a noun) when encoded in a morpheme and cannot stand alone. Similarly the morpheme -er, used to describe “someone who performs a certain activity” (e.g. a dancer, a teacher or a baker) cannot stand on its own, but needs to be attached to a free morpheme (a verb in this case). Bound morphemes come in two varieties, derivational and inflectional, the core difference between the two being that the addition of derivational morphemes creates new words while the addition of inflectional words merely changes word form.

or

A free morpheme can be used all by itself. A bound morpheme has to be 
combined with one or more other morphemes. 
"to" is a free morpheme of English; it can be used alone, and can't be 
divided into smaller meaningful parts. The morpheme "-ing" is a bound 
morpheme, as in "walking," where it has been suffixed to "walk" to make a 
word.

or

  • Bound morphemes Bound morphemes (affixes) must be attached to the word. They are prefixes, infixes, suffixes and circumfixes. Such as {clude} as in include , exclude , preclude ) or they may be grammatical (such as {PLU} = plural as in boys , girls , and cats ).
  • 20. Free morphemes Free morphemes are those that can stand alone as words. Example:     girl, system, desire, hope, act, phone, happy

Boys is a word made up of two morphemes: boy (the stem, a free morpheme, one that can stand on its own) and -s (a bound morpheme, one that cannot stand on its own). 

Bedroom is a word made up of two free morphemes that can stand on their own ( bed and room).

 

free = has meaning
bound = has grammatical function

hope u understand now,

 

 

  1. The opposite of a concrete noun is concrete noun. wrong

          The opposite of a concrete noun is Abstract  noun. Correct Answer



NOTE :-) Please does not copy paste same to same Thanks?

 

 

Q1. Name three sensitive areas of Proofreading. How can we polish up the final product/written material by proofreading these sensitive areas? (5 Marks)

 

 Answer:

            Proofreading is the final stage of the editing process, focusing on surface errors such as misspellings and mistakes in grammar and punctuation. Good writing always involves modification and revision, and proofreading is a fundamental part of this process. Sensitive areas of proofreading are given billow.

  1.         I.            Content.
  2.      II.            Format.
  3.    III.            Mechanics.

 

Q2. Differentiate between free morpheme and bound morpheme. Give at least two examples each. (5 Marks)

 

 

Answer:

 

Morpheme:

            A morpheme is a smallest unit of language. Thay can use alone.

Example:

            Such as bag, book and pen.

Bags and books have two morphemes such as one is bag and second is “s”. Also in second “s” is a second morpheme.

Bounded morpheme:

            Bounded morpheme are those who can not use alone.

Example:

            Ness,  E.g.

 

Q3. Fill in the blanks with correct terms. (5 Marks)

 

  1. Pronunciation involves using various symbols to represent sounds.
  2. A dictionary that contains geographical and biographical information is called an encyclopedic dictionary
  3. The opposite of a concrete noun is concrete noun.
  4. A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.
  1. Complex Sentences contains one independent with one or more subordinate clauses joined by a subordinator.

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