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Q1. Read the text carefully and answer the given questions.
There are three main groups of oils: animal, vegetable and mineral. Great quantities of animal oil come from whales, the enormous creatures of the sea which are the largest remaining animals in the world. To protect the whale from the cold of the Arctic seas, nature has provided it with a thick covering of fat called blubber. When the whale is killed, the blubber is stripped off and boiled down, either on board ship or on shore. It produces a great quantity of oil which can be made into food for human consumption. A few other creatures yield oil, but none so much as the whale. The livers of the cod and the halibut yield nourishing oil. Both cod liver oil and halibut liver oil are given to sick children and other invalids who need certain vitamins. These oils may be bought at any chemist's.
Vegetable oil has been known from antiquity. No household can get on without it, for it is used in cooking. Perfumes may be made from the oils of certain flowers. Soaps are made from vegetable and animal oils.
To the ordinary man, one kind of oil may be as important as another. But when the politician or the engineer refers to oil, he almost always means mineral oil, the oil that drives tanks, aeroplanes and warships, motor-cars and diesel locomotives; the oil that is used to lubricate all kinds of machinery. This is the oil that has changed the life of the common man. When it is refined into petrol it is used to drive the internal combustion engine. To it we owe the existence of the motorcar, which has replaced the private carriage drawn by the horse. To it we owe the possibility of flying. It has changed the methods of warfare on land and sea. This kind of oil comes out of the earth. Because it burns well, it is used as fuel and in some ways it is superior to coal in this respect. Many big ships now burn oil instead of coal. Because it is very slippery, it is used for lubrication. Two metal surfaces rubbing together cause friction and heat; but if they are separated by a thin film of oil, the friction and heat are reduced. No machine would work for long if it were not properly lubricated. The oil used for this purpose must be of the correct thickness; if it is too thin it will not give sufficient lubrication, and if it is too thick it will not reach all parts that must be lubricated.
The existence of oil wells has been known for a long time. Some of the Indians of North America used to collect and sell the oil from the wells of Pennsylvania. No one, however, seems to have realized the importance of this oil until it was found that paraffin-oil could be made from it; this led to the development of the wells and to the making of enormous profits. When the internal combustion engine was invented, oil became of worldwide importance.
What was the origin of the oil which now drives our motor-cars and air-craft? Scientists are confident about the formation of coal, but they do not seem so sure when asked about oil. They think that the oil under the surface of the earth originated in the distant past, and was formed from living things in the sea. Countless billions of minute sea creatures and plants lived and sank to the sea bed. They were covered with huge deposits of mud; and by processes of chemistry, pressure and temperature were changed through long ages into what we know as oil. In some places gas and oil come up to the surface of the sea from its bed. The rocks in which oil is found are of marine origin too. They are sedimentary rocks, rocks which were laid down by the action of water on the bed of the ocean. Almost always the remains of shells, and other proofs of sea life, are found close to the oil. A very common sedimentary rock is called shale, which is a soft rock and was obviously formed by being deposited on the sea bed. And where there is shale there is likely to be oil.
There are four main areas of the world where deposits of oil appear. The first is that of the Middle East, and includes the regions near the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Another is the area between North and South America, and the third, between Asia and Australia, includes the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java. There are four main areas of the world where deposits of oil appear. (2+3+5=10 Marks)
(a). Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea?
(b). Read the given text and find where the following ideas are expressed. Write the paragraph number in front of each statement.
(c). Language Learning Through Technology
Create a word cloud of the above given text and write an ‘Outline’ of the essay based on the words of your word cloud. Paste your word cloud of the text as well. You may use the following link to create the word cloud.
Note: Mention 5 points in bullet form for writing the outline of the given text.
Q2. “Characterization is an act of creating and describing characters in literature. Characterization includes both the descriptions of a character’s physical attributes as well as personality. The way characters act, think, and speak also adds to their characterization. There are certain techniques which the writers employ to bring their characters to life.”
Read the given passages carefully and identify the appropriate technique for each used by the writer. (2*5=10 Marks)
"Didn't I say so?" Tony glared at her. "Didn't I say so on Monday? We've got to go." "But I--I just can't! You know how the Johnsons make me feel, staring at me, always--"
"For God's sake, they aren't staring at you!" Tony jerked his head towards the bedroom. "Get some proper clothes on. Now!"
"But, Tony...please, Tony, why can't we...?" She looked beseechingly at him, her pale eyes swimming with tears.
"My dear Mr. Bennet," replied his wife, "how can you be so tiresome! You must know that I am thinking of his marrying one of them.""Is that his design in settling here?"
"Design! Nonsense, how can you talk so! But it is very likely that he may fall in love with one of them, and therefore you must visit him as soon as he comes."
PLEASE SHARE YOUR RESPECTIVE IDEAS......
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(a) The best expression of the main idea.
There are three main groups of oils: animal, vegetable and mineral.
Many big ships now burn oil instead of coal. in 3rd paragraph
Countless billions of minute sea creatures and plants lived and sank to the sea bed. In 5th paragraph
(c) Word Cloud of the given text
Outline of the given text
Animal, vegetable and mineral are three main groups of oils.
Animal oil can be made in to food and fulfil certain vitamins need for human consumption.
Vegetable oils are used in cooking, making soup and flowers for perfumes.
Mineral oils are used for lubrication of machines and to drive the internal combustion engines.
There are four main areas of the world where the deposits of oil appear.
1. a. Comparisons and Associations
2. e. Direct Statement
3. b. Actions and Dialogues
4. c. actions
5. d. Dialogues