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Q1. Read the text carefully and answer the given questions.

There are three main groups of oils: animal, vegetable and mineral. Great quantities of animal oil come from whales, the enormous creatures of the sea which are the largest remaining animals in the world. To protect the whale from the cold of the Arctic seas, nature has provided it with a thick covering of fat called blubber. When the whale is killed, the blubber is stripped off and boiled down, either on board ship or on shore. It produces a great quantity of oil which can be made into food for human consumption. A few other creatures yield oil, but none so much as the whale. The livers of the cod and the halibut yield nourishing oil. Both cod liver oil and halibut liver oil are given to sick children and other invalids who need certain vitamins. These oils may be bought at any chemist's.

Vegetable oil has been known from antiquity. No household can get on without it, for it is used in cooking. Perfumes may be made from the oils of certain flowers. Soaps are made from vegetable and animal oils.

To the ordinary man, one kind of oil may be as important as another. But when the politician or the engineer refers to oil, he almost always means mineral oil, the oil that drives tanks, aeroplanes and warships, motor-cars and diesel locomotives; the oil that is used to lubricate all kinds of machinery. This is the oil that has changed the life of the common man. When it is refined into petrol it is used to drive the internal combustion engine. To it we owe the existence of the motorcar, which has replaced the private carriage drawn by the horse. To it we owe the possibility of flying. It has changed the methods of warfare on land and sea. This kind of oil comes out of the earth. Because it burns well, it is used as fuel and in some ways it is superior to coal in this respect. Many big ships now burn oil instead of coal. Because it is very slippery, it is used for lubrication. Two metal surfaces rubbing together cause friction and heat; but if they are separated by a thin film of oil, the friction and heat are reduced. No machine would work for long if it were not properly lubricated. The oil used for this purpose must be of the correct thickness; if it is too thin it will not give sufficient lubrication, and if it is too thick it will not reach all parts that must be lubricated.

The existence of oil wells has been known for a long time. Some of the Indians of North America used to collect and sell the oil from the wells of Pennsylvania. No one, however, seems to have realized the importance of this oil until it was found that paraffin-oil could be made from it; this led to the development of the wells and to the making of enormous profits. When the internal combustion engine was invented, oil became of worldwide importance.

What was the origin of the oil which now drives our motor-cars and air-craft? Scientists are confident about the formation of coal, but they do not seem so sure when asked about oil. They think that the oil under the surface of the earth originated in the distant past, and was formed from living things in the sea. Countless billions of minute sea creatures and plants lived and sank to the sea bed. They were covered with huge deposits of mud; and by processes of chemistry, pressure and temperature were changed through long ages into what we know as oil. In some places gas and oil come up to the surface of the sea from its bed. The rocks in which oil is found are of marine origin too. They are sedimentary rocks, rocks which were laid down by the action of water on the bed of the ocean. Almost always the remains of shells, and other proofs of sea life, are found close to the oil. A very common sedimentary rock is called shale, which is a soft rock and was obviously formed by being deposited on the sea bed. And where there is shale there is likely to be oil.

There are four main areas of the world where deposits of oil appear. The first is that of the Middle East, and includes the regions near the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Another is the area between North and South America, and the third, between Asia and Australia, includes the islands of Sumatra, Borneo and Java. There are four main areas of the world where deposits of oil appear.                                                                  (2+3+5=10 Marks)


(a). Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea?                          

  1. i.                    There are three main groups of oils: animal, vegetable and mineral.
  2. ii.                  There are four main areas of the world where deposits of oil appear.
  3. iii.                The rocks in which oil is found are of marine origin too.


(b). Read the given text and find where the following ideas are expressed. Write the paragraph number in front of each statement.                                                                


  1. i.                    Many big ships now burn oil instead of coal.           _______________
  2. ii.                  Countless billions of minute sea creatures and plants lived and sank to the sea bed.                                                                              ________________


(c). Language Learning Through Technology

Create a word cloud of the above given text and write an ‘Outline’ of the essay based on the words of your word cloud. Paste your word cloud of the text as well. You may use the following link to create the word cloud.



Note: Mention 5 points in bullet form for writing the outline of the given text. 

Q2. “Characterization is an act of creating and describing characters in literature. Characterization includes both the descriptions of a character’s physical attributes as well as personality. The way characters act, think, and speak also adds to their characterization. There are certain techniques which the writers employ to bring their characters to life.”

Read the given passages carefully and identify the appropriate technique for each used by the writer.                                                                                                            (2*5=10 Marks)

  1. Cathy was chewing a piece of meat, chewing with her front teeth. Samuel had never seen anyone chew that way before. And when she had swallowed, her little tongue flicked around her lips. Samuel’s mind repeated, “Something—something—can’t find what it is. Something wrong” and the silence hung on the table.   


  1. a.      Comparisons and Associations
  2. b.      Direct Statement
  3. c.       Actions & dialogues
  4. d.      Actions
  5. e.       Dialogues


  1. 2.      Perhaps it had something to do with living in a dark cupboard, but Harry had always been small and skinny for his age. He looked even smaller and skinnier than he really was because all he had to wear were old clothes of Dudley’s, and Dudley was about four times bigger than he was. Harry had a thin face, knobby knees, black hair, and bright green eyes. He wore round glasses held together with a lot of Scotch tape because of all the times Dudley had punched him on the nose. The only thing Harry liked about his own appearance was a very thin scar on his forehead that was shaped like a bolt of lightning.                               
    1. a.      Comparisons and Associations
    2. b.      Direct Statement
    3. c.       Actions
    4. d.      Dialogues
    5. e.       Actions & dialogues


  1. "Why--why Tony, I didn't think you'd really, you know, want me to go..." Jasmine's voice trailed off as she fingered the fringe of her shawl.

 "Didn't I say so?" Tony glared at her. "Didn't I say so on Monday? We've got to go." "But I--I just can't! You know how the Johnsons make me feel, staring at me, always--"

"For God's sake, they aren't staring at you!" Tony jerked his head towards the bedroom. "Get some proper clothes on. Now!"

"But, Tony...please, Tony, why can't we...?" She looked beseechingly at him, her pale eyes swimming with tears. 


  1. a.       Comparisons and Associations
  2. b.      Actions & dialogues
  3. c.       Actions
  4. d.      Dialogues
  5. e.       Direct Statement


  1. Eddy, Jack and Herman slipped down into the ditch, Mike following with the rope. The search light's beam swept over them and they ducked. Jack wiped his mouth with a trembling hand, but was on Eddy's heels as Eddy crawled towards the road. Mike slithered in the mud, the rope tangling under him. Herman extended an impatient hand; Mike doggedly shook his head and started to re-coil the rope by touch. Eddy glanced back, checking them, his eyes lingering on Mike's face. Herman heard the guards first. He tapped Jack's boot. Jack jerked as if shot, then froze. Eddy held up a hand, his head cocked, listening, his Uzi held against his body. The four men waited as motorcycles roared along the road, Jack shuddering as they passed. Eddy waved forward urgently and set a fast pace to the shelter of the culvert. This time Herman reached back and hauled both Mike and rope along in one massive grip.


  1. a.      Comparisons and Associations
  2. b.      Actions
  3. c.       Dialogues
  4. d.      Actions & dialogues
  5. e.       Direct Statement


  1. "Oh! Single, my dear, to be sure! A single man of large fortune; four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing for our girls!" "How so? How can it affect them?"

"My dear Mr. Bennet," replied his wife, "how can you be so tiresome! You must know that I am thinking of his marrying one of them.""Is that his design in settling here?"

"Design! Nonsense, how can you talk so! But it is very likely that he may fall in love with one of them, and therefore you must visit him as soon as he comes."


  1. a.      Comparisons and Associations
  2. b.      Direct Statement
  3. c.       Actions & dialogues
  4. d.      Dialogues
  5. e.       Actions



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Replies to This Discussion

Link me dia gaya word cloud image nhi generate kar rha :-/ 

is there any alternate?

yes you are right wordle generate ni kr ra 

me ne wordit.net se generate kiya ha bht easily ho gya 

save ka option bhi side pr mil jae ga apko

oh m sorry full name is word it out . com

Thanks dear :)

yara yah batao k kin kin words ka cloud banana hai ? yah as sary ka ko ota k cloud bana hau ??

sarey ko utha k

update jave app in ur web browser http://www.java.com/en/download/chrome.jsp

wasay b chrome per wordle nahi chalay ga ic lia change ur web browser like file explorer , fire fox

ok, thanks

Note: Mention 5 points in bullet form for writing the outline of the given text. 
Koi batayega k yeh line kis question k sath juri hai? 

or word ki file me word cloud ki image paste karni hai ya link?

ye line word cloud waley topic k sath hi ha

ap ko word cloud se jo words milen text se un k sentence dhond kr 5 points me likhna ha

or me ne to image hi paste ki ha word cloud ka link ka mje ni pta 

:) us ki image hi dalni hai I've asked the instructor :)


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