The following things are at the core of concreteness. • Grammar • Punctuation • Spelling
Answer: Page 119
An organizational chart uses rectangles and lines to represent the arrangement of people and departments in an organization. It reveals the organization’s hierarchy, indicating how the smaller units are combined to create larger units. It also indicates who reports to whom and who gives direction to whom.
Q: How will you make favorable response to claim and adjustment request?
Answer: Page 72
Don’t blame an individual or a specific department, and avoid such lame excuses as “Nobody’s perfect” or “Mistakes will happen.’
Q:What are the general rules for capitalizing letters?
Answer: Page 146
1. Capitalize the first words of sentences, including sentences cited in quotations.
2. Capitalize all nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions.
3. Capitalize proper names, including any particular person, object, place, project, institution, river, vessel, genus, culture, ethnic group, or formal job title.
4. The letter I, when used as a pronoun referring to yourself must always be written as a capital letter.
5. Capitalize any word, regardless of the part of speech, if it is the first or last word of the title or subtitle or a proper name or if it follows a punctuation mark indicating a break in the title
Q: What problems do we face while using staked modifies and nouns, and how can we over comes then?
Answer: Page 130
Avoid using long strings of modifiers or nouns. These stacked modifiers and nouns can be hard to read and sometimes create ambiguity. Add a few words (especially prepositions and conjunctions) to make the relationships between nouns clear to the reader.
Q: How is a diagram created?
• Decide exactly what you want to show.
• Create an appropriate means to represent your subject with geometric shapes, or perhaps sketches that suggest their appearance.
• Provide the explanations people need in order to understand your diagram as a separate key, in the title or as part of the diagram itself.
Q: Difference b/w consideration and courtesy?
The difference between consideration and courtesy is the feeling that goes behind it. Consideration is more compassionate and has more depth because when you are considerate of another person’s needs or feelings you care and are concerned about what to do concerning that person. On the other hand, courtesy is mainly because you feel like it's the right thing to do, you don't care as much or you don't have much attachment to why you are doing it.
Q: Difference b/w Table of content and appendix of a report?
The table of contents provides an outline of analysis reports for readers who do not wish to read the entire report or flip through it looking for the section which contains what they are looking for . on the other hand , appendix would include derivations of equations, tables of raw data, sample equations, and so forth. But the only way to be certain that what is placed in the appendix belongs there is to assess it within the context of audience needs
Q: The Qualities of a good manuscript?
A manuscript should be visually attractive. This means that it should be orderly, that there should be obvious divisions and subdivisions. A manuscript should invite readership. The type should be clear in a manuscript, and the production should not be sloppy. A report or paper must be sufficiently detailed. There should be enough detail, though, to satisfy the projected readers’ needs for information. After this, the document must be proofread, which should not be confused with editing. While editing requires being judgmental, proofreading is a quick checking for errors.
Q: what is the common ways establishing credibility while organizing a business massage?
Answer:- Page 54
Don’t make a false promise. People are more likely to react positively to your message when they have confidence in you. Example Instead of this We hope this recommendation will be helpful. Use this we’re glad to make this recommendation. Be Polite: Try to express facts in a kind and thoughtful manner. Use extra tact when writing and when communicating with higher-ups. Promptness is a form of courtesy.
Project the Company Image: Subordinate your own style to that of the company
Q: Write any two rules to create visual aids in your communication?
1. Use color on your slides but avoid orange and yellow which do not show up very well when projected. For text only, white or yellow on blue is pleasant to look at and easy to read.
2. Typically use a minimum 18pt Times Roman on OHPs, and preferably larger. A guideline is: if you can read the OHP from a distance of 2 meters (without projection) then it's probably OK
Q: Explain dangling modifier?
Answer: Page 132
A modifier whose connection to the sentence is implied or intended but not actually made explicit is said to dangle. Dangling modifiers detract from the clarity of your writing, so you should make sure your modifiers are properly connected to the words they modify
Q: What is Basic difference between vague and ornate language?
Answer: Page 136
These facts make the difference between vague assertions and accurate scientific reporting.
In ornate language Use the simplest most direct words possible. Used for their own sake, ornate words simply distract the reader from your main point.
Vague Language: Although the amount of detail in your writing will depend on your audience use specific facts whenever possible.
Q: How can we create a pie chart?
Answer: Page 118
To create a pie chart, you draw a circle and draw lines that slice it into wedges. Each wedge occupies a portion of the circle’s circumference proportional to the amount of the total pie that the wedge represents. Arrange the wedges in a way that helps your audience determine the rank order of the wedges and compare the relative sizes of particular wedges
Q: What are the basic purposes of business message?
Answer: Page 47
Common purpose of Business messages: Inform Persuade Collaborate
Q: How can you conducting interview on job?
Answer: Page 152
The conversation bounces back and forth from interviewer to interviewee. Although the interviewer guides the conversation, the interviewee may also seek to accomplish a purpose, perhaps to:
• obtain or provide information, • solve a problem • to create goodwill • persuade the other person to take action.
Q: What is the problem with a double negative in a sentence?
Use only one negative word to express a negative idea. In English, using two negative words to express one negative idea creates a positive rather than a negative interpretation.
Q:What is Analogy?
An analogy is a comparison of certain similarities between things which are otherwise unlike. Discussion In education, teachers commonly uses analogies to introduce something new to students. They compare the new material to something the students already know and understand. Example
Here is an example of an analogy: A Street light is like a star. Both provide light at night, both are in predictable locations, both are overhead, and both serve no function in the daytime.
Q:What is coherence and why is it important?
Coherence underlies a variety of physical phenomena, such as interference and diffraction. Coherence is also responsible for many of the remarkable properties of laser radiation; laser light is coherent, which is to say that the light waves from a laser are all in phase.
Q; Differentiate between Graphic visual aids and Text visuals.
Two types of visual aids are used to supplement speeches and presentations Text visuals consist of words and help the audience follow the flow of ideas. Because text visuals are simplified outlines of your presentation, you can use them to summarize and preview the message and to signal major shifts in thought. On the other hand, graphic visual aids illustrate the main points they help the audience grasp numerical data and other information that would be hard to follow if presented orally.
Q:Define the term Diagram.
Answer: Page 119
A diagram is much like a drawing except that drawings accurately convey the actual appearance of things, diagrams depict subjects more abstractly.
Q:Define the term Conflict Phase.
Answer: Page 157
In the conflict phase members begin to discuss their positions on the problem
Q: How Line Graph is constructed?
Answer: Page 118
In line graphs, you generally show how variation in dependent variable is affected by variation in the independent variable. Line graphs almost always show the dependent variable on the vertical axis and the independent variable on the horizontal one. Time is usually treated as an independent variable so it goes on the horizontal axis. Mark off each axis at regular intervals, using labeled tick marks.
Q:What is the purpose of using Quotation Marks?
Answer: Page 141
1. To enclose the names of articles, short reports, and other brief documents cited in your document o
2. To indicate direct quotations of speech or excerpts from other documents.
Q: What are the major components of Letter of Recommendation?
Answer: Page 174
Major Components of a letter of Recommendation are: • Head • Body • Footer • Headings
Q: In how many ways Question Marks are used?
Answer: Page 140
In 3 ways Question Marks can be used.
1. Use a question mark to end an interrogative sentence. Have past efforts to develop an AIDS vaccine been based on the wrong approach?
2. Use a question mark to change a declarative or imperative sentence into a question. Their testing of the system was exhaustive? [declarative changed to interrogative] Start production on Friday? [imperative changed to interrogative]
3. When a directive or a command is phrased as a question, a question mark is optional. ______________________________
Q: Which steps should be followed while writing Persuasive Messages?
Answer: Page 77
Following steps are involved in writing persuasive messages.
1. Determine the main idea.
2. Define the audience.
3. Choose the approach and format.
Q: What is Ownership of a writer’s work? Explain with an example.
Answer: Page 4
Ownership of a writer’s work is very important. While at school your communication only belongs to you, at work however, your communication will belong only partly to you. They will belong to your employer. What you write at work represents not only you but also your department or your employer. Example If you write a letter or report to a customer, the customer views it as an official communication from your employer. If you write a proposal, your employer will get the contact - or lose it. Employees often work on committees that write reports, proposals, and other documents collaboratively. The final version cannot be accredited to only one individual. People often write communications that are sent under someone else’s name. It is common for departmental reports to be signed by Head of Department, even though are written by staff members.
Q: Which steps should be followed while addressing a large audience?
Answer: Page 163
While addressing a large audience, you’ll want to establish a more formal atmosphere. Hold the presentation in an auditorium or in Hall. Show slides on films to dramatize your message. Ask people to hold their questions until after you’ve completed your remarks.
Q:) Name the ‘Specifications’ that are commonly used in computer industry.
Answer: Page 121
Specifications which are commonly used in computer industry are:
• Requirement specs • Functional specs • Design specs • Test specs
Q:How does Lack of a Well-Defined Purpose make writing difficult?
Answer: Page 124
A poorly defined purpose of your communication will inevitably make writing more difficult, and may block it altogether. Sometimes you will experience this as a lack of information; often you will notice it as paragraphs, sections, or entire reports or papers that shift topic in the middle.
Q: How can listening skill be improved?
Answer: Page 151
You can improve your listening ability by becoming more aware of the habits that distinguish good listeners from bad. In addition, put nonverbal skills to work as you listen:
• Maintain eye contact
• React responsively with head nods or spoken signals
• Pay attention to the speaker’s body language You might even test yourself from time to time: when someone is talking, ask yourself whether you’re actually listening to the speaker or mentally rehearsing how you’ll respond.
Q: What is the difference between Formal and Informal letter?
1. A formal letter is a letter written to a business, a college, or any professional that is not considered friends or family. While an informal letter is a letter you would write to a friend of family member.It doesn't necessarily need a format, but there is a standard.
2. A formal greeting would include a title such as Mr. or Mrs. an informal would be addressing them by first name or nickname, i.e. Dear Susie instead of Dear Mrs. Smith.
Q:Which points should be kept in mind while composing the ‘Title Page’ of a Report?
Answer: Page 123
1. A title page should be designed with visual order in mind.
2. It should be balanced from top to bottom and from left to right.
3. It should provide enough information for readers to be able to tell what the context of the report is and what the report is about.
Q:What are Group Interviews?
In this type of interview interviewees meet several candidates simultaneously. This is the best type of interview to judge the inter-personal skills of a candidate.
Q:Name the types of Oral Communication.
Answer: Page 172
Types of Oral communication are as follows:
• Extempore • Impromptu • Memorization • Reading • Modes of delivery • Delivery guidelines
Q:Is it possible that a visual aid can be displayed without a title? Discuss.
Answer: Page 116
Yes, it’s possible that a visual aid can be displayed without a title. Sometimes you don’t need to provide a title for a visual aid. That happens, for instance, when you are including a very short table in your text in a way that makes perfectly clear what it contains. Similarly, the visual aids in brochures are often untitled, though they are much rarer in reports and proposals.
Q:Why Visual Aids should be made easy?
Answer: Page 111
Visual aids should be made easy for audiences. They should be made without any hazards or problems. Attention of audiences is very important for the presentation, report etc. Well designed visual aids are much more economical than words. Visual aids that are poorly planned and prepared can be just as confusing and frustrating for readers as poorly written prose.
Q:What are the various purposes of Abbreviations?
Answer: Page 147
Abbreviations, shortened forms of words, are commonly employed in scientific and technical writing. However, avoid unnecessary abbreviations which can confuse a reader. Some abbreviations are always followed by a period.
Q:How ‘document accuracy’ differs from ‘technical accuracy’?
Answer: Page 27
1. The ‘document accuracy’ refers to the proper coverage of your topics in appropriate details. Whereas ‘technical accuracy’ requires stylistic accuracy but is not based solely on it.
2. Technical accuracy depends on the writer's conceptual mastery of the subject and its vocabulary, as well as on his or her ability to analyze and shape data with a minimum of distortion while Document accuracy is generally cultivated by a clear problem statement and by a preliminary outline.
Q: What is Conventional Superstructure for Instructions and why is it important in Technical English?
Answer: Page 113
The conventional superstructure for instructions contains five elements • Introduction • Description of the equipment
• Theory of operations • Lists of material and equipment • Guide to trouble shooting
Q:Differentiate between Self-oriented roles and Task-facilitating roles performed by the members of a meeting.
Answer: Page 157
Self oriented roles:
· Controlling: dominating other by exhibiting superiority or authority.
· Withdrawing: retiring from the group either by becoming silent or by refusing to deal with a particular aspect of the group’s work.
· Attention seeking: calling attention to one and demanding recognition from others.
· Diverting: focusing group discussion on topics of interest to the individual rather those relevant to the task.
Task facilitating roles:
· Initiating: getting the group started on a line of inquiry.
· Information giving or seeking: offering (or seeking) information relevant to questions facing the group.
· Coordinating: showing relationships among ideas, clarifying issues, summarizing what the group has done.
· Procedure setting: suggesting decision-making procedures that will move the group toward the goal.
Q:What are the Technical Terms? Explain in detail.
Answer: Page 136
Technical terms are an essential part of all technical and scientific writing. Each field and specialty typically uses a vocabulary that relays a variety of specialized concepts by means of technical language. These special terms convey concentrated meanings that have been built up over significant periods of study of a field. It is important that you should be aware of your audience's level of understanding. If they are not experts in your field, you will need to substitute more general terms for your specialized terms. That means that you may not be able to write with great accuracy about your topic.
Q:What are the characteristics of a good interviewer?
Answer: Page 154
Good interviewers are good at collecting information, listening, and probing, so should develop set of interview questions and decide on their sequence
Q: What is coherence and why is it important?
Answer: Page 28 and 37
In a coherent sentence the words are arranged so that the ideas clearly express the intended meaning. It is important because it is the quality of hanging together, of providing the reader an easily followed path. Coherence can dramatically improve the reader's ability to understand your material by promoting its flow or readability. Coherence is especially valued in technical communication and writing because of the inherent complexity of the subjects. At the level of the whole document, coherence helps to provide the larger picture, in which the connections among the parts of the document are made clear by the writer.
Q: What are Test Specifications?
It is the way in which you test something. It includes the requirements for the test equipment, how you connect the test equipment to what is being tested, what you do during each test, and the acceptable results for each test.
Q: What is the disadvantage of close-ended questions?
The close-ended questions require yes or no answers. Questioner does not receive full response but just a short response.
Q:How Fog Index should be used? Explain with examples.
This is a simple formula aimed at locating the audience on a grade scale which is supposedly based on their reading abilities.
• Select a part of the text which is approximately 100 words long, to the nearest period. Introductions, leads, and conclusions usually exhibit slightly different communication techniques which will skew the accuracy of this test.
• Count the number of sentences in the selected text.
• Determine the average length of sentences by dividing the number of words in the text by the number of sentences.
• Count the number of words which have three or more syllables. But do not count words which are capitalized, words which have three syllables because prefixes or suffixes have been added, or words which are combinations of one- or two-syllable words.
• Add the number for the average sentence length to the number of three-syllable words in the text.
• Multiply this sum by .04.
• The result is the Fog Index. If you place it on a scale of 1-20, you will be able to have the approximate reading level required to understand the text.
Q:What are the Functions and Contents of a Progress Report? To report your progress on any specific work or project. To report your progress on all activities whole year and by the end of year.
Progress reports are prepared in two types of situations. In the first, you tell your readers about your progress on one particular project. As a geologist employed by an engineering consulting firm, Lee must do this. His employer has assigned him to study the site that a large city would like to use for a civic center and large office building. The city is worried that the site might not be geologically suited for such construction. Every two weeks, Lee must submit a progress report to his supervisor and to the city engineer. Lee’s supervisor uses the progress report to be sure that Lee is conducting the study in a rapid and technically sound manner. The city engineer uses the report to see that Lee’s study is proceeding according to the tight schedule planned for it. She also uses it to look for preliminary indications about the likely outcome of the study. Other work could be speeded up or halted as a result of these preliminary findings. In the second type of situation, you prepare progress reports that tell about your work on all your projects. Many employers require their workers to report on their activities at regular intervals all year round, year in and year out. Jacqueline is a person who must write such progress reports (often called periodic reports). She works in the research division of a large manufacturer of consumer products, where she manages a department that is responsible for improving the formulas for the company’s laundry detergents—making them clean and smell better, making them less expensive to manufacture, and making them safer for the environment. At any one time, Jacqueline’s staff is working on between ten and twenty different projects.
Q: How can we overcome common writing problems in business communication?
Writer’s block is what we call the experience of getting stuck while writing. Although the results are the same, there are many sources of writer’s block: lack of information, lack of a well defined purpose, poor knowledge of the audience, lack of confidence.
· Lack of Information:
If it is the result of poor research, then you will have to stop writing and do more information gathering. If you find yourself doing this often, you might correctly guess that you have a problem in defining your communication purpose.
· Lack of a Well-Defined Purpose:
A poorly defined purpose of your communication will inevitably make writing more difficult, and may block it altogether. Sometimes you will experience this as a lack of information; often you will notice it as paragraphs, sections, or entire reports or papers that shift topic in the middle. For any case of poorly defined purpose, the solution is the same. Develop a three-part purpose statement for the communication, and develop an outline of topics sentences based on the purpose statements. Poorly Analyzed Audience: Audience analysis that is performed poorly or not at all can be the source of writer’s block. At such times you find yourself staring at the video display screen wondering who is going to read your report and what on earth they want from it.
Lack of Confidence: A lack of confidence in your abilities as a writer is a common source of writer’s block, and it is usually self-fulfilling. If you do not think you can communicate effectively, you will not be able to practice your systematic approaches of writing problems is the solution to this problem.
Organizational Problems: Organizational problems are discovered during the editing phase. Finding and fixing these problems is what makes editing important. If they are not fixed, readers experience organization problems as complete breakdowns in communication.
Punctuation Problems: Accurate punctuation does not ensure accurate communication, but accurate communication is tremendously enhanced by accurate punctuation. Take the following punctuation test, without first looking at the correct version which follows, to see how well you know punctuation. The test focuses on the most common punctuation problems in technical writing.
Q:Differentiate between Informal and Analytical Assignments.
Analytical Assignments: Why are we having trouble hiring secretaries? Salaries are too low. What do we pay our secretaries? What do comparable secretaries pay their secretaries? How important is pay in influencing secretaries’ job choices? Why are we having trouble hiring secretaries? • Our location is poor. • The supply of secretaries is diminishing Informational Assignments: Studies that emphasize the discovery and reporting of facts may be factored by sub-topic. In order of Importance Say you are reviewing five product lines. You might organize your study in the increasing order of the amount of revenue they generate.
Sequentially If you are studying a process, present your information step by step - 1, 2, 3, Chronology When investigating a chain of events, organize the study according to what happened in January, what happened in February and so on. Spatially If you are studying a physical object, study it left to right, top to bottom, inside to outside. Geography If the location is important, factor your study geographically. Categorically If you are asked to review several distinct aspects of a subject, look at one category at a time, for example sales, profit, or investment.
Q: Is poorly organized structure basic drawback in writing problem? Do you agree?
Organization is the structural framework for constructing a piece of writing. It is the logical progression and completeness of ideas in a text. Organization is important to effective writing because it provides readers with a framework to help them fulfill their expectations for the text. A well-organized piece of writing supports readers by making it easy for them to follow, while a poorly organized piece leads readers through a maze of confusion and confounded expectations.