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If there are English 201 subjective question

Question No: 1 ( Marks: 2 )

What is formal document?

A document that is written in formal style and uses formal language is called a formal

document such as circulars, business letters and CVs etc.

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 2 )

Explain the term ‘Abstract’.

Answer: Abstracts are condensation of entire reports, focusing on the main issues: what was

done, what was found out, and its significance. Abstracts are self-sufficient. The procedure

for many companies is to take the abstract from the analysis report, copy it a number of

times, circulate it to readers, and allow readers to order the full report if they feel like they

need the information.

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 2 )

What is the goal of Content Listening?

The goal of content listening is to understand and retain information that is delivered by a

speaker. Moreover, your job is to identify the key points of the message.

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 3 )

What is an “Empirical Research Report”?

Superstructure for Empirical research Reports: To answer the readers typical questions

about empirical research reports, writers use a substructure that has the following elements.

• Introduction • Objectives of research • Methods Results • Discussion • Conclusions •

Recommendation

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 3 )

Why Background information is added to Instructions?

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 3 )

What do you know about Task-facilitating roles in meeting?

Task facilitating roles’ as the name shows make the meeting process well planned and

smooth.

‘Task facilitating roles’ in meeting include the following:

•

Initiating: getting the group started on a line of inquiry.

•

Information giving or seeking: offering (or seeking) information relevant to questions

facing the group.

•

Coordinating: showing relationships among ideas, clarifying issues, summarizing

what the group has done.

•

Procedure setting: suggesting decision-making procedures that will move the group

toward the goal.


Page 2

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 5 )

Explain the terms ‘Chronology’ and ‘Spatially’.

Answer: When investigating a chain of events, organize the study according to what

happened in January, what happened in February and so on.

Spatially If you are studying a physical object, study it left to right, top to bottom, inside to

outside.

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 5 )

How can you make your document error free?

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 2 )

What are Analytical assignments?

These assignments are written to analyze any problems such as why a company is having

problems in hiring secretaries, low wage, location of office etc.

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 2 )

What is the disadvantage of close-ended questions?

The close-ended questions require yes or no answers. Questioner does not receive full

response but just a short response.

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 2 )

Elaborate a few sources of Writer’s Block.

Few sources are lack of information, lack of confidence, not having a well defined objective.

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 3 )

Explain the term Budget Statement.

A budget statement is a table that shows how money will be gained or spent. It may be very simple or

very elaborate depending on your reader’s needs. On the job, you can use budget statements in the

following situations:

• To explain the expenses involved with a project purchase

• To summarize the savings to be realized by following a recommendation you are making

• To report the costs that have been incurred by a project for which you have responsibility

• To explain the sources of revenue associated with some project or activity.


Page 3

Question No: 13 ( Marks: 3 )

How can visual aids be helpful in oral presentation?

Visual aids help in delivering the speeches and to accommodate audience’s questions and

help audiences in understanding the purpose of the presentation.

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 3 )

Describe how an organization produces formal reports.

Formal reports usually include:

Research work, collecting ideas, visual aids, writing the material and formatting

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 5 )

How Fog Index should be used? Explain with examples.

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 5 )

What are the Functions and Contents of a Progress Report?

Superstructure for Progress Reports To answer your readers’ questions, you can use the

conventional superstructure for writing progress reports, which has the following elements:

1. Introduction 2. Facts 3. Discussion 4. Conclusions 5. Recommendations In the

introduction to a progress report, you should answer the following two questions: 1. “What

work does your report cover?” 2. “What is the purpose of the work?”

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 2 )

What is the difference between Alphanumeric and Decimal System?

Decimal system is a numbering system that uses ten digits, from 0 to 9, arranged in a series of columns to represent all

numerical quantities. Each column or place value has a weighted value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, and so on, ranging from right to

left whereas alphanumeric system uses both letters and numbers and often other symbols (as punctuation marks and

mathematical symbols).

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 2 )

Define the term “Pagination”.

Pagination: Number the front matter in italic lowercase roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, and so

on). Normally, number the pages in the body of the document with Arabic numerals, starting

with page 1. Numbers sequentially through page n at the end of the text, including all back

matter.


Page 4

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 2 )

Define the term Syllable.

A syllable is a basic unit of written and spoken language. It is a unit consisting of uninterrupted sound that can be used to

make up words.

For example, the word hotel has two syllables: ho and tel.

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 3 )

Why do we use Semicolons?

Semicolons: • Use semicolons to join two independent clauses or to separate parts of a

sentence that have commas in them. • To Join Two Independent Clauses • The system has

three beam launchers; two are in the two-tube combiner, and one is in the OP receiver. • To

Separate Sentence Elements with Commas Italicize titles of journals, books, newsletters, and

manuals; letters, words, terms, and equation symbols; foreign words; and names of specific

vessels.

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 3 )

Explain ‘Title fly and Title Page’.

Title fly and Title Page: The title fly is a plane sheet with only the title of the report on it.

The title report includes four blocks of information: The title of the report The name, title and

address of the person that authorized the report The name, title and address of the person that

prepared the report The date on which the report was submitted

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 3 )

What do you know about Hardware Functional Specifications?

Hardware functional specifications as a rule contain the following:

Functional descriptionConfiguration specificationElectrical descriptionPhysical

characteristicsStandardsEnvironmental requirementsDiagnostic requirementsPower

requirementsCost targetMaintenance cost targetResource requirements

DocumentationRisks

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 5 )

How Formal Speeches and Presentations can be developed?

Developing formal speeches and presentations Developing a major speech or presentation

is much like writing a formal report, with one nique to an oral communication channel. This

is both an opportunity and a challenge. The opportunity lies in the interaction that’s possible

between you and the audience.

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 5 )


Page 5

What is Conventional Superstructure for Instructions and why is it important in

Technical English?

Conventional Superstructure for Instructions The conventional superstructure for

instructions contains five elements • Introduction • Description of the equipment (if the

instructions are for running a piece of equipment) • Theory of operations • Lists of material

and equipment • Guide to trouble shooting The simplest instructions contain only directions.

Most complex instructions contain some or all of the other five elements, the selection

depending upon the aims of the writer and the needs of the readers. Many instructions also

contain elements found in longer communications such as reports and proposals. Among

these elements are cover, title page, table of contents, appendixes, list of references, glossary,

list of symbols and index. Because these elements are not particular to instructions,

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 10 )

Write a detailed note on Delivering the Speech.

Delivering the speech When its time to deliver the speech, you may feel a bit of stage fright.

Most people do even professional actors. A good way to overcome your fears is to rehearse

until you’re thoroughly familiar with your material. Communication professionals have

suggested other tips, which we will now go over: Prepare more material than necessary.

Extra knowledge, combined with a genuine interest in the topic, will boost your confidence.

Think positively about your audience, yourself, and what you have to say. See yourself as

polished and professional, and your audience will too. Be realistic about stage fright. After

all, even experienced speakers admit that they feel butterflies before the y address an

audience. Tell yourself you’re ready. Use the few minutes while you’re arranging your

materials, before you actually begin speaking, to tell yourself you’re on and you’re ready.

Before you begin speaking, take a few deep breaths. It will help you calm down and improve

your delivery. Have your first sentence memorized. Having your opening on the tip of your

tongue helps you get started, and everything else starts falling into place. If your throat is dry,

drink some water. Tension often causes your mouth to become dry. It is best to have a few

sips of water before you begin.

Question 26:What are Proposals?

In a proposal, identify a specific problem and state how you will solve that problem. Most

organizations rely on successful proposal writing for their continued existence. You will

most likely spend a major part of your professional life writing proposals

Proposal Structure: • Front matter • Body • Introduction • Technical approach •

Management requirements • Work plan • End matter

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 2 )

What is meant by Organizational Logic?

Organizational logic is the single most important issue in writing a report or article about

technology. it is the first thing a person needs to look for when editing document. The ideas


Page 6

in a report or article should be interrelated--seamlessly. They should form a sequence of

information that will appear to be predictable or inevitable to readers. In other words, a topic

or an idea should anticipate topics or ideas that follow it. As I have said before, a document

should have no surprises and no areas of confusion that the readers have to puzzle out for

themselves. Edgar Allan Poe, referring to the writing of short stories, gave some advice to

writers which we can very well borrow for the writing of reports and articles about high

technology. He said that authors should include nothing that does not advance the topic

toward it inevitable end. Any thing else is tangent that readers will wander down with the

writer and become lost together.

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 2 )

What are the characteristics of a good interviewer?

Asking yourself the following questions will help you prepare for interviews: What are

your respective roles? What does this person expect from you? Is it to your advantage to

confirm those expectations? will you be more likely to accomplish your objective by being

friendly and open or by conveying an impression of professional detachment? If you’re the

interviewer, responsibility for planning the session falls on you. On the simplest level, your

job is to schedule the interview and see that it’s held in a comfortable and convenient

location.

Good interviewers are good at collecting information, listening, and probing, so should

develop set of interview questions and decide on their sequence

Interview structure

Good interviews have an opening, a body, and a close. The opening establishes rapport an

orients the interviewee to the remainder of the session. You might begin by introducing

yourself, asking a few polite questions, and then explaining the purpose and ground rules of

the interview. At this point, you may want to clear the use of notes or a tape recorder with the

interviewee, especially if the subject is complex or if you plan to quote the interviewee in a

written document such as a business report. The questions in the body of the interview reflect

the nature of your relationship with the interview.

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 3 )

Write down the structure of Short Formal Report.

Memo The most common format for short informal reports within an organization. Memos

have four headings: To, From, Date and Subject.

Manuscript For a formal approach, manuscripts range from a few pages to several hundred

pages.

Establishing a Basic Structure:

Choice of a structure involves three decisions:

What to say?

Direct or indirect?

Topical or logical organization?

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 3 )


Page 7

How can we make analysis report purposeful?

Analysis Reports: The important thing to remember is that no report format is perfect.

Company documentation standards attempt to resolve the issue by prescribing a format into

which all analysis reports are poured. Report design should be flexible enough to meet a

variety of writer purposes and audience needs.

Title page: A title page should be designed with visual order in mind. It should be balanced

from top to bottom and from left to right. It should provide enough information for readers to

be able to tell what the context of the report is and what the report is about.

Abstracts: Abstracts are condensation of entire reports, focusing on the main issues: what

was done, what was found out, and its significance. Abstracts are self-sufficient. The

procedure for many companies is to take the abstract from the analysis report, copy it a

number of times, circulate it to readers, and allow readers to order the full report if they feel

like they need the information

. Table of contents: The table of contents provides an outline of analysis reports for readers

who do not wish to read the entire report or flip through it looking for the section which

contains what they are looking for. It should be made up of headings and subheadings of the

report, word-for-word, with the accompanying page numbers.

List of symbols: This is an optional addition to the front matter of an analysis report. Include

it if you think the readers will need to have symbols defined. The same thing applies to the

inclusion of a glossary.

Introduction: This is the place for the three-part purpose statement introduction. It will

orient readers to the main issue of the report, to the technical issues or specifics which are

important to the report, and to what the report is intended to accomplish. Discussion: The

discussion contains an analysis of the technical issues important to the report. It supports the

main issue to the report by providing evidence and explanations. It should be subdivided into

topics, each with a subheading.

Conclusion: This section presents the results of the analysis, the evaluation of what was

presented in the discussion. Sometimes listing the conclusion is a good way to organize them.

It calls attention to the conclusion individually, but still enables writers to explain them as is

necessary.

Recommendations: Recommendations are optional, not all analysis reports have them.

Those reports that do have recommendations, tell the readers what to do with the information

provided in the report.

Appendix: Usually this would include derivations of equations, tables of raw data, sample

equations, and so forth. But the only way to be certain that what is placed in the appendix

belongs there is to assess it within the context of audience needs

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 3 )

Which phases are involved in decision making of a meeting?

Group decision making Groups usually reach their decision in a predictable pattern. The

process can be viewed as passing through four phases: Orientation phase Conflict phase

Emergence phase Reinforcement phase In the orientation phase, group members socialize,

establish their roles, and agree on their reason for meeting. In the conflict phase members

begin to discuss their positions on the problem.

If group members have been carefully selected to represent a variety of viewpoints and

expertise, disagreements are a natural part of this phase. At the end of this phase, group

members begin to settle on a single solution to the problem. In the emergence phase members


Page 8

reach a decision. Those who advocated different solutions put aside their objection, either

because they’re convinced that the majority solution is better or because they recognize that

arguing is futile. Finally, in the reinforcement phase, group feeling is rebuilt and the solution

is summarized. Members receive their assignments for carrying out the group's decision and

make arrangements for the following up on these assignments.

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 5 )

Differentiate between Informal and Analytical Assignments.

Analytical Assignments are written from analysis point of view. This type of assignments

give a complete and analytical view of assigned topic or discussion. Key to the analysis is

breaking down the idea or topic into components and showing the relationship between the

subordinate arguments and overall controlling ideas.

The purpose of Informal Assignments is to learn through the process of consistent and

varied forms of writing. These are meant as a way to explore ideas. Informal writing

assignments often include: essays, book reviews, free writing, journal writing, course

evaluations, etc.

.

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 5 )

What are the purposes of using Colons? Give details.

Colons: Use colons for the following purposes:

• to introduce and emphasize lists, quotations and explanations and certain appositional

elements (see Layout)

• to express ratios

• to separate numbers signifying different nouns, such as in separating units of

• time or elements in a bibliographic citation

• to separate titles from subtitles

To set off and emphasize lists–The market for photovoltaic power systems includes the

following items: intrusion alarms, flood monitors, calculators, and telephone call boxes.

OR

The market for photovoltaic power systems includes the following items:

• intrusion alarms

• flood monitors

• calculators

• telephone call boxes

To set off and emphasize quotations

The contract reads: "DL-400 coaxial cable shall be used for all platform instrument

installations at Site 5, unless a specific exception is justified in the approved work order."

To set off and emphasize explanations and appositional elements

In designing the tachometer, the team first posed a question: What operations are needed on

the input signal in order to generate the desired output?

To express ratios

• The ratio of drag torque to bearing friction torque cannot exceed3:1.


Page 9

To separate units of time

• The main thruster engines ignited at 7:05 a.m. EDT.

• Thu Mar 16 03:21:44 1995

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 10 )

What is the difference between Feasibility Report and Proposal?

Proposal: A document that offers a solution to a problem or a course of action in response to

a need. Typically, organizations advertise a need for proposals and consulting engineers

respond to the need. However, an engineer has to determine that a problem exists, and

therefore, proposes solutions to an organization. In this case, he must first convince the

agency that the problem exists before proposing his solutions.

Feasibility report: Feasibility Reports studies a situation (for example, a problem or

opportunity) and a plan for doing something about it and determines whether that plan is

"feasible". It determines whether it is technologically possible and whether it is practical (in

terms of current technology, economics, social needs, and so on). The feasibility report

answers the question "Should we implement Plan X?" by stating "yes," "no," but more often

"maybe." Not only does it give a recommendation, it also provides the data and the reasoning

behind that recommendation.

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 2 )

What are the basic divisions of a long report?

Ans:

•

The Report Proper

o

Introduction

o

Report Findings with Footnotes

§

(Two or more divisions)

o

Summary Conclusion, & Recommendation

Organization and Content

•

Appended Parts

o

Bibliography

o

Appendix

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 2 )


Page 10

What is Narration?

Ans:

Narration, in literature, is the telling of the story through one or more viewpoints.

Different viewpoints include:

• First person: uses first person pronouns "I", "me", "myself";

• Third person: uses pronouns "he", "she", "they," "them", etc. without directly

referring to the narrator.

• Third person omniscient means the narrator, or author, can "get in the heads" of all

characters and narrate what is happening at all times in the story rather than having

one first person narrator telling about only what happens to him or herself.

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 2 )

What is the purpose of using Equations?

Ans:

There are numerous mathematical relationships that have been established in

science, finance and other areas. Examples include the relationship between force

and acceleration, conversion of centimeters to inches, and determining the

payments on a loan with a given interest rate.

The purpose of Algebra is to make it easy to state the relationship by using letters to

represent entities as a form of shorthand. The relationship is then called an

equation. Algebra then allows you to substitute values for entities in order to

determine the value of other items. Finally, you can manipulate the equations to

solve for the various items or unknown quantities.

Questions you may have include:

•

How is a relationship stated using letters?

•

How are values substituted?

•

How are equations manipulated?

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 3 )

Which Formats are generally used for a Progress Report?

A progress report is an intermediate report designed to communicate information, usually to

your

A progress report usually summarizes work within each of the following:


Page 11

•

Work accomplished in the preceding period(s)

•

Work currently being performed

•

Work planned for the next period(s)

To:

From:

Date:

Subject:

Introduction:

Facts:

Discussion:

Conclusions:

Recommendations:

Progress report

Task 1

Work completed

Current work

Planned work

Task 2

Work completed

Current work

Planned work

Task 3

Planned work

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )

How common mistakes can be avoided while constructing a Bar Graph?

Ans:


Page 12

When constructing a bar graph with negative values, you follow the steps outlined in the last

unit on Constructing Bar Graphs, paying close attention to the scale of the frequency axis.

Since there are negative values, the scale of this axis will not start at zero.

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 3 )

What are the various purposes of Abbreviations?

The shortening of words and phrases (kilogram to kg, Imperial Chemical Industries

to ICI) and a result of such shortening (MA for Master of Arts, sitcom for situation

comedy).

For the purpose of taking notes, a student should feel free to create his own

abbreviations, provided he can remember later what the abbreviation stood for.

Providing summary information abbreviations usually need to be concise, convenient, and

easy to remember, they do not need to be fully understood to serve their purpose.

People literate in English can work successfully with such formulas as e.g. and q.v. whether

or not they know their full Latin forms exempli gratia (for the sake of example) and quod

vide (which see).

The more familiar and successful the short form, the less need for the full form, which may

in course of time be forgotten.

The full forms of mob (Latin mobile vulgus the fickle crowd) and radar (radio detection and

ranging) have no functional value in the 1990s, and many are entirely unaware that these

words are (or were) abbreviations.

The members of organizations usually have little difficulty with the abbreviations they use,

because of sheer familiarity, but people who are not part of the in-group may regard their use

as (sometimes frustrating and provocative) jargon.

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 5 )

How does Editing help to improve a document?

To re-structure the leaflets, manuals, standard letters or customer service letters, to make

them concise, clear and effective.

Editing gives documents an indispensable proofreading tool that not only catches plagiarism,

grammar and style mistakes, but also delivers instructional feedback that serves to make

students better writers

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 10 )

You are employed in a local insurance company. The personnel manager, being

concerned about poor staff morale following the closure of a small nearby branch and

redundancies in 2 others, has asked the office supervisor to look into the problem.


Page 13

Assuming that you are the office supervisor, write a memorandum to the personnel

manager outlining the problem and setting out the proposals for raising staff morale.

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 10 )

You are a General Manager of Telenor; you have noticed that due to the new packages

of other networks your network is losing attraction. Write a Proposal to your MD and

suggest that how can you make your network more attractive and popular.

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 10 )

As a Chairman of a Commission appointed by the Government write a Short Report on

the causes of corruption prevailing in an over-staffed government office, make feasible

suggestions how to eradicate this evil.

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 10 )

How can we overcome common writing problems in business communication?

some of the most basic tips to remember, when writing, include:

• Avoid the use of slang words

• Try not to use abbreviations (unless appropriately defined)

• Steer away from the use of symbols (such as ampersands [&])

• Clichés should be avoided, or at the very least, used with caution

• Brackets are used to play down words or phrases

• Dashes are generally used for emphasis

• Great care should ALWAYS be taken to spell the names of people and companies correctly

• Numbers should be expressed as words when the number is less than 10 or is used to start a

sentence (example: Ten years ago, my brother and I…). The number 10, or anything greater

than 10, should be expressed as a figure (example: My brother has 13 Matchbox cars.)

• Quotation marks should be placed around any directly quoted speech or text and around

titles of publications.

• Keep sentences short

The above mentioned tips cover the most common mistakes, made when writing letters,

memos and reports.

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 10

Is poorly organized structure basic drawback in writing problem? Do you agree?

Organization is the structural framework for constructing a piece of writing. It is the logical

progression and completeness of ideas in a text. Organization is important to effective

writing because it provides readers with a framework to help them fulfill their expectations

for the text. A well-organized piece of writing supports readers by making it easy for them to

follow, while a poorly organized piece leads readers through a maze of confusion and

confounded expectations.

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 10 )

Suppose you are a Market Surveyor, you were asked by your Manager to evaluate the


Page 14

feasibility of opening a restaurant in Wapda Town community. Write a short memo

report in response to the given task

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 10 )

You are working in a company which has dealings in foreign exchange. Your company

has seen the effects of recent exchange fluctuations and its impact on business. Your

Managing Director has asked you to write a brief Report on the subject along with your

suggestions and recommendations.

Give a detailed note on Interview Structure.

Types of report

Following are different types of report:

•

Feasibility report

•

Empirical research report

•

General report

•

Progress report

•

Analysis report

‘Who’ is a subject pronoun like "he," "she" and "we". We use "who" to ask which person

does an action.

Examples:

Who

made

the

birthday

cake?

Who

is

in

the

kitchen?

Whom’ is an object pronoun like "him," "her" and "us." We use "whom" to ask which

person receives an action.

Examples:

Whom

are

you

going

to

invite?

Whom

did

he

blame

for

the

accident?

• Whom did he hire to do the job?

‘That’ is a demonstrative adjective. It usually points out noun in a sentence. It always answer

the

question

which

one?

• Let’s play this game and later watch that movie.

Which’ is an interrogative adjective and it is used with nouns to ask questions. For example:

• Which leaves turn color first?

 

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