If there are English 201 subjective question
Question No: 1 ( Marks: 2 )
What is formal document?
A document that is written in formal style and uses formal language is called a formal
document such as circulars, business letters and CVs etc.
Question No: 2 ( Marks: 2 )
Explain the term ‘Abstract’.
Answer: Abstracts are condensation of entire reports, focusing on the main issues: what was
done, what was found out, and its significance. Abstracts are self-sufficient. The procedure
for many companies is to take the abstract from the analysis report, copy it a number of
times, circulate it to readers, and allow readers to order the full report if they feel like they
need the information.
Question No: 3 ( Marks: 2 )
What is the goal of Content Listening?
The goal of content listening is to understand and retain information that is delivered by a
speaker. Moreover, your job is to identify the key points of the message.
Question No: 4 ( Marks: 3 )
What is an “Empirical Research Report”?
Superstructure for Empirical research Reports: To answer the readers typical questions
about empirical research reports, writers use a substructure that has the following elements.
• Introduction • Objectives of research • Methods Results • Discussion • Conclusions •
Question No: 5 ( Marks: 3 )
Why Background information is added to Instructions?
Question No: 6 ( Marks: 3 )
What do you know about Task-facilitating roles in meeting?
Task facilitating roles’ as the name shows make the meeting process well planned and
‘Task facilitating roles’ in meeting include the following:
Initiating: getting the group started on a line of inquiry.
Information giving or seeking: offering (or seeking) information relevant to questions
facing the group.
Coordinating: showing relationships among ideas, clarifying issues, summarizing
what the group has done.
Procedure setting: suggesting decision-making procedures that will move the group
toward the goal.
Question No: 7 ( Marks: 5 )
Explain the terms ‘Chronology’ and ‘Spatially’.
Answer: When investigating a chain of events, organize the study according to what
happened in January, what happened in February and so on.
Spatially If you are studying a physical object, study it left to right, top to bottom, inside to
Question No: 8 ( Marks: 5 )
How can you make your document error free?
Question No: 9 ( Marks: 2 )
What are Analytical assignments?
These assignments are written to analyze any problems such as why a company is having
problems in hiring secretaries, low wage, location of office etc.
Question No: 10 ( Marks: 2 )
What is the disadvantage of close-ended questions?
The close-ended questions require yes or no answers. Questioner does not receive full
response but just a short response.
Question No: 11 ( Marks: 2 )
Elaborate a few sources of Writer’s Block.
Few sources are lack of information, lack of confidence, not having a well defined objective.
Question No: 12 ( Marks: 3 )
Explain the term Budget Statement.
A budget statement is a table that shows how money will be gained or spent. It may be very simple or
very elaborate depending on your reader’s needs. On the job, you can use budget statements in the
• To explain the expenses involved with a project purchase
• To summarize the savings to be realized by following a recommendation you are making
• To report the costs that have been incurred by a project for which you have responsibility
• To explain the sources of revenue associated with some project or activity.
Question No: 13 ( Marks: 3 )
How can visual aids be helpful in oral presentation?
Visual aids help in delivering the speeches and to accommodate audience’s questions and
help audiences in understanding the purpose of the presentation.
Question No: 14 ( Marks: 3 )
Describe how an organization produces formal reports.
Formal reports usually include:
Research work, collecting ideas, visual aids, writing the material and formatting
Question No: 15 ( Marks: 5 )
How Fog Index should be used? Explain with examples.
Question No: 16 ( Marks: 5 )
What are the Functions and Contents of a Progress Report?
Superstructure for Progress Reports To answer your readers’ questions, you can use the
conventional superstructure for writing progress reports, which has the following elements:
1. Introduction 2. Facts 3. Discussion 4. Conclusions 5. Recommendations In the
introduction to a progress report, you should answer the following two questions: 1. “What
work does your report cover?” 2. “What is the purpose of the work?”
Question No: 17 ( Marks: 2 )
What is the difference between Alphanumeric and Decimal System?
Decimal system is a numbering system that uses ten digits, from 0 to 9, arranged in a series of columns to represent all
numerical quantities. Each column or place value has a weighted value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, and so on, ranging from right to
left whereas alphanumeric system uses both letters and numbers and often other symbols (as punctuation marks and
Question No: 19 ( Marks: 2 )
Define the term “Pagination”.
Pagination: Number the front matter in italic lowercase roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv, and so
on). Normally, number the pages in the body of the document with Arabic numerals, starting
with page 1. Numbers sequentially through page n at the end of the text, including all back
Question No: 18 ( Marks: 2 )
Define the term Syllable.
A syllable is a basic unit of written and spoken language. It is a unit consisting of uninterrupted sound that can be used to
make up words.
For example, the word hotel has two syllables: ho and tel.
Question No: 20 ( Marks: 3 )
Why do we use Semicolons?
Semicolons: • Use semicolons to join two independent clauses or to separate parts of a
sentence that have commas in them. • To Join Two Independent Clauses • The system has
three beam launchers; two are in the two-tube combiner, and one is in the OP receiver. • To
Separate Sentence Elements with Commas Italicize titles of journals, books, newsletters, and
manuals; letters, words, terms, and equation symbols; foreign words; and names of specific
Question No: 21 ( Marks: 3 )
Explain ‘Title fly and Title Page’.
Title fly and Title Page: The title fly is a plane sheet with only the title of the report on it.
The title report includes four blocks of information: The title of the report The name, title and
address of the person that authorized the report The name, title and address of the person that
prepared the report The date on which the report was submitted
Question No: 22 ( Marks: 3 )
What do you know about Hardware Functional Specifications?
Hardware functional specifications as a rule contain the following:
• Functional description • Configuration specification • Electrical description • Physical
characteristics • Standards • Environmental requirements • Diagnostic requirements • Power
requirements • Cost target • Maintenance cost target • Resource requirements •
Documentation • Risks
Question No: 23 ( Marks: 5 )
How Formal Speeches and Presentations can be developed?
Developing formal speeches and presentations Developing a major speech or presentation
is much like writing a formal report, with one nique to an oral communication channel. This
is both an opportunity and a challenge. The opportunity lies in the interaction that’s possible
between you and the audience.
Question No: 24 ( Marks: 5 )
What is Conventional Superstructure for Instructions and why is it important in
Conventional Superstructure for Instructions The conventional superstructure for
instructions contains five elements • Introduction • Description of the equipment (if the
instructions are for running a piece of equipment) • Theory of operations • Lists of material
and equipment • Guide to trouble shooting The simplest instructions contain only directions.
Most complex instructions contain some or all of the other five elements, the selection
depending upon the aims of the writer and the needs of the readers. Many instructions also
contain elements found in longer communications such as reports and proposals. Among
these elements are cover, title page, table of contents, appendixes, list of references, glossary,
list of symbols and index. Because these elements are not particular to instructions,
Question No: 25 ( Marks: 10 )
Write a detailed note on Delivering the Speech.
Delivering the speech When its time to deliver the speech, you may feel a bit of stage fright.
Most people do even professional actors. A good way to overcome your fears is to rehearse
until you’re thoroughly familiar with your material. Communication professionals have
suggested other tips, which we will now go over: Prepare more material than necessary.
Extra knowledge, combined with a genuine interest in the topic, will boost your confidence.
Think positively about your audience, yourself, and what you have to say. See yourself as
polished and professional, and your audience will too. Be realistic about stage fright. After
all, even experienced speakers admit that they feel butterflies before the y address an
audience. Tell yourself you’re ready. Use the few minutes while you’re arranging your
materials, before you actually begin speaking, to tell yourself you’re on and you’re ready.
Before you begin speaking, take a few deep breaths. It will help you calm down and improve
your delivery. Have your first sentence memorized. Having your opening on the tip of your
tongue helps you get started, and everything else starts falling into place. If your throat is dry,
drink some water. Tension often causes your mouth to become dry. It is best to have a few
sips of water before you begin.
Question 26:What are Proposals?
In a proposal, identify a specific problem and state how you will solve that problem. Most
organizations rely on successful proposal writing for their continued existence. You will
most likely spend a major part of your professional life writing proposals
Proposal Structure: • Front matter • Body • Introduction • Technical approach •
Management requirements • Work plan • End matter
Question No: 27 ( Marks: 2 )
What is meant by Organizational Logic?
Organizational logic is the single most important issue in writing a report or article about
technology. it is the first thing a person needs to look for when editing document. The ideas
in a report or article should be interrelated--seamlessly. They should form a sequence of
information that will appear to be predictable or inevitable to readers. In other words, a topic
or an idea should anticipate topics or ideas that follow it. As I have said before, a document
should have no surprises and no areas of confusion that the readers have to puzzle out for
themselves. Edgar Allan Poe, referring to the writing of short stories, gave some advice to
writers which we can very well borrow for the writing of reports and articles about high
technology. He said that authors should include nothing that does not advance the topic
toward it inevitable end. Any thing else is tangent that readers will wander down with the
writer and become lost together.
Question No: 28 ( Marks: 2 )
What are the characteristics of a good interviewer?
Asking yourself the following questions will help you prepare for interviews: What are
your respective roles? What does this person expect from you? Is it to your advantage to
confirm those expectations? will you be more likely to accomplish your objective by being
friendly and open or by conveying an impression of professional detachment? If you’re the
interviewer, responsibility for planning the session falls on you. On the simplest level, your
job is to schedule the interview and see that it’s held in a comfortable and convenient
Good interviewers are good at collecting information, listening, and probing, so should
develop set of interview questions and decide on their sequence
Good interviews have an opening, a body, and a close. The opening establishes rapport an
orients the interviewee to the remainder of the session. You might begin by introducing
yourself, asking a few polite questions, and then explaining the purpose and ground rules of
the interview. At this point, you may want to clear the use of notes or a tape recorder with the
interviewee, especially if the subject is complex or if you plan to quote the interviewee in a
written document such as a business report. The questions in the body of the interview reflect
the nature of your relationship with the interview.
Question No: 29 ( Marks: 3 )
Write down the structure of Short Formal Report.
Memo The most common format for short informal reports within an organization. Memos
have four headings: To, From, Date and Subject.
Manuscript For a formal approach, manuscripts range from a few pages to several hundred
Establishing a Basic Structure:
Choice of a structure involves three decisions:
What to say?
Direct or indirect?
Topical or logical organization?
Question No: 30 ( Marks: 3 )
How can we make analysis report purposeful?
Analysis Reports: The important thing to remember is that no report format is perfect.
Company documentation standards attempt to resolve the issue by prescribing a format into
which all analysis reports are poured. Report design should be flexible enough to meet a
variety of writer purposes and audience needs.
Title page: A title page should be designed with visual order in mind. It should be balanced
from top to bottom and from left to right. It should provide enough information for readers to
be able to tell what the context of the report is and what the report is about.
Abstracts: Abstracts are condensation of entire reports, focusing on the main issues: what
was done, what was found out, and its significance. Abstracts are self-sufficient. The
procedure for many companies is to take the abstract from the analysis report, copy it a
number of times, circulate it to readers, and allow readers to order the full report if they feel
like they need the information
. Table of contents: The table of contents provides an outline of analysis reports for readers
who do not wish to read the entire report or flip through it looking for the section which
contains what they are looking for. It should be made up of headings and subheadings of the
report, word-for-word, with the accompanying page numbers.
List of symbols: This is an optional addition to the front matter of an analysis report. Include
it if you think the readers will need to have symbols defined. The same thing applies to the
inclusion of a glossary.
Introduction: This is the place for the three-part purpose statement introduction. It will
orient readers to the main issue of the report, to the technical issues or specifics which are
important to the report, and to what the report is intended to accomplish. Discussion: The
discussion contains an analysis of the technical issues important to the report. It supports the
main issue to the report by providing evidence and explanations. It should be subdivided into
topics, each with a subheading.
Conclusion: This section presents the results of the analysis, the evaluation of what was
presented in the discussion. Sometimes listing the conclusion is a good way to organize them.
It calls attention to the conclusion individually, but still enables writers to explain them as is
Recommendations: Recommendations are optional, not all analysis reports have them.
Those reports that do have recommendations, tell the readers what to do with the information
provided in the report.
Appendix: Usually this would include derivations of equations, tables of raw data, sample
equations, and so forth. But the only way to be certain that what is placed in the appendix
belongs there is to assess it within the context of audience needs
Question No: 31 ( Marks: 3 )
Which phases are involved in decision making of a meeting?
Group decision making Groups usually reach their decision in a predictable pattern. The
process can be viewed as passing through four phases: Orientation phase Conflict phase
Emergence phase Reinforcement phase In the orientation phase, group members socialize,
establish their roles, and agree on their reason for meeting. In the conflict phase members
begin to discuss their positions on the problem.
If group members have been carefully selected to represent a variety of viewpoints and
expertise, disagreements are a natural part of this phase. At the end of this phase, group
members begin to settle on a single solution to the problem. In the emergence phase members
reach a decision. Those who advocated different solutions put aside their objection, either
because they’re convinced that the majority solution is better or because they recognize that
arguing is futile. Finally, in the reinforcement phase, group feeling is rebuilt and the solution
is summarized. Members receive their assignments for carrying out the group's decision and
make arrangements for the following up on these assignments.
Question No: 32 ( Marks: 5 )
Differentiate between Informal and Analytical Assignments.
Analytical Assignments are written from analysis point of view. This type of assignments
give a complete and analytical view of assigned topic or discussion. Key to the analysis is
breaking down the idea or topic into components and showing the relationship between the
subordinate arguments and overall controlling ideas.
The purpose of Informal Assignments is to learn through the process of consistent and
varied forms of writing. These are meant as a way to explore ideas. Informal writing
assignments often include: essays, book reviews, free writing, journal writing, course
Question No: 33 ( Marks: 5 )
What are the purposes of using Colons? Give details.
Colons: Use colons for the following purposes:
• to introduce and emphasize lists, quotations and explanations and certain appositional
elements (see Layout)
• to express ratios
• to separate numbers signifying different nouns, such as in separating units of
• time or elements in a bibliographic citation
• to separate titles from subtitles
To set off and emphasize lists–The market for photovoltaic power systems includes the
following items: intrusion alarms, flood monitors, calculators, and telephone call boxes.
The market for photovoltaic power systems includes the following items:
• intrusion alarms
• flood monitors
• telephone call boxes
To set off and emphasize quotations–
The contract reads: "DL-400 coaxial cable shall be used for all platform instrument
installations at Site 5, unless a specific exception is justified in the approved work order."
To set off and emphasize explanations and appositional elements–
In designing the tachometer, the team first posed a question: What operations are needed on
the input signal in order to generate the desired output?
To express ratios–
• The ratio of drag torque to bearing friction torque cannot exceed3:1.
To separate units of time–
• The main thruster engines ignited at 7:05 a.m. EDT.
• Thu Mar 16 03:21:44 1995
Question No: 34 ( Marks: 10 )
What is the difference between Feasibility Report and Proposal?
Proposal: A document that offers a solution to a problem or a course of action in response to
a need. Typically, organizations advertise a need for proposals and consulting engineers
respond to the need. However, an engineer has to determine that a problem exists, and
therefore, proposes solutions to an organization. In this case, he must first convince the
agency that the problem exists before proposing his solutions.
Feasibility report: Feasibility Reports studies a situation (for example, a problem or
opportunity) and a plan for doing something about it and determines whether that plan is
"feasible". It determines whether it is technologically possible and whether it is practical (in
terms of current technology, economics, social needs, and so on). The feasibility report
answers the question "Should we implement Plan X?" by stating "yes," "no," but more often
"maybe." Not only does it give a recommendation, it also provides the data and the reasoning
behind that recommendation.
Question No: 31 ( Marks: 2 )
What are the basic divisions of a long report?
The Report Proper
Report Findings with Footnotes
(Two or more divisions)
Summary Conclusion, & Recommendation
Organization and Content
Question No: 32 ( Marks: 2 )
What is Narration?
Narration, in literature, is the telling of the story through one or more viewpoints.
Different viewpoints include:
First person: uses first person pronouns "I", "me", "myself";
Third person: uses pronouns "he", "she", "they," "them", etc. without directly
referring to the narrator.
Third person omniscient means the narrator, or author, can "get in the heads" of all
characters and narrate what is happening at all times in the story rather than having
one first person narrator telling about only what happens to him or herself.
Question No: 33 ( Marks: 2 )
What is the purpose of using Equations?
There are numerous mathematical relationships that have been established in
science, finance and other areas. Examples include the relationship between force
and acceleration, conversion of centimeters to inches, and determining the
payments on a loan with a given interest rate.
The purpose of Algebra is to make it easy to state the relationship by using letters to
represent entities as a form of shorthand. The relationship is then called an
equation. Algebra then allows you to substitute values for entities in order to
determine the value of other items. Finally, you can manipulate the equations to
solve for the various items or unknown quantities.
Questions you may have include:
How is a relationship stated using letters?
How are values substituted?
How are equations manipulated?
Question No: 34 ( Marks: 3 )
Which Formats are generally used for a Progress Report?
A progress report is an intermediate report designed to communicate information, usually to
A progress report usually summarizes work within each of the following:
Work accomplished in the preceding period(s)
Work currently being performed
Work planned for the next period(s)
Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )
How common mistakes can be avoided while constructing a Bar Graph?
When constructing a bar graph with negative values, you follow the steps outlined in the last
unit on Constructing Bar Graphs, paying close attention to the scale of the frequency axis.
Since there are negative values, the scale of this axis will not start at zero.
Question No: 36 ( Marks: 3 )
What are the various purposes of Abbreviations?
The shortening of words and phrases (kilogram to kg, Imperial Chemical Industries
to ICI) and a result of such shortening (MA for Master of Arts, sitcom for situation
For the purpose of taking notes, a student should feel free to create his own
abbreviations, provided he can remember later what the abbreviation stood for.
Providing summary information abbreviations usually need to be concise, convenient, and
easy to remember, they do not need to be fully understood to serve their purpose.
People literate in English can work successfully with such formulas as e.g. and q.v. whether
or not they know their full Latin forms exempli gratia (for the sake of example) and quod
vide (which see).
The more familiar and successful the short form, the less need for the full form, which may
in course of time be forgotten.
The full forms of mob (Latin mobile vulgus the fickle crowd) and radar (radio detection and
ranging) have no functional value in the 1990s, and many are entirely unaware that these
words are (or were) abbreviations.
The members of organizations usually have little difficulty with the abbreviations they use,
because of sheer familiarity, but people who are not part of the in-group may regard their use
as (sometimes frustrating and provocative) jargon.
Question No: 38 ( Marks: 5 )
How does Editing help to improve a document?
To re-structure the leaflets, manuals, standard letters or customer service letters, to make
them concise, clear and effective.
Editing gives documents an indispensable proofreading tool that not only catches plagiarism,
grammar and style mistakes, but also delivers instructional feedback that serves to make
students better writers
Question No: 35 ( Marks: 10 )
You are employed in a local insurance company. The personnel manager, being
concerned about poor staff morale following the closure of a small nearby branch and
redundancies in 2 others, has asked the office supervisor to look into the problem.
Assuming that you are the office supervisor, write a memorandum to the personnel
manager outlining the problem and setting out the proposals for raising staff morale.
Question No: 36 ( Marks: 10 )
You are a General Manager of Telenor; you have noticed that due to the new packages
of other networks your network is losing attraction. Write a Proposal to your MD and
suggest that how can you make your network more attractive and popular.
Question No: 37 ( Marks: 10 )
As a Chairman of a Commission appointed by the Government write a Short Report on
the causes of corruption prevailing in an over-staffed government office, make feasible
suggestions how to eradicate this evil.
Question No: 38 ( Marks: 10 )
How can we overcome common writing problems in business communication?
some of the most basic tips to remember, when writing, include:
• Avoid the use of slang words
• Try not to use abbreviations (unless appropriately defined)
• Steer away from the use of symbols (such as ampersands [&])
• Clichés should be avoided, or at the very least, used with caution
• Brackets are used to play down words or phrases
• Dashes are generally used for emphasis
• Great care should ALWAYS be taken to spell the names of people and companies correctly
• Numbers should be expressed as words when the number is less than 10 or is used to start a
sentence (example: Ten years ago, my brother and I…). The number 10, or anything greater
than 10, should be expressed as a figure (example: My brother has 13 Matchbox cars.)
• Quotation marks should be placed around any directly quoted speech or text and around
titles of publications.
• Keep sentences short
The above mentioned tips cover the most common mistakes, made when writing letters,
memos and reports.
Question No: 39 ( Marks: 10
Is poorly organized structure basic drawback in writing problem? Do you agree?
Organization is the structural framework for constructing a piece of writing. It is the logical
progression and completeness of ideas in a text. Organization is important to effective
writing because it provides readers with a framework to help them fulfill their expectations
for the text. A well-organized piece of writing supports readers by making it easy for them to
follow, while a poorly organized piece leads readers through a maze of confusion and
Question No: 40 ( Marks: 10 )
Suppose you are a Market Surveyor, you were asked by your Manager to evaluate the
feasibility of opening a restaurant in Wapda Town community. Write a short memo
report in response to the given task
Question No: 39 ( Marks: 10 )
You are working in a company which has dealings in foreign exchange. Your company
has seen the effects of recent exchange fluctuations and its impact on business. Your
Managing Director has asked you to write a brief Report on the subject along with your
suggestions and recommendations.
Give a detailed note on Interview Structure.
Types of report
Following are different types of report:
Empirical research report
‘Who’ is a subject pronoun like "he," "she" and "we". We use "who" to ask which person
does an action.
‘Whom’ is an object pronoun like "him," "her" and "us." We use "whom" to ask which
person receives an action.
• Whom did he hire to do the job?
‘That’ is a demonstrative adjective. It usually points out noun in a sentence. It always answer
• Let’s play this game and later watch that movie.
‘Which’ is an interrogative adjective and it is used with nouns to ask questions. For example:
• Which leaves turn color first?
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