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ENG503 Introduction to English Language Teaching (ELT503) Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion

ENG503 Introduction to English Language Teaching (ELT503) Assignment 1 Solution Fall 2019


 

Q1. While teaching English to autistic students of grade 3, what approaches to listening can be employed in order to improve students'listening skills? How these approaches to listening would help you in teaching English language? (5+5=10 Marks)

Q2. In your point of view, what are the five best strategies which you can use to teach pronunciation in your calssroom? Keeping those strategies in mind, design two meaningful activities for secondary school students to help them improve their pronunciation. (5+5=10 Marks)

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Top 10 Ways to Teach Pronunciation in English
  • Listen and repeat. This will be the first and most common method of teaching sound specific pronunciation in English. ...
  • Isolation. When working on a specific sound, it may help your students to isolate that particular sound from any others. ...
  • Minimal pairs. ...
  • Record and replay. ...
  • Use a mirror. ...
  • Phonetics. ...
  • syllable technique 

Activities for pronuciation:

you can choose any!!

1. Minimal Pairs Bingo

This is one of the easiest ways to focus on particular pairs of sounds.

A Bingo card commonly has 5 x 5 squares, so you can use 25 words (12 minimal pairs, or more than two words for some sounds). One or more spaces on each card could be a “free” spot, or you could change the size, maybe to 4 x 4. (I have found that 25 words works well for a full lesson, and everyone will be able to learn them all by the end.)

Go to a website such as ESL activities to create your Bingo cards. You simply type in the words you want to use, choose how many individual cards you need and then let the program randomize the cards so that they each have a different arrangement of the same words.

  • Have a spare card cut up into individual squares that you can jumble and use to call the words.
  • Don’t let the students mark their cards. Provide markers such as small stones or sunflower seeds that they can put on each word as they hear it (and then remove to play again).
  • If you have “free” spots they can start the game by putting markers on those.
  • The first student to get five markers in a row in any direction calls “Bingo!”
  • Students remove their markers and a new game starts with the winner as the new caller.
  • After a game or two the students can swap cards to get a different arrangement of words to look at.

At the end of the lesson you can review the words and target sounds with the whole class.

This activity can give students the opportunity to hear the difference between the minimal pairs, recognize the different words written on the card and clearly pronounce the difference when they win and have a chance to be the caller. As each word is called, students tend to all say it quietly to themselves as well.

2. Odd One Out

Put similar words into groups of three—two with one sound, and one with a different (although similar) sound. Or you could have groups of four or five which contain the same sound, but only one that’s different. For example:

meet, seat, sit (for vowels)

plays, pace, space (for consonants)

The selection of the odd word can be a reading exercise—where students read the words to themselves out loud and identify the sounds in the written words—or a listening exercise—where the teacher reads the words and the students respond to the “odd” word.

Likewise, selected students could try reading the words aloud for others to identify the odd word, or they could work in pairs or small groups with one person pronouncing the words and the others indicating which is odd.

There are a number of different activities you could run with these groups of words—depending on the ages and abilities of your class, and your classroom arrangement.

  • Ask the students individually to read through the word groups and pick which words have different sounds.
  • Ask the students to discuss the groups of words with a partner and decide which one is odd.
  • Divide the class into two teams, in two lines, and ask the person whose turn it is to choose the odd word as you read them out loud.
  • Make the question part of another game like Tic Tac Toe. The team or individual whose turn it is to place an X or an O must first pick the odd one out. They proceed with their turn if they choose the right word. If they can’t identify the odd word, then they lose their turn.
  • Play Run and Grab (see below) putting the words on the board and having participants run up to pick the odd word.

3. Run and Grab

You could have your minimal pairs on flashcards or you could simply write two (or more) words at a time on the board.

  • Create two teams and then pair students up with a member of the opposite team. In turn, each pair goes to stand at the back of the room, looking down an aisle at the board.
  • When you call one of the minimal pairs out, the pair races to the front to touch the correct word (the odd word out) on the board or grab the appropriate flashcard.
  • Students from the winning team could have a turn at calling the words for others to run to.

Younger students especially enjoy activities that include movement and a chance to race, but older students also find it enjoyable.

4. Basketball

If your students are keen on basketball then there are a couple of ways you can use this to inspire them to practice their minimal pairs.

  • Board BasketballSet questions using minimal pairs such as choosing the “odd one out” (see above) or asking students to choose the correct word as in Run and Grab (see above). When students give the correct answer, they (or their team) score “baskets” (points) on the board. An optional additional to this game is to have students take a shot at throwing a ball into a hoop or receptacle after they identify the correct odd word. (Making the shot wins them another point.)
  • Crumple and Shoot Basketball—The minimal pair words are written on pieces of (scrap) paper. Students are lined up in two teams. In turn, the front student picks up the paper and reads the word. If it’s read correctly they then crumple it up and throw it into a basket/bin/receptacle a set distance away. (Getting it into the basket wins another point.)

Or you could display words on a screen (with an LCD projector) or on flashcards. When the student whose turn it is gets it right they can throw a ball (or other object) into the basket or bin, gaining another point.

5. Sound TPR (Total Physical Response)

Younger students especially enjoy any activity that involves movement.

Designate particular movements to particular sounds, as lively or as gentle as you like. For instance, they could be sitting at their desks and raise a hand, clap or stand up when they hear a particular sound, or they could be standing in a space and jump or run in response to sounds.

As with “Odd One Out” (see above), this could be reading based or listening based. They could respond to words on flashcards by correctly pronouncing them and moving in the prescribed way, or they could respond to the teacher (or another student) saying the words.

If you’re teaching younger students—who may also be learning to read and write—they should also be learning phonics, which relates each sound to English letters. There are established systems of hand signs or gestures for each sound which you may find useful here. These can be seen under Visual Phonics on YouTube, or you can look up Jolly Phonics.

6. Dictation

Dictation is when someone speaks out loud and someone else writes it down. Getting your students to write down what you say is good listening practice for them, and when you’re dictating minimal pairs they need to listen especially carefully. There are a few different dictation activities you can use.

  • Minimal Pairs Dictation—The teacher reads out minimal pairs in a particular order and the students write them down. Or the students could have the words already written down and you could instruct them to put marks, numbers, colors, etc. on particular words as you read.
  • Running Dictation—The students work in pairs. One student runs to read the words or sentences from somewhere farther away, like on the wall outside the classroom. They then dictate to the other student who writes them down. The dictation could be single words, minimal pairs or sentences including target words and sounds.
  • Fast Dictation—This is where the dictation is read in one continuous stream instead of a few words at a time with breaks. The students listen and write any words or phrases they notice (without panicking!) In this situation, the dictation should include some target words (in minimal pairs) which the students should listen for specifically and write down in the order they hear them.
  • Picture Dictation—The students have a picture, background or series of pictures containing objects that represent the minimal pair words. They follow instructions to highlight the pictures of their minimal pair words, which may include, coloring, making marks or drawing additional items.

7. Fruit Salad

This is generally a game where the players sit in a circle with one player standing in the middle. The players have each been designated as a type of fruit. The middle player calls a fruit, and all of the players who’ve been assigned that fruit must rush to change places while the middle player tries to take one of their chairs. Periodically they can call “fruit salad!” and then everyone must change places.

Instead of using the names of fruits, you can designate words containing minimal pairs to groups of students, and maybe choose another word for the “fruit salad!” command.

For example, as the students are sitting in the circle they “number off” one by one around the circle with:

“pea,” ” bee,” “pin,” “bin”

Then the person in the middle will call “pin!” or another given word to get their peers running around.

8. Chinese Whispers

When someone is genuinely whispering, and therefore not using their voice, it’s nearly impossible to hear the difference between some words. For example: “bit” and “pit.” In a social situation where whispering is used we rely on context to fill out the meaning.

In the classroom, Chinese Whispers is a game that involves passing a message from student to student, hopefully without it getting changed too much. In order to play Chinese Whispers as a pronunciation game it might be best to allow speaking and to ask students to carry the message farther away where it can’t be overheard by others.

One student could be outside the door and you tell them what the message is. Then the second student goes outside and they tell them the message. The first student comes back in the classroom and sends the next student out. This goes on until every student has heard the secret word. The final student comes back into the classroom to say what they think the message was.

If the message contains words from your minimal pairs list, it will probably have changed, maybe more than once.

9. Card Games

Flashcards are a wonderful resource that every ESL teacher should have bundles of. They can be used for whole class activities and games, or you can create multiple smaller sets to be used by individuals at their desks or in pair/group work activities. Here are a few examples:

  • Hold it High—Just like Run and Touch (see above) if students have individual sets of cards on their desks, they can hold up the appropriate one when it’s called, and the teacher can then look around and have a quick check that everyone is correct. To move from reading to speaking they should firstly say it as they hold it up, and secondly individual students could have a turn at the front.
  • Happy Families—Create a set of cards containing maybe 6 – 10 families of 4 cards, color coded by families. For example, “boo zoo boom zoom,” “cap tap cub tub,” “kick thick kink think,” etc. Supply a complete list for each member. The cards are distributed like in Go Fish. Students in groups of four play, trying to collect sets of four by asking the person next to them if they have particular cards.
  • Snap—Make the same decks of cards as in Happy Families. Students can play Snap in pairs or groups with a stack of cards containing relevant minimal pairs. The student placing the card down on the deck should call it at the same time. The next student must put down a card that fits in with that card family. The group proceeds until the winner has no cards left.
  • Catching Cards—Students gather at the back of the room. The teacher throws individual flashcards and students try to catch them. When they get one they say the word and show it to everyone.
  • Pair Up—Students are each handed a flashcard with a minimal pair word. They have to walk around and either find others with the same word/sound.
  • Bean Bag Toss—Lay the flashcards containing the minimal pairs spread out on the floor. Each students takes a turn throwing a bean bag onto a card and clearly saying the word on that card. (They could then collect the card and win a point.)
  • Stepping Stones—Lay the cards on the floor. Students use them as “stepping stones” to cross a river, saying each one clearly as they step on it.

10. Minimal Pair Math

Assign a number to each of the minimal pair words you wish to focus on. Then call out the words in your chosen sequence, possibly joined with mathematical symbols (e.g., plus, minus). Students can write down the words and their associated numbers while you speak. Ask the students to give you the final number that all these words add up to.

Pronunciation Upkeep

Obviously just doing a couple of activities once or twice may not fix the pronunciation problems your students are having. Hopefully, these activities for targeted practice will lead your students to a better understanding of English pronunciation so that an occasional “nudge” (rather than nagging) will keep them on track.

Whenever the opportunity arises, you can remind them of these pronunciation lessons and minimal pairs when those minimal pair words pop up again in speaking, listening and reading lessons. This is a great way to continue pointing out the words used in your minimal pairs in context. Then students can hear how they sound (again) and get a feel for which words have which meanings.

Practicing a whole phrase or sentence containing the troublesome sound is more likely to cement it in their memory, especially if it’s part of a song or a video that they can watch and practice along with.

The important thing is to integrate these activities into your class’s routine whenever possible, and to keep reinforcing the different sounds and meanings.

With time, great English pronunciation will come!

Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

Oh, and One More Thing…

If you liked these fun activities, you’ll love using FluentU in your classroom. FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, cartoons, documentaries ...

It’s got a huge collection of authentic English videos that people in the English-speaking world actually watch on the regular. There are tons of great choices there when you’re looking for songs for in-class activities.

You’ll find music videos, musical numbers from cinema and theater, kids’ singalongs, commercial jingles and much, much more.

How to Solve ESL Student Pronunciation Problems

There are some sounds in English that can be difficult for any learner, and there are also distinctions between sounds that some students find confusing because there is no such distinction in their mother tongue. When all, or at least several, of your students are struggling with the same problem, it is definitely worthwhile doing some activities to target specific areas.

  • First, they need to be able to hear the difference between the incorrect and the correct sound.
  • Then they need to learn how to make the correct sound.
  • Finally, they also need to be able to recognize (when reading, for example) when and how to make the correct sound.

ENG503 Assignment No.1 Fall 2019

Introduction to English Language Teaching

Q1. While teaching English to autistic students of grade 3, what approaches to listening can be employed in order to improve students’ listening skills? How these approaches to listening would help you in teaching English language?                                                                     (5+5=10 Marks)

            Listening is one of the most important skills for primary school children to master, but it doesn’t always come easily, especially in the early years of school. But with a bit of work, you can help your child develop their listening ability, with knock-on improvements in their achievement at school. Just about everything your child does at school depends on their ability to listen – from sitting quietly in assembly to following their teacher’s instructions in the classroom and taking part in team games in PE. ‘Children should ideally develop listening skills before starting primary school,’ says Sue Palmer, a former primary head teacher and author of Upstart: the case for raising the school starting age and providing what the under-sevens really need. ‘They’re critical for reading and writing, and auditory memory is vital for understanding facts in all subjects, as language is the main means of transmitting knowledge. 

            The ability to listen is a major element in the attention skills that children need for all school-based learning. ‘Listening matters to children’s friendships, too. A child who is unable to listen to what their classmates are saying to them, and who talks over them or doesn’t pay attention, may end up being excluded from play as they’re seen to be domineering or uncooperative.

Listening: what to expect from your child

            Listening might be important, but it’s not something that comes easily to many children, especially at a young age. ‘It takes a long time for children to learn to control their attention,’ Sue says. ‘It involves many aspects of development, including physical coordination and control, the ability to control their emotions and defer gratification, and social and communication skills.’

Children’s listening skills will develop over time, and will always be better when they are interested and engaged with what they’re supposed to be listening to. At five to six years old, for example, they’re beginning to be able to filter out distractions, but can still only listen with focus for five to 10 minutes. Some research suggests that they can pay full attention for one minute per year of their life – so by the end of primary school, they’ll be able to listen attentively for around 10 minutes.

            ‘We can expect most children to be able to settle down voluntarily and listen effectively to their teacher by the age of six to seven. But that assumes they've had the right sort of experience – such as having adults spend time with them, listening to what they say, and many opportunities to play outdoors with other children,’ Sue says.

How to develop your child’s listening skills

            While your child’s teacher will be working on developing their listening skills at school, there’s plenty that you can do at home to help. One of the most important ways to do this is to break the negative cycle that often develops when a child is a poor listener. Frustrated with being ignored, we end up raising our voices, which effectively ‘rewards’ their behaviour with your attention. It’s more productive to reward good behaviour than to give attention to the bad, by giving your child praise when they do follow your instructions.

            Spending time interacting with your child is also essential. ‘The more songs and stories children are exposed to, the earlier they’re likely to develop aural attention,’ explains Sue. ‘The more opportunities you take to sing, move to music and read to your child, the better: learning songs and rhymes by heart is particularly powerful for developing auditory memory, and listening to stories builds up listening stamina.’

            Your child’s ability to listen depends on a healthy lifestyle overall. This includes a healthy diet, plenty of active, outdoor play, limited screen time, plenty of real-life interaction with both adults and children, and good sleeping habits, including a quiet, screen-free wind-down period before bedtime. ‘It’s very important to talk to your child and demonstrate what effective listening involves by listening to them yourself,’ adds Sue.

            There are also specific activities you can do with your child to help them develop their listening skills. These include:

  • Games like Simon Says and Traffic Lights, which help your child listen and follow instructions.
  • Listening walks, where you take time to stop and pay attention to the sounds you can hear.
  • Clapping a rhythm for your child to repeat.
  • Playing Chinese Whispers.
  • Describing a picture to your child, which they have to draw based on your description.
  • Playing What’s That Sound?, using household objects to make a noise (e.g. shaking a peppermill, deflating a balloon) and getting your child to guess what it is.

Talking so your child listens

            The way you talk to your child matters if you want them to listen. Children generally struggle to multi-task, so rather than expecting them to follow a long sequence of instructions (‘Can you brush your teeth, comb your hair, put your homework in your school bag and get your shoes on, please?’), break it down, giving them one or two at a time.

‘It’s also important to use your child’s name to attract their attention, make eye contact, speak clearly and give them plenty of thinking time before expecting a response,’ adds Sue. These techniques are used to great effect by teachers in the classroom.

            Although many children struggle to listen attentively at times, some children have particular difficulties. ‘If you think your child’s listening is a problem, get their hearing tested in case there’s a medical issue,’ Sue advises. ‘Some children, particularly those who have lots of colds and snuffles, have intermittent hearing loss which can affect listening skills.’

            If you’re still concerned, speak to your child’s teacher. If they have noticed problems too, the school’s special educational needs coordinator (SENCO) might suggest an assessment with a speech and language therapist to see if your child would benefit from extra help.

Q2. In your point of view, what are the five best strategies which you can use to teach pronunciation in your classroom? Keeping those strategies in mind, design two meaningful activities for secondary school students to help them improve their pronunciation.

ENG503 Assignment No.1 Fall 2019

link below

ENG503 Assignment No.1 Fall 2019

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