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ENG506 Assignment No 02 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion Due Date: 29-01-2021

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sir frst of all assignmnt no 1 hy :p


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Eng506 Assignment No.1 2021 solution


Q1. Define the term language planning as given by Brutt-Griffler (2002). List two characteristics of ‘Top down’ and ‘Bottom up’ language policy each. Also, explain five factors which determine the place of a language in language policy (2+4+4+10= 20 Marks)


Language Planning

“Deliberate efforts to influence the behavior of others with respect to the acquisition, structure, or functional allocation of their language codes”

Cooper cited in Brutt-Griffler, 2002

Top down language policy

  • Formulated by authorities (governments, commissions etc.) and imposed on speech communities

Top down language policy

  • Language policy is conceived as a unidirectional process
  • Instruments of social control
  • Tools for the achievement of ideological objectives

Theory of linguistic imperialism

Takes for granted that the colonizing nation possesses the power to impose its will on the subjugated population

Bottom up language policy

  • Speech communities as active contributors to the shaping of the language policy
  • Codetermine the context
  • Seize the initiative from the institutional planners

Bottom up language policy

  • Not a unilateral process
  • Policy is an outcome of interplay between conflicting aims

Language policy

The place of a language in language policy is determined by:

  • Population
  • Prestige
  • Status
  • Functionality
  • Nationalism

Language policy in inner circle countries

  • English is the language of the majority
  • The issues is the role to be given to minority languages
  • Status planning involves different dialects of English

Language policy in outer circle countries

  • Only a minority of population is proficient in English
  • Despite being a minority language, English is powerful

Language policy in outer circle countries

  • Used by the elite
  • Language policy revolves around the role of English
  • The functionality of English is recognized and accepted

Language policy in expanding-circle countries

  • English lacks a strong population base
  • No official status
  • Enjoys a great deal of prestige
  • Has instrumental value

Language policy in expanding-circle countries

  • Used and learned as a foreign language
  • Acceleration in use due to globalization
  • Features prominently in language policy discourse


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