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# GSC101 - General Science Assignment No. 3 Solution and Discussion Spring 2014 of Virtual University (VU) Due Date: July 14, 2014

GSC101 - General Science Assignment No. 3 Solution and Discussion Spring 2014 of Virtual University (VU) Due Date: July 14, 2014

Assignment 3: (Spring 2014)
G. Science (GSC101)
TOTAL MARKS: 30
Due Date: 14/07/2014
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Question. No: 1
What is a functional group? Write the name at least five functional group along with
examples. Marks = 7

Question. No: 2

Discuss with examples the action of chlorine as an oxidizing agent. Marks = 3+2 = 5

Question. No: 3
What is brine? Explain the Photochemical reaction. Marks =2+3+2 = 7

Question. No: 4
Discuss the occurrence of hydrogen in nature? Also write the name of that halogen element
used to kill bacteria in water? Marks = 4

Question. No: 5
We use bakery products in our daily life as shown below. Write the name of compound
which is used as the raising agent in the baking of cakes and bread. Marks = 4
Question. No: 6
What do all these food have in common shown below? Marks = 3

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### Replies to This Discussion

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Question. No: 1

In organic chemistry , functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.  The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.

In organic molecules, the atoms are linked by covalent bonds. Organic molecules are generally large and may be complex, involving many such bonds.  Inorganic compounds have considerably simpler structure in terms of number, but not necessarily type, of bonds.  In organic molecules, to a first approximation, we may say that one bond does not affect another.  Thus an atom such as a chlorine atom, -Cl, or a group of atoms such as the alcohol group, -OH, on one end of a molecule will behave chemically in the same way almost without regard to the molecule to which it is covalently attached.   The idea of different independent or semi-independent atoms or groups of atoms on the same molecule is central to our modern understanding of organic chemistry.  It is called the concept of functional groups.  The nomenclature of organic compounds, like most of the rest of our understanding of reactions of organic compounds, is based upon the concept of functional groups.

Question. No: 3

Brine is a solution of salt and liquid with an extremely high salinity content. It has been used historically in food production as a preservative, since salt inhibits the growth of bacteria. The solution can also be used as a marinade for meats before they are roasted, grilled, smoked, baked, or broiled. Brined meat is more tender and flavorful, as well as moist, and many cooks greatly enjoy experimenting with brining.

A wet brine typically uses water and salt, although other liquids such as fruit juices can be used as well. The salt content should be high enough to float a raw egg. Food can also be dry brined in pure salt, although this technique tends to be used more for preservation than marinating. In addition to salt, the solution can contain an assortment of herbs and spices for flavor.

When used in food preservation, brining is a form of pickling, although pickling can also be accomplished with extremely acidic mixtures. The goal of brining in this case is to preserve food without allowing bacteria to grow. Moist foods may be dry brined, with the salt being used to draw out moisture. This is the case with sauerkraut, which was traditionally made in large barrels packed with salt. Pickled foods tend to be sour and salty, making them excellent condiments.

photochemical reaction, a chemical reaction initiated by the absorption of energy in the form of light. The consequence of molecules’ absorbing light is the creation of transient excited states whose chemical and physical properties differ greatly from the original molecules. These new chemical species can fall apart, change to new structures, combine with each other or other molecules, or transfer electrons, hydrogen atoms, protons, or their electronic excitation energy to other molecules. Excited states are stronger acids and stronger reductants than the original ground states

Question. No: 4

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Nearly nine out of every ten atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms. Hydrogen is also common on the Earth. It is the third most abundant element after oxygenand silicon. About 15 percent of all the atoms found on the Earth are hydrogen atoms.

Hydrogen occurs throughout the universe in two forms. First, it occurs in stars. Stars use hydrogen as a fuel with which to produce energy. The process by which stars use hydrogen is known as fusion. Fusion is the process by which two or more small atoms are pushed together to make one large atom. In most stars, the primary fusion reaction that occurs is:

This equation shows that four hydrogen atoms are squeezed together (fused) to make one helium atom. In this process, enormous amounts of energy are released in the form of heat and light.

Hydrogen also occurs in the "empty" spaces between stars. At one time, scientists thought that this space was really empty, that it contained no atoms of any kind. But, in fact, this interstellar space (space between stars) contains a small number of atoms, most of which are hydrogen atoms. A cubic mile of interstellar space usually contains no more than a handful of hydrogen and other atoms.

Hydrogen occurs on the Earth primarily in the form of water. Every molecule of water (H 2 O) contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Hydrogen is also found in many rocks and minerals. Its abundance is estimated to be about 1,500 parts per million. That makes hydrogen the tenth most abundant element in the Earth's crust.

Hydrogen also occurs to a very small extent in the Earth's atmosphere. Its abundance there is estimated to be about0.000055 percent. Hydrogen is not abundant in the atmosphere because it has such a low density. The Earth's gravity is not able to hold on to hydrogen atoms very well. They float away into outer space very easily. Most of the hydrogen that was once in the atmosphere has now escaped into outer space.

Question. No: 4

The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements. Halogens kill bacteria. Chlorine is added to drinking water at very low concentrations. This kills any harmful bacteria in the water, making it safe to drink. Chlorine is also added to the water in swimming pools.

Baking Powder is used as the raising agent in the baking of cakes and bread

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