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GSC201 Teaching of General Science Assignment No 01 Solution & Discussion Spring 2016

Teaching of General Science (GSC 201)


Assignment 1 (Fall 2016)

Total Marks: 20

(Lecture 1 to 9)                                             


To assess the students’ understanding of the basic concepts of “Teaching of General Science”.

Late assignment will not be accepted.

  • If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be awarded zero.
  • Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and expressing them in your own words will be encouraged.
  • No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
  • The file should be in Word document form, the font color should be preferably black and font size should be 12 Times New Roman.


Q1: How does prior knowledge affect the teaching learning process?                 10 marks

Q2: How can you differentiate between the “Formative assessment and Summative assessment”?                             10 marks

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Teaching of General Science (GSC 201)


Nadia Khan

Q1: How does prior knowledge affect the teaching learning process?

In the process of learning and teaching the learner and teacher both learns from different techniques. In this process the importance of prior knowledge cannot be denied. The prior knowledge has great effects on the process of learning. The teacher can use their prior knowledge to plan a lesson. With the help of their prior knowledge they will plan something different that will not be already in their knowledge. Students can use their prior knowledge to plan new ideas. They can generate new ideas from prior knowledge. Students and teachers can help one another to build new ideas. In planning lessons teachers should must aware of the needs of the student. All the students are not same. Similarly their level of prior knowledge is not same. Students and teachers w Some of these ideas of students are in agreement with scientific views and can act as resources for developing a more extensive and solid understanding of science concepts and their ability to engage in scientific investigations e.g. characteristics of familiar animals and learning about classification of animals into mammals, birds, fish, reptiles etc. But sometimes children’s intuitive understandings contradict scientific explanations and these can pose as an obstacle to science learning. then cooperate with one another the process of learning will be very affective.

Q2: How can you differentiate between the “Formative assessment and Summative


Formative assessment: the goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing feedback that can be used by instructor to improve their teaching and by students to improve their learning. More specifically, formative assessment:

Help students to identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work.
Help faculty recognize where students are struggling and address problems immediately.
Formative assessments are generally low stakes, which means they have low or no point value. For example,

Draw a concept map in the class to represent their understanding of a topic.
Submit one or two sentences identifying the main topic of a lecture.
Summative Assessment: the goal of summative assessment is to evaluate students learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard. Summative assessments are often high stakes, which mean that they have a high point value. Examples of summative assessment include:

A midterm exam
A final project
A paper
A senior recital
Information from summative assessment can be used formatively when students or faculty use it to guide their efforts and activities in subsequent courses.

Q2: How can you differentiate between the “Formative assessment and Summative assessment”? 10 marks

Summative assessment

takes place after the learning has been completed and provides information and feedback that sums up the teaching and learning process. Typically, no more formal learning is taking place at this stage, other than incidental learning which might take place through the completion of projects and assignments

Examples of summative assessment:

v Examinations (major, high-stakes exams)

v Final examination (a truly summative assessment)

v Performances

v Student evaluation of the course (teaching effectiveness)

Instructor self-evaluation
Formative assessment

Formative assessment provides feedback and information during the instructional process, while learning is taking place, and while learning is occurring. Formative assessment measures student progress but it can also assess our own progress as an instructor.

Examples of formative assessment

Observations during in-class activities; of students non-verbal
feedback during lecture

Homework exercises as review for exams and class discussions)
Reflections journals that are reviewed periodically during the

Question and answer sessions, both formal—planned and

Conferences between the instructor and student at various points
in the semester

In-class activities where students informally present their results
Student feedback collected by periodically answering specific
question about the instruction and their self-evaluation of

performance and progress

1: How does prior knowledge affect the teaching learning process? 10 marks

Prior knowledge affects how the learner perceives new information. There is widespread agreement that prior knowledge influences learning, and that learners construct concepts from prior knowledge(Resnick, 1983; Glaserfeld, 1984).

Prior knowledge affects how a student organizes new information. The goal of learning is to incorporate new information into the existing organization of schema. A student uses that existing structure to assimilate new information.

The prior knowledge of students affects their learning therefore educators must keep this in mind when they design a lesson.

Teachers need to be aware of children’s prior or existing ideas, of the learning goals and the nature of the difference between the two when they are planning and teaching so that they can take appropriate steps to bridge the gap. Children develop ideas, based on their everyday experiences, about natural phenomena before they are taught Science in school.



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