The health sector of any country occupies a very crucial position in its well-being. Today, every organization in the corporate sector is trying to cope with the changing demands of time, management, work practices and employee behavior. In such a competitive and demanding scenario, it becomes quite essential for the hospitals and health institutes to take into account the recognized methods and ways to keep their values and performance aligned, to evaluate employee satisfaction with their jobs, to develop a positive and conducive organizational culture, to inculcate healthy emotions and attitudes in the workforce and most of all to lead the organization in a direction determined by its well-thought of goals and objectives.
This report is an endeavor to get an insight into the values, visions, structure, HR practices and Policies and the organizational culture of four different organizations in the health sector. The four organizations Aga Khan University Hospital, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical centre, Fatima Hospital and National Medical Centre, differ in their setup, company profile.
Our report comprises of the individual company profiles of all the four organizations and a detailed comparative analysis of the HR PRACTICES with regard to GUAGING ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR. This analysis helped us identify the ideal practices being followed and which should be modeled by others while it also helped us identify the weaknesses of the system, which might become detrimental to the well-being of the organization.
A copy of the interview questionnaire which we used is attached in the Appendix. The Appendix also contains some other important documents in order to provide authentication to the report.
INDIVIDUAL COMPANY PROFILES
AGA KHAN UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, KARACHI
Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, started operations in 1985, as an integrated, health care delivery component of Aga Khan University (AKU). It is a philanthropic, not-for-profit, private teaching institution committed to providing the best possible options for diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care. AKUH's multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and care ensures a continuum of safe and high-quality care for patients – all services under one roof.
This University Hospital has 545 beds in operation and provides services to over 42,000 hospitalized patients and to over 500,000 outpatients annually with the help of professional staff and facilities that are among the best in the region. Care is available to all patients in need. Those who are unable to pay for treatment, receive assistance through a variety of subsidies and the Hospital's Patient Welfare Programme.
AKUH is the first hospital in Pakistan and among the first few teaching hospitals in the world to be awarded the prestigious Joint Commission International Accreditation (JCIA) for practicing the highest internationally recognized quality standards in health care. Similarly, the Hospital also holds ISO 9001:2000 certification for practicing consistent international standards of quality services.
The Hospital is equipped to diagnose and treat Medical (including Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Haematology, Nephrology, Neurology and Pulmonology), Surgical (Dental, General, Neurosurgery, Ophthalmology, Orthopaedics, Otolaryngology, Urology and Plastic), Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics andPsychiatry patients, and its inpatients have an average length of stay of 3.56 days. The Hospital also provides comprehensive Oncology Services including: Medical and Surgical Management, Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, Brachytherapy and Bone Marrow Transplant.
A total of 545 beds, 119 private and 117 semi-private air-conditioned rooms, 251 general ward beds and 54 critical care beds are available in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Coronary Care Unit (CCU), Coronary Intensive Care Unit (CICU) and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The Hospital has 11 main operating theaters. There are an additional five operating theaters in Surgical Day Care, two in the Community Health Centre, one in Obstetrics and Gynaecology and two mini-theatres in Section of Emergency.
State-of-the-art Pharmacy, Radiology (including nuclear medicine), Laboratory,Cardiopulmonary, Neurophysiology and Rehabilitation services are available at AKUH. A fully equipped Emergency Room is open 24 hours a day with a Triage desk and Fast Track System to ensure prompt medical attention for all patients.
AKUH Laboratory operates over 160 phlebotomy or specimen collection centres in Karachi and all major cities of Pakistan. The Hospital also operates nine off-site medical centres (Integrated Medical Service Units) in various parts of Karachi. Home Physiotherapy and Home Nursing and Health Care Services are also available in almost all areas of the city. These off-site services are a part of AKUH's outreach programme to facilitate public accessibility to quality health care.
ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AND DEPARTMENTS:
The operating regions of AKDN are spread over the three continents of the world.
Aga Khan University Faculty Of Health Sciences (Medical College & School Of Nursing)
Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.
Aga Khan University Institute For Educational Development & Professional Development Centre.
Professional Development Centre, Gilgit & Chitral
Aga Khan University Examination Board
Aga Khan University Faculty Of Arts & Sciences
Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi
Aga Khan University Postgraduate Medical Education Programme
Aga Khan University Advanced Nursing Studies Programme
Aga Khan University-Tanzania Institute of Higher Education Advanced Nursing Studies Programme
Aga Khan Univesity-Tanzania Institute of Higher Education Postgraduate Medical Education Programme
Aga Khan University- Tanzania Institute of Educational Development, Eastern Africa
Aga Khan University Advanced Nursing Studies Programme
Aga Khan University Institute For The Study Of Muslim Civilizations
Aga Khan University School Of Nursing-Ghazanfar Institute Of Health Sciences
Agakhan University Manages The French Medical Institute For Children
Aga Khan University C/O Akdn
Aga Khan University Hospital Representative Office
According to the Progress Report of 2006 the consolidated financial performance of AGA Khan University Hospital was:
Income: (USS In millions)
Hospital revenues 115.1
Tuition fees 4.1
Grants & Donations 23.4
Income from investments/endowments/other 10.0
Other operating expenses 28.3
Construction projects 10.6
Excess / (shortfall) of income over expenditure (3.5)
VISION AND MISSION:
Aga Khan University (AKU) will be an autonomous, international institution of distinction, primarily serving the developing world and Muslim societies in innovative and enduring ways.
AKU is committed to the development of human capacities through the discovery and dissemination of knowledge, and application through service.
It seeks to prepare individuals for constructive and exemplary leadership roles, and shaping public and private policies, through strength in research and excellence in education, all dedicated to providing meaningful contributions to society.
To advance this mission, AKU will:
As an international institution, in achieving its mission, AKU operates on the core principles of
Inspired by Islamic ethics, humanistic ideals and the philosophy of AKDN, the University is committed to building an environment that fosters intellectual freedom, distinction in scholarship, pluralism, compassion, and humanity's collective responsibility for a sustainable physical, social and cultural environment.
PURPOSE AND DIRECTION OF THE ORGANIZATION:
Aga Khan University (AKU) is an academic centre of Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN), a group of development agencies, institutions, and programmes that work primarily in the developing parts of South and Central Asia, Africa and the Middle East. The common goal of the programmes is to create real and lasting improvement in the lives of the poor in ways that lead to self-reliance rather than dependence. To this end, the agencies encourage the communities themselves to identify and plan for their needs, whether it is a community health centre or a national programme for teacher training. AKDN agencies conduct their programmes irrespective of caste, creed or gender.
When appropriate, the agencies take an integrated approach, simultaneous addressing a broad spectrum of development issues in the social, economic and cultural contexts.
AKF focuses on five major areas:
· Rural development
· Civil Society
AKUH has a well-defined structure. Corporate hierarchy is vertical and diversity in terms of culture / ethinicity is being handled fairly through standard plan and policies. The Organogram of the organisation attached in the APPENDIX will give a well-laid out view of the hierarchy.
AKUH is generating new horizons with each passing year. New services like Integrated Health System is being planned and will be in operation soon.
AKUH is a service industry and it is facing challenges in terms of:
Ø To provide high quality care in economy rates which are within the reach of common people of Pakistan
Ø To introduce new technology for health care in Pakistan
The labor demand and supply is fulfilled through prescribed guidelines which include that AKU recruit applicants who are suitably qualified or trainable for employment, in accordance with pre-determined job-related criteria. A Personnel Requisition (PR) is a formal request to hire a staff member and must incorporate all the information required to proceed with the recruitment and selection process. A PR must be submitted to the Recruitment Department, to activate the recruitment process for a job vacancy which needs to be filled. It is the policy of AKU that all decisions regarding selection and hiring of staff are made solely on the basis of job-related criteria. Every effort will be made to place staff members in positions that best utilize their skills and abilities, and in which they will be able to achieve both personal satisfaction and opportunity for growth.
AKU provides extensive learning opportunities to its employee for their professional development to enhance their productivity and quality of work life. For this purpose institution have Centre of English language, ISD and Human Resource Development Department to provide employee with extensive and job related training programmes.
Following trainings are available:
· Customer Relation Trainings
· Personal Development Trainings
· Quality Awareness Trainings
· Management Development Trainings
· Safety Trainings
· Finance Trainings
At AKUH, external audit JCIA (Joint Commission International Accreditation) is due so every person and department is busy in its preparation. Therefore great difficulty was encountered in the interviews as people are very busy these days.
HR department is co-operative but they keep on referring to their website that all information is available over there. Revenue is a confidential subject and 2006 data was provided for interpretation.
Many people in AKUH are not satisfied with the pattern of performance appraisal which according to them is very subjective so HR should review their policies in this regard.
JINNAH POST GRADUATE MEDICAL CENTRE
JPMC, is a government hospital, established over a huge landmass, with Inpatient units being 27 and outpatient units being 21 and special outpatient clinics 21 with total of over thirty-one departments, dealing with every aspect of tertiary medicine. JPMC not only caters to the population of Karachi, but to thousands of poor who travel for miles from Interior Sindh, Hyderabad and border cities of Balochistan, to reach a free medical facility.
JPMC one of the biggest public sector hospitals in the country accommodating around 1200 beds. Doctors here see about 2,400 patients daily. According to official sources, around one million out-patient department (OPD) cases are reported in the hospital every year, besides 30,000 minor and major operations. Moreover, the Emergency and Accident Department of the hospital deals with around 0.2 million cases while there are about 12,000 cases related to gynecology reported here. JPMC comes under the attached departments of health ministry.
Government of Pakistan gives an annual grant-in-aid to the Institute but the bulk of its budgetary provisions are met with from its endowment funds, private donations and the revenue earned from paying patients. The bulk of work done at the Institute is either totally free or heavily subsidized.
The general direction and administration of the affairs of the Institute are vested in a Governing Body headed by the Federal Minister of health, Government of Pakistan. The Executive Director is the Secretary of the Governing Body and Chief Executive Officer of the Institute. The Executive Director is also the Chairman of the Academic Faculty.
The Ministry of Health is responsible for matters concerning National Planning and Coordination in the field of Health. International Liaison, legislation pertaining to the drugs and medicines, administration of drugs Act 1976. Among major nursing, dental, pharmaceutical, Para-medical and allied subject such as maintenance of educational standard, education abroad, educational facilities for backward areas and for foreign nationals except the nomination of candidates from the FATA for admission to Medical Colleges. Ministry of Health consists of one division; Health Division.
The history of JPMC goes back to 1930s. In 1938, a small 80 beds MEDICAL CORPS HOSPITAL was built in the outskirts of Karachi. In 1942, it renamed as RAF BASE HOSPITAL NUMBER 10. In 1948, was named as Pakistan Central Hospital. In 1949 it was renamed as Jinnah Central Hospital. In 1949 the SCHOOL OF NURSING was established. In 1952 DOW MEDICAL COLLEGE Karachi was attached to Jinnah Central Hospital. In 1956 the COLLEGE OF NURSING was established. In 1957 SCHOOL OF PHYSIOTHERAPY AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY were established. In 1958 BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCES INSTITUTE was established. In 1962 Atomic Energy Medical Centre was established. In 1968 Pakistan Medical Research Council (PMRC) was established. In 1978 Cardiology Department of JPMC was shifted to new premises as National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD) and awarded autonomous status. In 1990 National Institute of Child Health (NICH) was designated as a separate department under Federal Ministry of Health. In 2000 Institute of Paramedical Technology was established.
FORMATION AND SETUP DETAILS:
Federal Govt. Officers’ Ward
Thoracic Medicine Ward-12
Thoracic Medicine Ward-13
Medical Intensive Care Ward-23
Federal Govt. Employees’ Clinic
b. X- ray services
· Intra operative dental
· C.T Scanner
· Diagnostic Ultrasound
· Medical Radioisotope Scanning
· Neuromuscular Investigations
· Evoked Potential Studies
As already mentioned that JPMC is a federal government hospital running under the rules of Governmental policies funded by government and NGO’s ,and comes under a not for profit organizations charging only 5 Rs. / patient for OPD.
VISION AND MISSION (Health Policy of the Government):
The vision of the National Health Policy is to improve the health and quality of life of all Pakistanis, particularly women and children, through access to essential health services
The goal of the national health policy is to remove barriers to access to affordable, essential health services for every Pakistani
To achieve the above stated goal of removal of barriers to essential health services, the Government of Pakistan adopts the following six Policy Objectives to reform and strengthen critical aspects of its health systems to enable it to:
1. Provide and Deliver a basic package of quality Essential Health Care Services
2. Develop and manage competent and committed health care providers
3. Generate reliable health information to manage and evaluate health services
4. Adopt appropriate health technology to deliver quality services
5. Finance the costs of providing basic health care to all Pakistanis
6. Reform the Health Administration to make it accountable to the public
The structure of the organization is vertical head being the minister of health. Mir Aijaz Hussain Jakhrani (Minister for Health) followed by Dr. Mahreen Razaque Bhutto (Parliamentary Secretary Health)and then Mr. Khushnood Akhtar Lashari (Secretary Health).Director of JPMC is Dr Mussarat Hassan.
However organizational employment is based on quota system as per governmental rules. Organization faces ethical and cultural issues not only from employees side but from patients side as well .there are unions within the the organizations Based on their religion and provincial or on ethnicity basis .issues are faced in the consequences of boycotts and strikes and even hospital services shut down in such instances the objectives and purpose of the organization is not served.
HIERARCHY OF JPMC AFTER MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT AND PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT:
The top executives were not available in the office timings. The personnel were hiding the facts regarding the Health facilities available. The people were either not co-operative at all and those who were, were overloaded with work. The Human resource department was very poor. All in all it was a big infrastructure with disorganization.
Fatima hospital is one of the constituent institutions under the umbrella of Baqai Foundation. It was started in 1976 as a Rural Medical Center and later progress to the hospital. The founders of Baqai foundation are Dr.Fareed Uddin Baqai and Dr.Zahida Baqai.
The Hospital is comprised of all major subspecialties including Pediatrics, Medicine, surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, ENT, Ophthalmology, Psychiatry, Orthopedics and Plastic Surgery.
Institute of Hematology provides a comprehensive pathology unit under Institute of Pathology in addition to specialized Hematology services the diagnostic services are available round the clock that includes Radiology.
The services are provided free of charge including food. Under faculty of Medicine the services are available round the clock. The teaching program at Fatima Hospital has been designed to meet all the requirements laid by Pakistan Medical and Dental Council Clinical. Daily rounds, morning meetings, case presentations and group discussions are regular features of the training.
· To provide quality education comparable to international standards to its students so that they can acquire the state of art knowledge of subjects for which they otherwise would have to go abroad to internationally known seats of learning.
· To provide educational programs in accordance with the actual needs of the society both in Pakistan and in the neighboring world.
· To develop a wholesome and broad based personality of its students inculcating in them a sense of moral and social responsibility.
To achieve the above objectives, the admission to Baqai Medical University are controlled strictly, Merit is the only criterion for admission. No quotas, reserve seats or donation seats are allowed for seeking admission to the University. Entrance tests, interviews and scholastic records are important constituents of determining the merit of a student.
Baqai Medical University ensures a highly qualified faculty keeping in view the international academic standards. The university has a permanent continuing education program through its Centre for Medical Education. University as an incentive also provides subsidies and scholarships for the teaching faculty as an encouragement to go abroad for higher education, professional seminars and conferences. An intensive evaluation program constantly provides a criterion for the faculty to prove its worth.
Baqai Medical University also keeps in view the normative needs of the society. Provisions of inter disciplinary courses and practical involvement of faculty and students in community work ensures an overall and altruistic development of the personality of a university graduate.
INSTITUTIONS UNDER BAQAI FOUNDATION:
The major problem faced during the collection of the data is that the hospital and university is in the process of development to compete with other institutions so many things are not the way they should be. They are planning to develop systematic processing, policies and procedures.
They are working especially on HR policies to have better ways of selecting the staff. The organization has to work on data processes. It was very difficult to identify the person and collect data. This is why it is recommended that the organization is in dire need of having well-chalked out policies and methods which can better reflect the working of the organization.
NATIONAL MEDICAL CENTER
National Medical Center is a private hospital established in 2000, founded by Mr. Arif Dosslani, Mr. Asif Dosslani, Dr. Sulman Qureshi and Dr. Parveen Malik.
The National Medical Centre is fully equipped with the latest technology to make it a benchmark hospital in healthcare standards. A multi-specialty medical centre, it takes a holistic approach towards healthcare. The outpatient clinics provide preventive.
VISION AND MISSION:
To provide state of the art, high quality and cost effective healthcare services and latest information to improve and maintain health for the well-being of the community.
To elevate the sufferings of fellow men and/or women and to provide every facility under one roof.
Mr.Asif Dosslani (Managing Director)
Dr. Parveen Malik (Medical Director)
Dr,Arif Dosslani (Finance Director)
Dr.Suleman Qureshi (Director)
Dr.Omar Jung (Administrator)
Mr Qazi Adnan Saleem (Human Resource Manager)
Department Incharges: Doctor –Patient Mgt
In House Catering
Staff Nurses Incharge
Laboratory and Blood Bank (24 hours)
Cardiac Emergency and Day Care Unit
Intensive Care Unit
Critical Care Unit
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Pharmacy (24 hours)
Our Patient Department (OPD)
· A 100-bed acute care unit for medical, surgical, cardiac, neuroscience, paediatric, neonatal,
trauma and acute emergency and high dependency units.
· A state-of-the-art dialysis unit with technologically advanced dialysis equipment and reverse
osmosis (RO) plant.
· A dedicated birthing suite with two labour deliveries recover postpartum (LDRP) suites vast
array of minimal invasive surgery technique.
The National Medical Centre is committed to provide the highest level of comfort and care to the patients. The hospital will have wards to fit every patient's bill. Patients can choose from five types of in-patient rooms:
State-of-the-art diagnostic services
· Coronary and peripheral angiography
HR POLICIES AND PRACTICES:
The routine and duties of the staff are very well-defined and specific. Since it is a private hospital, Professionalism at its best is expected. The staff members have to manage a highly professional, supportive and helpful attitude with the patients. They are accountable and answerable for any mis-handling of any task or negative attitude towards the patients. Complaints are documented and actions are taken accordingly. The staff members are also monitored by the incharges or Departmental heads, and the HR personnel.
All the employees have a general idea about the salary structures of the different levels. However, everyone does not know the specific pay structure. Moreover, since already the employees are getting good salaries fairly equated to their duties that’s why people are not bothered about it.
The management is very much accommodating regarding the needs of the workforce. The division of duties is fair and most of all, the administrator keeps a strict check of the targets being accomplished or not. This is why employees generally don’t cut corners to meet the targets and deadlines.
All in all, the organisation is considered to be a well-equipped, technically sound organization with a positive culture and fair work practices, serving dedicatedly not only to the patients but efficiently managing its workforce as well.
Although the HR department was quite cooperative and so was the RMO in charge Dr.Zubair.It was observed that the policies are not as black and white. There was an apprehension in answering the questions and meeting the administrator Dr.Omar Jung was not possible.
The appraisal of the employees is done in a transparent, formal and systematic method, whereas it was seen that on the contrary there was no process of gauging employee attitude or job satisfaction. We would like to suggest that the hospital administration should have Attitude Surveys which should be periodically conducted then relying on no complain means no problem. Solution to all problems is not always finances. There should be some form of welfare or counseling officer who can help resolve various other issues and problems that the staff faces.
GAUGING BEHAVIOR IN FOUR ORGANISATIONS; A COMPARISON
MEASUREMENT OF JOB SATISFACTION:
AKUH: AKUH has a well established standard for measuring employee’s job satisfaction. Its done through a job satisfaction survey being conducted by the HR division every year and its report is issued annually and also through the annual turnover rate.
BAQAI: There are no policies to measure employee job satisfaction. All conflicts are reported to the Medical Superintendent and resolved by negotiation and mutual understanding.
JPMC: There are no actual policies for measuring job attitude and satisfaction. However in situations of conflict as already mentioned hierarchy tries to solve their problem by negotiating with them.
NMC: There is no particular way of measuring job satisfaction among the employees. The incharges evaluate the attitudes of their subordinates through monitoring their overt behaviors, sometimes by managing their problems and the quantity of their grievances or complaints. In case of no complaints, it is considered that the employees are satisfied.
ABSENTEISM AND TURNOVER:
AKUH: In AKUH, the HR division has made plan and policies to cater the issues of absteeinism and turnover. Absteeinism is more common in non-management staff than the management and faculty. To overcome this issue, staff is provided with certain incentives like for example employees who belong to different religions are allowed to take holiday on their religious occasions like Dewali, Easter etc and they can take their salaries in advance. Salary in advance can also be procured in the following situations: (a) if an employee is proceeding on earned, maternity or study leave, travelling on official business, getting married; (b) if there is a death in the employee's immediate family.
BAQAI: Daily attendance is maintained by the department staff and reported to the HR department. The turnover rate is high in paramedic staff because of the opportunities outside the hospital and country.
JPMC: By giving them warning letters and salary deductions.
NMC: The HR personnel keep a strict measure of the daily attendance, arrival and departure times. Everyone, including the senior management is accountable for it, expect for the Administrator and the Managing Director. Pay roll of the employees depends on the time recording machine. The HR personnel is authorized to deduct one day salary on three late arrivals.
Turnover rate is quite high in Paramedical staff due to high salaries and great demand abroad. Turnover in doctors is also high since their working period at NMC is not recognized for their post-graduate training.
AKUH: The staff performance appraisal system at AKU is one of the most critical processes of the University’s overall performance management system, and is both an evaluative and a developmental process which focuses on achieving the University’s goals through its people and their development. Accordingly, the annual salary increase for a staff member will be based on his/ her performance appraisal for the year, and training needs identified during the performance
appraisal will focus on his / her performance improvement and competency development with a focus on the University’s needs.
In order to appropriately identify and recognize the high performers in a department, the department head will ensure that the performance assessment of their staff is in conformity with the suggested performance category distribution guide which would normally be as follows:
ü Marginal / Fair
ü Unsatisfactory (for non-management staff)
BAQAI: There is no systematic way of evaluation, every employee is evaluated by the head of the department and salary increment on basic salary is 10% yearly.
JPMC: Most of the appraisals depend on government announcements but there is an annual pay increment on basic salary from 10- 20%. Designation appraisal also depends on provincial governmental policies, seniority and educational back ground.
NMC: Three monthly performance appraisal; appraisal form has been formally designed by the HR department.
COPING WITH “TEMPORARINESS”:
AKUH: AKUH is coping well with temporiness. They have state-of-the art clinical and research laboratories that are well equipped with the latest technologiesof the world. AKUH has a capability to adapt with the ongoing technological advancement in the field of medicine. Its doctors and nurses conduct research at the cutting edge of a variety of disciplines such as The Lancet and the New England Journal of Medicine.Increasingly, the expertise of its staff and faculty are sought after by governments and research institutions in many countries.
BAQAI: No data available
JPMC: JPMC comes under Federal Government. Government Funding enables JPMC to fight with temporariness. Departments are well equipped with latest technology For example In collaboration with Rangoonwala Trust Radiology Department and Oncology Department have built a building that provide services of CT scan, X-rays ,MRI’s ,Doppler and Ultrasound Facilities with New tech machines in nominal prices. Other departments of medicine, surgery are growing as well.
NMC: The organization is very dynamic and well-equipped with regard to the changing health technological demands. The hospital has state-of-the-art diagnostic services and its own full-fledged laboratory services, which make this hospital, carry out all its operations independently and efficiently.
EMOTIONS AND MOODS:
AKUH: Emotions play a vital role in our work and everyday lives. A well-run organization caters the emotions and moods of their employees in an effective way. Each of us faces a variety of problems in our daily lives. Usually, most of these problems can be worked out by us but sometimes they may become too much to handle on our own. These unresolved issues may begin to affect our; personal happiness, family relations, performance at work, and even physical health. AKUH has developed an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) which can help to understand, resolve and cope with employee’s problems.
Employee Assistance Program provides confidential and professional assistance to help employees resolve problems that affect their personal lives or job performance. Besides being confidential, the program is voluntary - it is designed to allow the employees to seek help on their own. Human Resources Division is responsible for the administration of the program for ensuring that standards of quality and confidentiality are met. The Key Principles of EAP are:
Well qualified and experienced staff will run EAP
EAP is offered free of charge to all users. Qualified Counselors having expertise in the related field provide counseling services to the users. The Program deals with the kind of problems that affect an employee's personal well-being and his/her ability to perform on the job. Skill Development or Job performance related issues would not be handled by EAP. Supervisors will continue on the job coaching and training.
The EAP can help with the two broad categories: personal issues and work related issues:
(which tend to have impact on work performance)
- Anxiety and depression
- Non work related stress
- Loss or grief
- Suicidal thoughts or behaviors
- Post trauma stress reactions
- Social skills deficit,
- Self esteem
- Health problems
WORK RELATED ISSUES:
- Behavioral issues
- Severe stress
- Reaction related to work
- Career issues
- Conflicts with supervisors
- Conflicts with peers
BAQAI: No data available
JPMC: JPMC is an institute where employees come from all over Pakistan Belonging to different Provinces ,ethnicities and Religions as well .So obviously there are chances of conflicts ( personal and Organizational) and emotions as well, because Organizations are not emotion free. Emotions are there. They cannot be eliminated. There are unions involved or student parties are involved to handle emotions of employees, students and doctors as well.
NMC: The emotions and moods of the employees are generally handled by the incharges. Counseling is provided according to their complaints and grievances.
AKUH: There are many examples in which executives set remarkable examples so that they could be followed by others as well. For example if any one has to take lunch he / she has to stand in the queue irrespective of their designation. This culture was set by the former President of AKUH and it’s still followed. Another example is when AKUH management decided to reuse the used envelopes, it was first adopted by the President office. Like this there are several examples that proves that AKUH believes in equality at all levels.
BAQAI: The organization comprises of many faculties and institutions. The founders of Baqai are source of inspiration as they work day and night for the development of the organization. They provide guidance to work effectively.
JPMC: Yes, despite of limited resources, Executives lead by setting examples. For instance, Head of Department Ophthalmology, Dr Tariq Aziz runs his own NGO for the patients of cataracts and eye diseases, operating them under expenses of his NGO, charging nothing to patients. Blood bank conducts campaigns for free blood donations. Dr Seemi, Incharge of Accident of Emergency Department, ensures her department services by being available in the department and in cases of emergency, arranges extra work force of doctors and paramedical staff as well .She goes out of her way to handle such emergency situations.
NMC: The executives in the organization lead by example. For instance, the Administrator and the senior management also overstay in acute circumstances. The junior staff and doctors are not alone to be held responsible for extreme conditions. This helps the administration set an example of dedication and fairness for the whole organization.
AKUH: Since AKUH is a vast organization comprising of several departments and units, there is not a specific method of identifying issues down the line. Mostly line managers identify the issues and than they are resolved through mutual consensus. But different managers have different approaches.
BAQAI: Mostly the issues are reported to head of the department and Medical Superintendent. Conflicts are managed differently according to the situation.
JPMC: There are Paramedical unions , student federations and doctors associations in JPMC who play their part in cases of conflicts even governmental bodies also come into participation when issues are Complicated.
NMC: The organization follows a proper hierarchy for identifying the issues down the line. The doctors or the staff members are supposed to approach their incharge first. If the immediate incharge doesn’t take any step, then the matter can be taken to the HR department and last of all, to the Administrator.
AKUH: AKUH does not have any political influence. All are treated with equal respect. The organization has developed a culture where everyone works together in harmony.
BAQAI: There is no political influence in the organization.
JPMC: Yes 98%
NMC: There are no unions and group affiliations. The organization has a politics free environment.
AKUH: When a new employee joins the organization, he/she under goes through an orientation program made by the HR department as well as their own departments in which employee learns about his/her role and responsibilities. The managers / supervisors take out time to help the new members and guide them about their area of work.
Employees show respect and help each other in achieving the desired goals / targets. AKUH has provided its employees a lot of incentives that make the workplace desirable for their employees.
BAQAI: New employees are supported by the experienced people. Initially they have mentors to supervise and later they work in collaboration.
JPMC: Organizational culture not only for doctors and paramedical staff is learning .The flow of patients makes this organization as a learning asset.
NMC: The experienced members of the organization have a very helpful and supportive attitude towards the juniors and subordinates. They have a positive tendency to listen to each other and are open to suggestions, tips and instructions. There is an open-door policy; people can simply walk in and share their grievances.
The organization has a strict code of conduct for all members of the staff irrespective of their level or post. Misbehavior and ill work practices are seriously discouraged.
A diverse workforce with respect to the culture and ethnicities serves in the organization but a bias free atmosphere is ensured to every member of the workforce. Capabilities and behavior are not judged according to one’s linguistic or ethnic difference. The organization has no well-defined code of conduct with regard to any ethical or cultural issues as yet. However, no issue has been witnessed so far.
On the basis of the comparative analysis of the four hospitals that we visited, we found out that the hospitals differ not only on the basis of their orientation i.e. Private or government, but also in the way, they are handling the work related issues and practices. The only problem which we found similar in all the organizations is the absence of a transparent system for evaluating job performance and employee attitude and satisfaction to and from their jobs respectively.
Managers all over the world are increasingly concerned with changing employee attitudes as it gives them an insight into the problems and issues which might be inhibiting their employees from developing a positive attitude towards work. A positive employee attitude is positively correlated to job satisfaction and thus to high work performance.
Another problematic area in these hospitals was the absence of a transparent appraisal and performance evaluation system. Efficient performance evaluation will help the management make important decisions such as promotions, transfers and terminations. It will help them identigy various needs of their employees such as training and development. And most of all, it will give them a basis for reward allocations. In other words, the management can set a benchmark which needs to be accomplished by the employees in order to attain the reward.
Thus both attitude monitoring and performance evaluation are the multi-faceted factors. Both are quite critical for the sound organizational behavior of a sound organization.