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Executive Summary

Our research started with the state of problem and quick overview of the problem that “why people are still not friendly towards the laser technology being there for the cure of sightedness disorder and technically known as Excimer Laser Surgery.

Overview of the Problem

We are fortunate enough of having encounter with such magnificent technologies which are minimizing al the un-derived situations we were facing with. Among them is the use of Excimer Laser Surgery applied for the cure of eye light problem. Still people don’t seem to be friendly towards this procedure. Fear of harmful effects, gender discouraging attitude of professionals in medicine field, power of glasses plus cost seems to be dominating factor in making this system implementation rather weak.

So through this research we will try to explore that reasons which are contributing to the squeezing share of this technology in market of Eye Sight Cure Methods. Our target population for this aspect is the people facing problem of weak eye sight and our sample size consists of 50 number of respondents.

Our population was unlimited but having the homogenous characteristics, we not only relied upon questionnaire but also conducted face to face indepth interviews from medical professionals, and people who really practiced that technology for the cure of their weakness.

After getting information from questionnaire, and indepth interviews, we analyzed the information gathered. We applied most commonly used statistically technique to prove our hypothesis.

After finding we were able to conclude that what are the key reasons which make the people somewhat shy towards Laser Excimer Surgery.

We have given suggestions for the improvement in this respect which are purely based on the findings we observed and may contribute to the success of this business.

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Chapter 1 : Introduction

Laser therapy has made the treatment of a number of serious ocular diseases much safer and more effective. Actually laser is al light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. It is a system in which different materials are used which increase the energy via electricity. By this process atoms become unstable and release energy in the shape of light. The tissues of eye absorb this light, make its greased which is called Photo Cogolation and ceased the tissues of ‘Safaid Motia’ by removing the convex lens of eye. Convex lens is 0.52m thick which by laser therapy is reduced to the number required for patient’s eye sight visibility.

Uses of Laser Therapy

· “Cala Motia” treatment. It cures Cala Motia which is being done by making a new channel for eye fluid.

· Due to old age or high number, a layer comes before the eye, laser make hole in the layer and avoid its interference in the visibility.

· It sure Safaid Motia too by reducing the thickness of convexity of eye lens.

· Most prevailing application lies with sugar patients who are treated with this surgery.

Laser Excimer Surgery

Actually Laser Excimer is derived from Excited Dimmer, which means that it reduces the ocular convexity by no matter of time and doctors call it a cosmetic surgery.

Laser Excimer Surgery is of our interest as it can be used to cure the sightedness of the eyes. In west the trend towards this technology is substantially increasing as people get rid of glasses or the lenses which are quite bothersome if compared with PRK technology.

Laser Excimer Surgery has got its particularities which must be communicated to its potential customer in details.

· First of all, against glasses or lenses, PRK technology emphasize the need of a particular age for its practice. Actually in young and old age, the number of eye sight tend to fluctuate, so PRK implies that at a stable number, surgery must be practiced. The ideal age for such surgery is 20-25 years.

· As far as cost in concerned it has got two categories.

i) For normal eye patients it can range from Rs. 18,000 —25,000 per eye. Actually the apparatus which is called SVS APEX plus summit needs the approval of food & drugs administration USA thereby costing 2 crores to the practitioners. Then there is no publicly hold apparatus and only private practitioners are using it, so it is their wil that how much to charge with. Plus after the surgery, medicine required to stabilize the eye also costs too much. This is the case in Multan where awareness or attitude towards that surgery is quite hostile, but scenario of upper Punjab is different, where you can make your operation done for full 18,000 rupees for both eyes. Thus the willingness of doctor is much more important in this respect.

ii) For sugar patients, however the cost is substantially low, down to 3,000 – 5,000 rupees per eye.

It is not only costly to the patients but also to the doctors who really are reluctant to invest heavily in a single apparatus and they also have to bear considerable running cost of apparatus.

· This system we don’t say is perfect one but also contains some negative points associated with its implications.

i) It takes 6 months to 1 year to heal up. During this period you have to protect your eye from over enervation, duot, pollution, high illumination and concentrated work load towards eye.

ii) You need to cover the lens of eye with artificial lens for 2 to 3 months of period.

iii) If fortunately operation is not properly done, it makes the lens opaque and cause permanent shadow in the life time for visibility.

It is not ultimate cure rather a cosmetic device for the cure.

Overview of the Problem

Laser Excimer Surgery for the cure of sightedness is available in Pakistan for many years. However, people are still not friendly towards this technology. Although it has done wonders all over the globe, but this mode of cure has not yet been readily accepted by many people. It was hoped that this study would offer some useful knowledge towards this issue.

Statement of Problem

To what extent the variance in people willingness to undergo the laser treatment for the cure of short sightedness is defined by fear of harmful effects, gender, discouraging, attitude of medical professionals and power of glasses.

Preliminary Investigation

We initiated our research by study of secondary data and then done exploratory research with some interviews from doctors & patients. Then we develop the questionnaire of the respondent to see the relationship of our hypothesis with our findings.

The research team interviews some urban citizen as they are the first line aspect of the laser center. These unstructured random interviews with people of Multan were conducted on different occasions.

Usually people especially girls avoided talking about their weak eyes in front of people, however, our team was able to create friendly atmosphere by explaining personal experiences. One of patient we interviewed has had this treatment and before that she was a severe case of myopia. Thus she was a great help in making other feel comfortable while talking about their glasses.

During the course of our unstructured interviews and questionnaire survey afterward, we attempted to surface the overall impression of the people about their sightedness disorder and this new technology Laser Excimer treatment. A brief summary of the results follows:

When we addresses questions concerning wearing glasses, mostly people with minor weakness didn’t seen to care much, some even replied saying. “ we are not bothered about our glasses”.

On the other hand, people with high myopia expressed deep regret about their glasses and talked about the difficulties they had to face from time to time.

Ladies are girls seemed to be more uncomfortable with their glasses than man.

Nearly all the people we talked to expressed fear regarding this treatment. This fear consisted of different misconceptions and mainly lack of knowledge in this area.

Some people said we are afraid lest there should be harmful effect of this technology. When they were asked by our team if they had some personal experience of observations they said no we just think that there must be side effects. Some of them argued that their doctors don’t think that it is reliable. A few people had this misconception that may be this treatment is only for young people. Some other expressed this fear that they would have to be away from their work for many days if they go for this treatment.

Only a small percentage of people who were mostly highly qualified showed interest in this treatment. Some of them told us that they were opting for this treatment very soon. Although some people commented on the cost involved, an interesting finding was that people with high myopia cared least for the expenses even if they belonged to low income group. However, they looked forward to any concession in the treatment fees.

On the basis of this initial inquiry we decided to examine the effect of fear of harmful effects, gender, discouraging attitude of some medical professionals, and power of the glasses on the dependent variable that is willingness for this treatment as these four variables appeared to be important is explaining the willingness for this treatment based on the responses of the people in the unstructured interviews.

Laser Vision Center

The first laser vision center in Punjab is a complete eye hospital situated in model town Lahore. This center is organized with the professional and one party without having professional expertise. One held by Dr. Nadeem and last party comprised of famous cricketers Waqar Younis & Aqib Javed who basically provided the capital.

This privately owned laser center was organized in 1996 and is currently working with 15 workers and 4 highly qualified FRCS professsionls.

In Multan as such, there is not any recognized vision center however 3 doctors are privately working in this respect i.e. Dr. Zafar in Khanewal. A survey made by medical research revealed that about 80-90 people are getting benefits from that technology per month.

Expert View

· Your eye sight is your most cherished possession. (Dr. Shahid 1998)

· Spectacles of that much power don’t enhance my image (Javed Tariq)

· Absolutely no risks at all, laser treatment for correction of visual disorders is now routinely performed in over 400 countries. (Dr. Niaz 1998)

· Over 2 crore people all over the world has been treated by laser technology. But people still have about it. (Pakistan (daily) , 1997)

Research Objective

· What is the laser Excimer Surgery?

· What are the reasons of unwillingness of people towards it?

· What is the role of fear of harmful effects in this regard.?

· Do gender contribute to the problem?

· Do the cost of matters for the patients?

· Have the discouraging attitude of medicine professionals effects the problem?

· If the power of glasses can be said as the reservation on the part of patients.

A review suggests that willingness of people for laser treatment is dependent on power of the glasses & fear of harmful effects.

Theoretical Framework

The variable of primary interests to this research, that is the dependent variable was people’s willingness for laser treatment. Four independent variables were used in an attempt to explain the variance in people’s willingness. These four variables were fear of harmful effects, gender, discouraging attitude of some medical professionals and power of the glasses.

The lesser the fear of harmful effects the greater will be the willingness of the people to opt for this treatment. When people know that they are going to get a complete and harmless treatment, many people will be attached towards it.

Similarly, if the doctor properly guide and encourage their patients, then they will go for this treatment most willingly. Also as the power of glasses increases, people will be more willing because such people want to get rid of their glasses and this act as a strong influence.

Somewhat following the lines of the preceding arguments, gender also has an influence on willingness. Females are generally more willing than males. Mostly women uses lenses and avoid the glasses. With the help of this treatment, they will be able to get rid of the glasses forever, therefore this induces more to opt for this treatment.

On the basis of the above arguments, we theorize that there would be negative correlation between willingness and fear of harmful effects and positive correlation between willingness and each of the following variable; attitude of medical professionals and power of glasses. There is a directional correlation between gender and willingness of people to opt for this treatment.

In this case moderating variable is age and it has a strong contingent effect on independent variable dependent variable relationship. Older people do not care much for opting for this treatment, but youngsters are more conscious about it and therefore willing.

In our research project information is the intervening variable. Information surfaces between the time the independent variables operate to influence the dependent variable and their impact on the dependent variable. Unless the people are duly informed about related aspects, misconceptions cannot be removed.

The theoretical framework is diagrammatically presented as follows

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From the theoretical framework discussed above following are the four hypothesis that were developed.

1) The lesser the fear of harmful effects, greater will be the willingness of people to opt for this treatment.

2) Females will have more willingness for this treatment than males

3) If the doctor properly guide and encourage their patients, then they will opt for this treatment most willingly.

4) The greater the power of the glasses, more willing be the people to opt for this treatment.

Chapter 2 : Research Methodology

Type of Study

One purpose of this research project was to establish the relationship between the independent variables that are fear of harmful effect, gender, attitude of medical professional and power of glasses and the dependent variable of willingness for laser treatment, thus the project was a correlational study.

Nature of Study

Because this research project attempted to analyze the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variable. This suty was analytical in nature.

Study Setting

This was a field study because it examined attitudes and behavior of people in the natural work environment. Variables were neither controlled nor manipulated and no artificial was created for the study.

Time Horizon

The data for research were collected over 15 days period. Because no previous research has been done on this treatment nor was any subsequent extension of the research contemplated, the study was cross sectional in nature.

Unit of Analysis

Because the researcher were interested in ascertaining the degree of willingness, the unit of analysis for this project was individuals having sight problems.

Apparatus

It was a correlational study and survey conducted through personally monitored questionnaires. Also we conducted face to face interviews.

Data Collection Methods

We made a questionnaire, for the respondents who are suffering from eye sight problem or who have gone though the process of Laser Surgery. We also conducted in depth interviews and recorded their responses. The questionnaire is attached at the end.

Sample Design

Target population as above mentioned our target population was the people who have got problem with their eyesight. In this respect we contacted the people in Multan.

Sampling Method

For patients we used convenience sampling and we conducted survey by simply asking questions with experts.

Sample Size

The population for the study comprised people of various age groups Unstructured interviews were conducted using a sample of 10 people and structured questionnaire survey was conducted using a sample of 50 people.

Sample Characteristics

The sample size comprised of 54% women + 46% men.

Variables & Measures

The 13 item questionnaire contained 5 personal information item, age, income group, gender, power of glasses. These were measured by single items. Awareness, knowledge about laser treatment is measured through single item.

Data Analysis

Editing of Data

It became a primary task after getting the information. We done editing of two types.

Field Editing

In this whom we were getting the information from, we checked and corrected responses at the spot when the respondent was filling the questionnaire after that at the end of questioning we edit once again. All responses, because at that time the respondent were present and adjustment to missing answers was easy.

Inhouse Editing

It was done to rectify any mistake and un-complete questions. The question which were missing, responses were filled by us in the light of remaining fixed response.

Data Analysis Methods

Data analysis became quite simple for us as we used SPSS version 7.5. we coded each question and after feeding information we used cross tabulation to get the desired results. We didn’t used any sophisticated model of statistical analysis as such.

Chapter 3: Result of Hypothesis

We used four general hypothesis to make the research productive and they were analyzed by SPSS plus we got graphical depiction of that results as shown in appendix.

Hypothesis 1

1H: Female have more willingness to opt for this laser treatment then that of the male.

The results seems to support our view as among 27 females 15 were interested in the laser treatment, and among 23 males only 9 males are showing concern for laser treatment. At the same time among 24 people who are showing willingness for this 15 are female.

The reasons are quite obvious as

· Doctor’s itself recommend it as cosmetic surgery.

· Females particularly are more beauty conscious.

Thus the professional who are practicing this treatment must capture their market through different means and they are in need to convince the males to opt for such treatment. Results are on the next page.

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Hypothesis 2

H0: The greater the power of glasses, more willing will be people to opt for this treatment

This relation didn’t seems to have any debatable impact as per the results of our research. As the people who are in –2 to –1 number of eye sight, that to some extent showed concern for the treatment but below & upper then are quite interested towards the lenses or may be to the some other mean.

The reason which seams at face of it is that the degree of under correction & over correction exists there, so people may be afraid of getting any risk.

Another possible variable contributing to that phenomenon may be that if your eye sight becomes normalized than it has got a chance to again create disorders. So even doctors are reluctant to recommend this treatment for high eye sight disoder.

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Hypothesis 3

The lesser the fear of harmful effect, greater will be the willingness to go for laser treatment. This hypothesis created a quite indifferent opinion through our research. Actually people who do recognize the harmful impact of the treatment, but still the major factor in hindering the utilization of this treatment can not be contributed to fear of harmful impact of surgery.

Actually in most of the eye disorders, people have to be more then careful to retain the normal condition. So it is the case with Laser Treatment and the evidences didn’t seems to support the idea of much harmful impact as with the modernization, harmful impacts are decreasing. But certainly they didn’t exist and contribute to some extent towards the failure of this technique. Results are on the next page.

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Hypothesis 4

If doctor properly guides & encourage their patients then they will opt for this treatment.

Well this relation seems to be a quite dominating factor in determining the reasons that made the people reluctant of that technology. According to our research the possible explanations are as follows:

· The equipment for the treatment is quite costly. It doesn’t only include initial cost but also require substantial running cost.

· Doctors termed it as money generating tool and those who really want to serve the patient found it an unethical practice.

· The treatment requires most of critical expertise to make the surgery really successful.

· Income tax department is a jear if they opt for this department.

· They thought it as the device in dependent phase.

So, there is something which really bother the doctors as in Multan City not only a single practitioner is working with this technology. Results are on the next page.

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Other Results

Question No. 13

Do you find it costly:

· Very Much (where 0 represent “Very Much”)

· Much (1 represent “Much”)

· Low (2 represent “Low”)

· Very low (3 represent “very low”)

clip_image027[1]

Question 8

clip_image029[1]Did you know about Laser treatment before the questionnaire?

· Yes

· No

Question No.6

Do you want to get rid of your glasses?

· Yes

· clip_image031[1]No

Question No. 7

If ‘YES’ then what option would you select:

· Lens

· Laser Treatment

clip_image033[1]

Conclusion

The study was undertaken with the purpose of finding out the level of general awareness of the new laser technology.

Research reveals that the laser technology is more willingly accepted by the females as compared to males. We also came to the conclusion that attitude of doctors play a very important role in preparing and convincing the people to go for this treatment. Another conclusion that we arrived at, that power of the glasses also played as a determining factor in the willingness of the people for this treatment. More weak will the eyesight greater will be their willingness for this treatment and people seems to be fearful about the harmful effect of the surgery.

Recommendation & Suggestion

· Making the whole process very feasible for people, by reducing monetary cost, energy, and psychic cost of the people would lead to better results. In a developing country like Pakistan Economic incentive create desired results.

· Information should be made more accessible to the people in general electronic and printed media can play a significant role in brining awareness among people, so that people feel comfortable about this technology.

· During the course of our research we came across certain doctors who did not have good feelings about this technology. In order for them to be able to become better informed of the new researchers of medical science, seminars, and medical conferences should be held from the time to time to prepare them to counter the misconception created amongst public.

References

Dr. Tehseen Shah Rehman Complex Multan

Dr. Humayun Qazi Qazi Clinic Multan

Dr. Zafarullah House #3, Nishtar Colony, Multan

Dr. Afzal Bodlah Bodlah Eye care Multan

Eye Vision Centre Model Town Lahore

The NEWS

Questionnaire

Being the student of the Business Administration we are to conduct some research. So we are conducting research on Laser Excimer Surgery which is used to cure the eyesight disorder permanently, though it limits the age. It make the treatment in little and you are free to go to home after surgery very soon.

Name : _______________________

Gender: _______________________

Education : ____________________

Profession : ____________________

1. What is your age:

F 18 years — 25 years

F 26 years — 32 years

F 33 years & above

2. What is the monthly income of you/your family

F Below Rs. 5000

F 6000 — 15000

F 16000 — 20000

F 21000 and above

3. Do you use glasses:

F Yes

F No

4. For how long you are using the glasses:

F less than 6 months

F 6 months — 1 year

F 1 year — 2 years

F More than 2 years

5. What is the number of glasses you wear

_____________________________________

6. Do you want to get rid of your glasses?

F Yes

F No

7. If ‘yes’ then what option would you select

F Lens

F Laser Treatment

8. Did you know about laser treatment before the questionaire

F Yes

F No

9. Do you think that the Laser treatment has got some harmful impact:

F Yes

F No

10. Have you consulted the doctor for the laser treatment

F Yes

F No

11. If ‘yes’ then have the doctor recommended this laser treatment

F Yes

F No

12. If no then what reason is given by your doctor?

______________________________________

13. Do you found it costly:

F Very much

F Much

F Low

F Very Low

Foreword

Thanks to Almighty ALLAH, for giving us the courage to complete this report. We are feeling very much pride with sincere gratitude for the valuable guidance. We have received from our teacher Mr. Liaquat, who has been a constant source of enthusiastic encouragement through research.

We are thankful to the following people for providing necessary information for the completion of this report.

· Dr. Abdul Razzaq

· Dr. Qazi Zafarullah

· Dr. Hummayan Qazi

· Dr. Afzal Bodlah

· Dr. Tehseen Sahi

In the end, it isnot fair to deny the prays of our parents and friends which are always with us.

Authors

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