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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The role and impact of Information Technology (IT) on the human resource functions has been both pervasive and profound. A recent IBM-Towers Perrin study, “Priorities for comparative advantages,” noted that IT can be a potent weapon for lowering administrative costs, increasing productivity, speeding response time, improving decision making, and enhancing customer service. Ultimately, IT can provide data and communications platform that helps HR link and leverage the firm’s human capital to achieve competitive advantage.

Despite the potential benefits of IT, most organizations have a fairly dismal record of turning their investment in technology into increased productivity and strategic capability. Furthermore the overwhelming majority of HR departments have never used their systems for strategic purposes. The problems tend not to be with the availability of IT for HR application. We present our views on how managers can identify, partition, and prioritize IT applications to support their HR initiatives. We describe three basic ways in which IT can impact HR:

First, we discuss the operational impact of IT; that is, alleviating the administrative burden, reducing costs, and improving productivity internal to the HR functions itself. The strong administrative component of HR makes it a logical candidate for automation. Also, because cost reduction and increased productivity have been preeminent goals of HR, the focus of most IT applications have been on the internal operations of HR function itself.

Second, we will describe the relational impact of IT; that is, providing managers and employees access to the HR databases, simultaneously reducing response time, and improving service levels. Whereas in the previous section we focus primarily on the improving internal operations of the HR functions, in this section we concentrate more on how IT influences HR’S relationships with other parties within the organizations. IT allows HR to enhance service to outsiders by providing line managers and employees with access to HR databases, supporting their HR related decisions, and increasing their ability to connect with other parts of the corporations.

Third, we will discuss the transformational impact of IT; that is, organizing human interaction to create virtual teams and more flexible network organizations. Trends toward restructuring, reengineering, outsourcing and strategic alliances all represent efforts by organizations to change the way they do business.

Views: 268

Replies to This Discussion

INTERPRETITION OF QUESTIONNAIRE

NO.OF DEPARTM ENTS

There are 8 departments in ICI at Lahore zone.

PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT

There is separate personnel department in ICI.

USE OF IT IN HR DEPARTMENT

Yes, IT is used in HRD since 10 years. Almost in all areas of this department IT is used up to 100%.

OPERATIONAL IMPACT OF IT ON HRM

There is a great operational impact of IT on HRD. With the use of IT the internal HRD working is improved and it has become more efficient and effective. IT has reduced the administrative burden of HRD. The use of IT has also reduced the administrative cost of the clerical activities of HRD as well as processing time is also reduced. In short, efficiency is increased due to the use of computers, internet, electronic mails and other IT equipments.

RELATIONAL IMPACT OF IT ON HRM

With the use of IT in HRD, the relationships of HR managers with others have been increased. Now, all of the employees have remote access to the HR managers. The use of IT has increased the connectivity of HR managers with the employees within the organization as well as with the concerning outsiders. Now anybody elsewhere can connect the HRD with the help of internet, electronic mails, and faxes without any wastage of time. With the use It equipments. HR managers and other line managers can communicate with each other while sitting in their offices. In short, service level of HRD has been increased due to the use of IT.

EMPLOYEES ACTIVITIES AND CUSTOMER NEEDS

With the use of IT, employees use computers and other IT equipments to provide the services to customers. The policies made by HRD for the employees to deal with the wholesalers and dealers has been improved, the responsive time has been reduced because of the use of e-mails, faxes and on-line transaction facilities.

IT SPECIALISTS

Yes, IT specialists are hired to get the maximum advantage of IT. Because only the IT specialists can use the IT equipment more efficiently and effectively. IT specialists are also necessary because an ordinary employee with little knowledge about computers and other IT equipments is not in position to use different software as well as other computer programs such as spreadsheet, business software, financial software, etc, to their requirement.

TRAINING PROGRAM FOR IT SPECIALISTS

Training program is frequently conducted to improve the knowledge and efficiency of IT users within the organization. We know that there is rapid change in technology with the passage of time; new and new software, computer programs and hardware devices are introduced in the market. Therefore, such training programs are necessary to update the knowledge of IT specialists.

Type of training

On the job training and class room training are given to increase the knowledge and efficiency of IT workers. But in most of the cases, on the job training is used. For the training purpose, the instructors are invited from within the organization or from outside the organization. For special purpose training, instructors are invited outside the organization.

ACCESS TO PERSONAL FILES THROUGH IT

Most of the employees are given the opportunity to access their personal files through IT. The executives have also easy access to their personal files.

ROLE OF IT IN POLICY INITIATION AND FORMULATION

In ICI, HR managers get substantial help of computers and other IT equipments while making the organizational policies. We know that in order to formulate the effective policies effective, accurate and timely information is of vital importance and in this respect IT plays a key role to provide timely and accurate information. As a result, effective and productive and timely policies are made by HRD.

IT AND ADVICE ROLE OF HRD

Yes, there is a great improvement in advice giving role of HRD. Especially with the use of e-mails and faxes, time to give the advice for the solution of any operational and administrative problems have been reduced. Connectivity between HR and line managers have been improved and quick responses are given on the both sides.

USE OF IT IN SERVICE ROLE OF HRD

We know that the numbers of services are provided by the HRD to the whole employees within the organization in different branches located in different cities and towns. With the use IT, the HR managers are in the position to collect the information quickly to perform different services in time.

IT AND CONTROLLING ROLE OF HR

With the use of IT the HRD is in better position to enforce the rules and regulations about the discipline and control which are necessary to run the smooth working of the organization. The use of IT has made it possible to take the quick disciplinary action against the wrongdoers. It has become possible to supervise the subordinates closely and effectively.

IT AND TRANSFER, PROMOTION AND LAYOFF DECISIONS

IT aids a number of benefits in making decisions about the transfer, promotion and layoff. In case of promotion, it helps in evaluating the ACRs (annual character report) of employees. It also helps in evaluating and grading the employee’s performance. In the case of transferring decisions, the managers have very easy access to the records of employees. In case of laying off the employees, the laying off process becomes very easy and quick due to the use of IT. All types of necessary documents are made on a computer that is why, such decisions are made very quickly.

USE OF IT IN TRAINING THE EMPLOYEES

In order to develop the knowledge and skill, computer-based training is given to the employees. Computers are also used in different training programs to cope the rapid change in the business environment. Computers are also used to provide practice to help trainees learn materials such as grammar and basic mathematics. It is also used to develop the problem-solving skills.

IT AND COMPENSATION, BENEFITS AND SERVICES PROGRAMS

With the use of IT, the record of employees is maintained via the computers. On the basis of these computer-based records, managers can make decisions about the different sorts of benefits and services that are given to the employees easily and quickly. Different computers-based programs are used to calculate the salaries, wages, bonuses and other benefits. These programs provide all the necessary information about the each and every employee of the organization in this regard.

For this purpose, Benefits Spreadsheet is used. Companies wants to control benefits cost. One prerequisite is to be fully aware of how much the benefits offered are actually costing the company on an on-going basis. A benefits spreadsheet provides this information.

Format of spreadsheet

The format of spreadsheet is as under.

Employee name

Job code

Pay rate

Department

benefits

         
         

IT AND REDUCTION IN ADMINISTRATIVE BURDEN

Before the use of IT, all the work was done manually which takes the lot of time. It also takes the lot of energy. The chances of mistakes are also very high. But with the use of IT, administrative burden has been reduced. Now with the use of computers and other IT equipments, the routine clerical activities are done more efficiently and effectively. The use of IT has increased the volume of work that can be completed by one person.

IT AND ADMINISTRATIVE COST

It is quite right that while establishing the IT system in the organization, a huge investment is required; but after bearing this high fixed cost the day to day and variable cost has been reduced. with the help of computers and other IT equipments, a lot of work can be completed by a few number of workers within lesser time which is previously done by number of employees.

IT AND INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY

Before the use of IT in the organizations, all the work was done by workers on hand. It takes a lot of time and chances of errors are very high. But with the use of IT, all the work is done with the help of computers. In this case, chances of errors are minimal. It has become possible to accomplish all the operational and administrative tasks efficiently and effectively.

IT AND TIME SAVING

The other benefit of IT is the time saving. With the use of IT, time has been reduced to accomplish the different tasks. It is because before the use of IT, whole of the work was done manually. It took a lot of time. Now, for example, with the use of spreadsheet’ which is used for the tracking records of the employees for the benefits and administrative compensation purposes, there is substantial saving in time.

RECRUITMENT AND IT

Computers are playing bigger and bigger role in helping employers recruiting employees today. Computers applications range from recruiting on the internet to automatically scanning and storing applicants’ resumes. A growing number of firms as well as many universities and federal government are already recruiting using theinternet, World Wide Web and commercial on-line services like CompuServe.

Employers are using Information Technology as an aid in recruiting in various other ways, too. For example, NEC Electronics, Inc., has internet based “Cyber Fairs” to recruit for applicants. The date and the time of the fair, along with detailed job descriptions, are advertised in advance by the employers and by the firms organizing the Cyber Fairs. This advertisement is done by news papers as well as via hart’s World Wide Web page.

In ICI, computers help the HR manger to make the decisions about the recruitment and selection of employees within the organization. Job vacancies with their detailed job descriptions are advertised in newspapers as well as via World Wide Web page.

COMPUTERIZED SKILLS INVENTORIES

When filling positions, knowing the job’s requirements is not enough; you should also know the skills of possible candidates now employed by your firm. Simply posting the opening on a company bulleting board does not guarantee that every employee will see the posting or will interpret the information appropriately. One way to improve the likelihood that qualified internal candidates will be introduced into the selection process is to have computerized skills inventory completed and updated regularly by employees. Then the HRD can help to match good internal applicants with job openings.

Both the development of the inventory content and the updating of inventories require significant input from employees. They must believe in the validity of the content of the inventory, and this will happen only if they participate in the development process. If employees have ready access to computers, the inventory can be developed and updated from their workstations. Otherwise, hardware copy memos should invite all employees to describe themselves in terms of the range of skills to be listed, the standards that differentiate various skills levels, and how skills should be categorized.

Inventories should be regularly updated when an employee has completed a course, seminar, workshop, or assignment that is applicable. When a vacancy occurs, interviewers would specify the parameters of the job based on the job analysis in terms of skills categories and levels. A computer program would then produce a list of employees who qualify according to these parameters.

conclusion

IT has reduced the administrative burden of HRD. The use of IT has also reduced the administrative cost of the clerical activities of HRD as well as processing time is also reduced. In short, efficiency is increased due to the use of computers, internet, electronic mails and other IT equipments.

Now, all of the employees have remote access to the HR managers. The use of IT has increased the connectivity of HR managers with the employees within the organization as well as with the concerning outsiders. Now anybody elsewhere can connect the HRD with the help of internet, electronic mails, and faxes without any wastage of time. With the use of IT, employees use computers and other IT equipments to provide the services to customers. IT specialists are also necessary because an ordinary employee with little knowledge about computers and other IT equipments is not in position to use different software as well as other computer programs such as spreadsheet, business software, financial software, etc, to their requirement.

Training program is frequently conducted to improve the knowledge and efficiency of IT users within the organization. For special purpose training, instructors are invited outside the organization.

In ICI, HR managers get substantial help of computers and other IT equipments while making the organizational policies. As a result, effective and productive and timely policies are made by HRD. It also helps in evaluating and grading the employee’s performance. In the case of transferring decisions, the managers have very easy access to the records of employees. Computers are also used in different training programs to cope the rapid change in the business environment. With the use of IT, the record of employees is maintained via the computers. On the basis of these computer-based records, managers can make decisions about the different sorts of benefits and services that are given to the employees easily and quickly. Companies wants to control benefits cost. A benefits spreadsheet provides this information.

with the help of computers and other IT equipments, a lot of work can be completed by a few number of workers within lesser time which is previously done by number of employees.

The other benefit of IT is the time saving. It took a lot of time. Computers are playing bigger and bigger role in helping employers recruiting employees today. In ICI, computers help the HR manger to make the decisions about the recruitment and selection of employees within the organization. Job vacancies with their detailed job descriptions are advertised in newspapers as well as via World Wide Web page.

One way to improve the likelihood that qualified internal candidates will be introduced into the selection process is to have computerized skills inventory completed and updated regularly by employees. Then the HRD can help to match good internal applicants with job openings.

Both the development of the inventory content and the updating of inventories require significant input from employees. If employees have ready access to computers, the inventory can be developed and updated from their workstations. A computer program would then produce a list of employees who qualify according to these parameters.

KASB

( Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari)

Bank

Old name

The old name of KASB bank was Platinum Commercial Bank.

Head Office:


Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari & Company Limited 
6th Floor, Trade Centre 
I.I. Chundrigar Road 
Karachi 
Tel: 9221-111222000, 2635501-10 Lines 
Fax: 111222001, 2630202

Methodology

The Retail Desk team provides a personalized service through one of the markets most trusted brokerage team. Our services extend beyond traditional brokerage to cover: 
• You will be on our mailing list receiving our daily, weekly and speciality research publications.

• Our research group will advise you of pertinent issues such as economic trends and market directions.

• Our Investment Advisory Group will be readily available to you to discuss with you your risk reward parameters and investment options.

Our Philosophy

The customer is our priority. High return with balanced risk is the goal. KASB are known for their value driven approach. Our vision is backed by a Total Quality approach, which has been independently certified to ISO 9002 by a leading UK registrar.

We are the First in the Market for :

• Research 
• Risk sensitivity 
• Conservative approach 
• Prompt service 
• Competitive rates

Additional Services and Support

We hold on your behalf all securities in the CDC in your sub account.  All non CDC  securities will be held in the custody of KASB. A fee of 0.5% per annum of the market value of the securities will be charged to you on quarterly basis calculated on the actual number of days that these securities have been held by KASB. At your request, KASB can transfer securities to your name. KASB will receive payments on your behalf and can provide related support if required.

KASB's Research Group is regarded both domestically and internationally as the premier source for market news and analysis. In recognition of the high quality of its research, Merrill Lynch the world's premier investment banker, has entered into a technical agreement with KASB, wherein Merrill Lynch/KASB joint research is distributed by Merrill Lynch internationally to its global client base. The Research Group at KASB is dedicated to providing up-to-date and in-depth analysis, from which our clients can gain a deeper understanding of issues, which affect their investment

decisions. Our basic aim is to ensure that all our analysis is credible and objective, backed up with fundamental information. The publications coming out of the Research Group are on a daily and weekly basis. These publications seek to highlight news and analysis in macroeconomic trends, political trends, market trends, sector trends and company reviews. KASB publications also address key events and in-depth company reports.

Product

High Yield Cash Management Programs (HYCMP).

Objective

Conservative exposure but enhanced return over and above normal bank returns of short maturities.

Product Definition

The product line of HYCMP is structured to enable conservative category of investors, both small and large to invest their idle/surplus

cash and earn above market tax free return through stock market carry over activity avoiding market volatility.

PRODUCT LINE

Investment Advisory Group of KASB offers a series of HYCMP: 
• Series A : maturity 1 month, 4 weeks 
• Series B : maturity 2 months, 8 weeks 
• Series C : maturity 3 month, 12 weeks

FEES

Fees are calcualted on the basis of the maturity of the product line of the HYCMP 
• Series A: 2.5% 
• Series B: 2.0% 
• Series C: 1.5%

GUARANTEE

Investment Advisory Group of KASB neither guarantees the principle nor the return of the investment in any units of HYCMP.

STRATEGY

HYCMP is conducted through active participation with a degree of risk management in the Carry over activity of Karachi Stock Exchange. For the awareness and knowledge of the investors, a document titled "Concept of Carry over" is enclosed. It canf also be obtained from Investment Advisory Group of KASB.

INVESTMENT

On the first Friday after receipt of subscription amount, commitment for investment will be made and funds utilized commencing on the following Wednesday.

Carry over activity takes place, unless otherwise notified by KSE, every Friday between 4:30 to 6:30 in the evening. Commitment for purchase on present settlement & sale on next settlement are formalized through rules and regulations of KSE.

For series with maturity of 1 month, 2 months and 3 months, investment will be redeemed after 5 weeks, 9 weeks and 13 weeks respectively.

INTERPRETITION OF QUESTIONNAIRE

PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT

There is separate personnel department in KASB bank.

USE OF IT IN HR DEPARTMENT

IT is used in HRD since the inception of bank.

OPERATIONAL IMPACT OF IT ON HRM

There is a great operational impact of IT on HRD. IT has reduced the administrative burden of HRD. The use of IT has also reduced the administrative cost of the clerical activities of HRD as well as processing time is also reduced.

RELATIONAL IMPACT OF IT ON HRM

With the use of IT in HRD, the relationships of HR managers with others have been increased. Now, all of the employees have remote access to the HR managers. Now anybody elsewhere can connect the HRD with the help of internet, electronic mails, and faxes without any wastage of time. HR managers and other line managers can communicate with each other while sitting in their offices.

EMPLOYEES ACTIVITIES AND CUSTOMER NEEDS

KASB bank is providing on-line services. It uses all types of IT equipments. In this way, KASB bank is in a position to align employees’ activities with customers needs. As a result, services are provided within time and the responsive time to deal the clients is reduced due the use of computers. Only by giving the key words of the customer to the computer, whole of the accounts information of the customers is in front within a few seconds.

IT SPECIALISTS

Yes, IT specialists are hired to get the maximum advantage of IT. Because only the IT specialists can use the IT equipment more efficiently and effectively. IT specialists are also necessary because an ordinary employee with little knowledge about computers and other IT equipments is not in position to use different software as well as other computer programs such as spreadsheet, business software, financial software, etc, to their requirement.

TRAINING PROGRAM FOR IT SPECIALISTS

Training program is frequently conducted to improve the knowledge and efficiency of IT users within the organization. We know that there is rapid change in technology with the passage of time; new and new software, computer programs and hardware devices are introduced in the market. Therefore, such training programs are necessary to update the knowledge of IT specialists.

Type of training

On the job training is given to increase the knowledge and efficiency of IT workers. But in most of the cases, on the job training is used. For the training purpose, the instructors are invited from within the organization or from outside the organization. For special purpose training, instructors are invited outside the organization.

ACCESS TO PERSONAL FILES THROUGH IT

Employees have no easy access to their personal files because most of the employees have no knowledge how to use computers. They are not in a position to have easy access to their files due to the complex procedure of accessing the files. But certain employees such as executives have easy access to their personal files.

ROLE OF IT IN POLICY INITIATION AND FORMULATION

We know that in order to formulate the effective policies effective, accurate and timely information is of vital importance and in this respect IT plays a key role to provide timely and accurate information. As a result, effective and productive and timely policies are made by HRD.

IT AND ADVICE ROLE OF HRD

Yes, there is a great improvement in advice giving role of HRD. Especially with the use of e-mails and faxes, time to give the advice for the solution of any operational and administrative problems have been reduced. Connectivity between HR and line managers have been improved and quick responses are given on the both sides.

USE OF IT IN SERVICE ROLE OF HRD

We know that the numbers of services are provided by the HRD to the whole employees within the organization in different branches located in different cities and towns. With the use IT, the HR managers are in the position to collect the information quickly to perform different services in time.

IT AND CONTROLLING ROLE OF HR

With the use of IT the HRD is in better position to enforce the rules and regulations about the discipline and control which are necessary to run the smooth working of the organization.

IT AND TRANSFER, PROMOTION AND LAYOFF DECISIONS

IT aids a number of benefits in making decisions about the transfer, promotion and layoff. In case of promotion, it helps in evaluating the ACRs (annual character report) of employees. It also helps in evaluating and grading the employee’s performance. In the case of transferring decisions, the managers have very easy access to the records of employees. In case of laying off the employees, the laying off process becomes very easy and quick due to the use of IT. All types of necessary documents are made on a computer that is why, such decisions are made very quickly.

USE OF IT IN TRAINING THE EMPLOYEES

In order to develop the knowledge and skill, computer-based training is given to the employees. Computers are also used in different training programs to cope the rapid change in the business environment. Computers are also used to provide practice to help trainees learn materials such as grammar and basic mathematics. It is also used to develop the problem-solving skills.

IT AND COMPENSATION, BENEFITS AND SERVICES PROGRAMS

On the basis of these computer-based records, managers can make decisions about the different sorts of benefits and services that are given to the employees easily and quickly. Different computers-based programs are used to calculate the salaries, wages, bonuses and other benefits. These programs provide all the necessary information about the each and every employee of the organization in this regard.

Companies wants to control benefits cost. A benefits spreadsheet provides this information.

IT AND REDUCTION IN ADMINISTRATIVE BURDEN

Before the use of IT, all the work was done manually which takes the lot of time. It also takes the lot of energy. The chances of mistakes are also very high. But with the use of IT, administrative burden has been reduced. Now with the use of computers and other IT equipments, the routine clerical activities are done more efficiently and effectively. The use of IT has increased the volume of work that can be completed by one person.

IT AND ADMINISTRATIVE COST

It is quite right that while establishing the IT system in the organization, a huge investment is required; but after bearing this high fixed cost the day to day and variable cost has been reduced. With the help of computers and other IT equipments, a lot of work can be completed by a few numbers of workers within lesser time which is previously done by number of employees.

IT AND INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY

Before the use of IT in the organizations, all the work was done by workers on hand. It takes a lot of time and chances of errors are very high. But with the use of IT, all the work is done with the help of computers. In this case, chances of errors are minimal. It has become possible to accomplish all the operational and administrative tasks efficiently and effectively.

IT AND TIME SAVING

With the use of IT, time has been reduced to accomplish the different tasks. It is because before the use of IT, whole of the work was done manually. It took a lot of time. Now, for example, with the use of spreadsheet’ which is used for the tracking records of the employees for the benefits and administrative compensation purposes, there is substantial saving in time.

RECRUITMENT AND IT

Computers are playing bigger and bigger role in helping employers recruiting employees today. Computers applications range from recruiting on the internet to automatically scanning and storing applicants’ resumes. A growing number of firms as well as many universities and federal government are already recruiting using theinternet, World Wide Web and commercial on-line services like CompuServe.

Employers are using Information Technology as an aid in recruiting in various other ways, too. For example, NEC Electronics, Inc., has internet based “Cyber Fairs” to recruit for applicants. The date and the time of the fair, along with detailed job descriptions, are advertised in advance by the employers and by the firms organizing the Cyber Fairs. This advertisement is done by news papers as well as via hart’s World Wide Web page.

Computers help the HR manger to make the decisions about the recruitment and selection of employees within the organization. Job vacancies with their detailed job descriptions are advertised in newspapers as well as via World Wide Web page.

COMPUTERIZED SKILLS INVENTORIES

One way to improve the likelihood that qualified internal candidates will be introduced into the selection process is to have computerized skills inventory completed and updated regularly by employees. Both the development of the inventory content and the updating of inventories require significant input from employees. If employees have ready access to computers, the inventory can be developed and updated from their workstations. Otherwise, hardware copy memos should invite all employees to describe themselves in terms of the range of skills to be listed, the standards that differentiate various skills levels, and how skills should be categorized.

When a vacancy occurs, interviewers would specify the parameters of the job based on the job analysis in terms of skills categories and levels.

conclusion

IT has reduced the administrative burden of HRD. The use of IT has also reduced the administrative cost of the clerical activities of HRD as well as processing time is also reduced. Now, all of the employees have remote access to the HR managers. KASB bank is providing on-line services. As a result, services are provided within time and the responsive time to deal the clients is reduced due the use of computers. IT specialists are also necessary because an ordinary employee with little knowledge about computers and other IT equipments is not in position to use different software as well as other computer programs such as spreadsheet, business software, financial software, etc, to their requirement.

Training program is frequently conducted to improve the knowledge and efficiency of IT users within the organization. For special purpose training, instructors are invited outside the organization. Employees have no easy access to their personal files because most of the employees have no knowledge how to use computers. With the use IT, the HR managers are in the position to collect the information quickly to perform different services in time.

It also helps in evaluating and grading the employee’s performance. In the case of transferring decisions, the managers have very easy access to the records of employees. In order to develop the knowledge and skill, computer-based training is given to the employees. Companies wants to control benefits cost. A benefits spreadsheet provides this information.

With the help of computers and other IT equipments, a lot of work can be completed by a few numbers of workers within lesser time which is previously done by number of employees.

It took a lot of time. Computers are playing bigger and bigger role in helping employers recruiting employees today. Computers applications range from recruiting on the internet to automatically scanning and storing applicants’ resumes. Computers help the HR manger to make the decisions about the recruitment and selection of employees within the organization. Job vacancies with their detailed job descriptions are advertised in newspapers as well as via World Wide Web page.

If employees have ready access to computers, the inventory can be developed and updated from their workstations.

Comparison among the three companies

Role of IT in:

STATE LIFE

ICI

KASB

PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT

Yes

Yes

Yes

USE OF IT IN HR DEPARTMENT

Yes

Yes

Yes

OPERATIONAL IMPACT

Yes

Yes

Yes

RELATIONAL IMPACT

Yes

Yes

Yes

IT SPECIALISTS

Yes

Yes

Yes

TRAINING PROGRAM FOR IT SPECIALISTS

Yes

Yes

No

TYPE OF TRAINING

ON THE JOB & CLASS ROOM

ON THE JOB & CLASS ROOM

ON THE JOB

ACCESS TO PERSONAL FILES

NO

Yes

No

POLICY INITIATION AND FORMULATION

Yes

Yes

Yes

ADVICE ROLE

Yes

Yes

Yes

SERVICE ROLE

Yes

Yes

Yes

CONTROLLING ROLE

Yes

Yes

Yes

TRANSFER, PROMOTION AND LAYOFF

Yes

Yes

Yes

TRAINING THE EMPLOYEES

Yes

Yes

Yes

COMPENSATION, BENEFITS AND SERVICES PROGRAMS

Yes

Yes

Yes

REDUCTION IN ADMINISTRATIVE BURDEN

Yes

Yes

Yes

REDUCTION IN ADMINISTRATIVE COST

Yes

Yes

Yes

INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY

Yes

Yes

Yes

TIME SAVING

Yes

Yes

Yes

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

NO

Yes

No

SKILLS INVENTORIES

Yes

Yes

Yes

SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES

ARTICLE #1

Integrating IT into the Human Resource Management Curriculum

The effective management of human resources in the mid-1990s requires more than competence in routine personnel activities. Information Technology (IT) not only provides the means for the human resource function to make that contribution, but also enables line managers to become more involved in human resource activities. This article will consider what education providers can do to ensure that computers are seen and used as a strategic human resource tool. It will first consider why IT should be an integral part of a professional personnel or human resource management programme. It will argue that the current situation presents tutors with an opportunity through the delivery of the curriculum to influence human resource practice and in doing so act as a powerful change agent.

Stage II, The Personnel Management Function, is concerned with moving the focus of IT to personnel-specific applications mainly in the employee-resourcing element of the syllabus. Consequently one of the learning objectives in Employee Resourcing I - part of the Core Programme - is to be able to "manipulate and interrogate personnel databases as part of personnel and human resources decision making".

If centres wish to run programmes that are relevant, applicable and truly reflecting the world of the human resource practitioner, then surely IT, particularly human resource applications of IT, must be included in the curriculum.

The annual Computers in Personnel Survey conducted by the IMS/IPM since 1982 confirms the trend identified by Hall and Torrington. Recent research commissioned by the IPM into the current use of computers in human resources and conducted by the University of Bath confirms the widespread and still growing use of computerized information systems. Furthermore there was a remarkable degree of complacency among human resource practitioners. Seven years on, the evidence still seems to suggest the under-utilization of data-processing techniques in human resource departments. By focusing on human resource administration, human resource practitioners are failing to exploit computerized personnel information systems to the full, for, as Huo and Kearns[4] say, their true value "lies in the potential to be a powerful analytic tool for personnel decision making".

Human resource activities and their consequent information requirements can be classified according to whether they have an operational control, management control (decision-support) or strategic planning focus. The evidence would suggest that computerized personnel systems are utilized for the provision of operational information and to a lesser extent for management-control or decision-support information. Various reasons have been advanced to explain why the human resource function apparently lags behind other functions in its application of IT[4].

How is information technology delivered? If we turn to Stage II, The Personnel Management Function, the differentiated approach appears to continue. In the present syllabus, personnel information technology applications are firmly located in Employee Resourcing. Consequently there is a missed opportunity to integrate IT into all aspects of the syllabus, such as human resource planning analysis, recruitment and selection and reward management. There are centres which are making full and imaginative use of the computer's potential in their teaching of human resource issues - the Stars. The first tension stems from the IPM's current Professional Education Scheme. Does it encourage that strategic focus? Do centres have the expertise to deliver at strategic level or indeed integrate IT? That is to say there are IT business specialists and there are human resource specialists. If computers are to be integrated across the curriculum and at an appropriate level, it seems desirable that all aspects are covered by human resource specialists. Teaching resources are a fourth and final tension. Within the PMFP, Management Information Systems provides an excellent opportunity for the use of human resource-related material such as absence data or correlation of test scores with general business software.

While recognizing that general business software can be used for teaching human resource applications, it is obvious that there is a need to utilize personnel specific software such as personnel information systems. There is a need for other dedicated human resource packages such as those specific to job evaluation, management of expatriates or career management. Just as Hall and Torrington[9] found that the personnel manager had a major influence on the adoption and application of computers in personnel, so too have the human resource tutors. As Hall and Torrington[9] say, "The computer will not be used to develop the personnel role if nobody wants that role to change." The human resource function is once again at a crossroads. As we approach the middle of the decade, there are suggestions that the human resource function's influence is declining as human resource directors lose their seats on company boards and human resource departments are streamlined.

IT provides the human resource function with the potential to become more involved with business strategy and thereby add value. The challenge, therefore, for human resource educators is to demonstrate the true value of IT.

ARTICLE #2

Intelligent training motivates the HR and payroll teams

Skimping on training a costly mistake

Many claimed to have been taken aback by the hidden costs of their investment and admitted they had frequently skimped on what they now perceived to be a particularly crucial area of system functionality - user training.

The current boom under way in the training profession demonstrates how quickly attitudes have changed. Many customer organisations now bargain on spending at least double their initial investment on post-installation development and training. As the knowledge economy advances, the pressure placed on organisations to shell out increasing sums on staff development intensifies. "Training has evolved remarkably in the past two years," says Annabel Hall, training manager of PWA, which develops and markets a range of human resource and payroll software. Fostering "intelligent" system use

"Buyers have high expectations," says Hall. "They want their people to use the software intelligently, rather than just entering data. Hall claims this is immensely satisfying to witness. "During training you see their whole way of working change completely. They're learning intelligently, not just rote learning a process.

"The user training notes do go through processes, but they learn to understand these processes so that they can troubleshoot and actually think for themselves."

Surge towards strategic HR

"We will we go in and analyse the training needs of the customer", says Annabel Hall, of PWA. Critical to this service is ensuring user buy-in. "We're not just looking at the project team, we're involving users. Without it, people seconded to training courses can often be downright "bolshie".

In Hall's experience, change of any sort is often met with mixed feelings in organisations. Indeed the company places great emphasis on ensuring that its trainers are as well versed in the "soft skills" inherent in the learning process as they are in the technical nitty-gritty of systems, and earlier this year was awarded the status of Gold Standard Accredited (GSA) Training Provider from the Institute of IT Training (IITT).

Most trainers continue to concentrate exclusively on technical and product-oriented skills. Consequently, the IITT claims that, although some £1 million will be spent on IT training in the UK this year, much of this investment will be wasted - "spent on training that's ineffective, unsuitable, and is not measured in any way to gauge its business benefits."

People on courses are encouraged to make connections for themselves.

"With our methodology we don't `present' to delegates - our training is much more workshop-based," says Annabel Hall. "If you're one of ten, 12 or 15 it's not a training course, it's a presentation. The most important quality the company looks for in recruiting potential trainers is a genuine love of training. The people we work with make individuals want to achieve for their company."

Helping organisations help themselves

PWA believes another significant aspect of its work is the emphasis it places on the trickling down of training skills throughout the organisation both at client companies and in-house. First, empower people to learn for themselves. Second, imbue them with the skills and confidence to train others.

One customer organisation that has benefited from this approach is NCH Action for Children, one of the UK's longest-standing charities devoted to children and families. Primary responsibility for the project fell to the charity's head of Payroll, Kim Whetlor, and its new HR adviser, Deborah Macaly. Their strategy was to discover exactly how a specially customised system would be used in the organisation, assess the charity's training needs, and then take responsibility themselves for training the 30 or so eventual users.

Macaly in particular believed that such an in-house approach was critical if the training was to relate properly to NCH Action for Children's specific daily operations.

"Train the trainer" delivers ongoing benefits

To gain the skills necessary to tackle this potentially daunting task, Whetlor attended PWA's "Train the trainer" course. And by shadowing PWA's Annabel Hall as she presented a training session on the Personnel module, Whetlor also gained a practical insight into how their own courses were likely to unravel. This particular training session, conducted on the charity's designated pilot region for system testing, became the primary model when it came to the organisation's own training programme.

ARTICLE #3

: Human Resource Management Through Information Technology

Environmental trends and developments

The current pressures and issues affecting library and information services in all sectors are well known and have been documented in numerous articles and reports over the past decade.

Technology advances

Advances in information and communication technologies have introduced new options for service delivery - notably for self-service and remote access - and raised the expectations of funding bodies and library customers.

electronic publishing, including multimedia;

new "third generation" library housekeeping systems;

mass markets for electronic information products and services.

Local and metropolitan area networks linked to national and international networks offer end-users fast online access to information resources from their offices (or homes) including current awareness and document supply via new commercial services, with a choice of delivery modes and payment methods as an alternative to traditional library sources; the progressive expansion and enhancement of SuperJANET (the UK academic network) will also facilitate interlibrary co-operation.

Economic forces

public and private sector financial constraints;

Local authority and government libraries have had to cost their services and submit bids for comparison with private-sector operators in the context of compulsory competitive tendering and market testing exercises; higher education libraries have so far escaped this form of evaluation, but many have been subject to formal review by their institutions. growth in demand for information;

focus on skills training, personal development and life-long learning;

variety of linguistic and educational backgrounds of information users;

disparities in information-handling capabilities and experience of library customers.

The continuing worldwide growth in formal and informal publication, development of mass markets for electronic products and services, and pressure for public access to information all point to increasing demands on libraries and other information providers, but from an increasingly disparate client base with distinctive needs.

Higher education developments

changes in teaching and learning patterns;

focus on quality and efficiency supported by new technologies;

organizational restructuring, especially convergence of libraries and computer centres.

The Follett Report

The most important recent development for libraries in the higher education sector was the establishment of the Joint Funding Councils' Libraries Review Group in 1992 and the subsequent publication of its report in December 1993. The attention given to the report by the Funding Councils, higher education institutions and the wider library and information world confirms its status as the most significant event for academic libraries since the publication of the Parry report in July 1967[6]. Although generally welcomed by the academic library community, not least because it has put the future of library provision firmly on institutional agendas, the report has also been criticized for being bland and conservative. The report contains other critical recommendations which have also prompted debate at institutional and national level, notably in respect of the library's involvement in information and institutional management and the development of information strategies. Both Follett and Fielden acknowledge wide variations in management practice at present and indicate the need for major improvements in many libraries, particularly in terms of adopting a more strategic approach to the planning and delivery of library and information services, and (especially) to human resource development. identifying information needs of various client groups;

achieving co-ordination between library and academic staff;

clarifying resource allocation and budget distribution mechanisms;

improving working practices, especially for "non-professional" staff;

formulating policies and plans for staff development;

Service implications

Customer orientation will be a crucial issue as determining the most cost-effective mix of service provision for each institution will depend on effective liaison and communication between library staff and their clientele. There will be continuing demand for traditional loan services, especially short-loan collections of recommended student text-books and resource packs, with development of self-service booking and issue systems, integrated bibliographic databases to improve control and co-ordination between libraries, bookshops and academic staff, and experiments with electronic courseware. Likewise demand for reproduction facilities will continue, including photocopying equipment as well as downloading facilities and print stations for electronic information services and full-text document delivery systems.

There will be constant demand on enquiry services, particularly point-of-need assistance with electronic services, prompting rethinking and restructuring into tiered services, ranging from reception points, help desks and hotlines, unstaffed information points supported by hypermedia guides, in-depth research support and surgeries with appointment systems, as well as on-call technical (computing) support and comprehensive documentation.

Management imperatives

Follett and Fielden highlight the critical importance of management and leadership skills for academic libraries in the electronic environment; the job of running a university library has undoubtedly become more complex, and the personal qualities and abilities required are significantly different from those associated with the traditional role of "scholar-librarian". Various initiatives to address these needs are in hand, such as the strategic management programme for senior library staff recently delivered by Aston Business School on behalf of SCONUL, the Universities and Colleges Staff Development Association and the Library Association, but more needs to be done to give higher priority to management development for a wider range of academic library staff.

Follett has rightly identified strategic management as an area requiring attention, stressing the need to integrate the planning of library and information services with other forms and flows of information, other teaching and learning resources, and human, physical and financial resources. More involvement of stakeholders (including customers, partners and suppliers) in library planning processes will be needed, as well as more active participation of library staff in other areas of institutional planning, notably academic programmes. The new economic models must also include human and physical resources (staff, space, equipment, etc.) in addition to subscription, licensing and other costs of acquiring information; public access electronic information systems incur significant capital and recurrent costs, notably the costs of staff effort in supporting and training end-user searchers.

Both Follett and Fielden comment on the potential advantages of organizational restructuring to achieve more effective collaboration between library and computing staff in planning and delivering information services; Fielden also advocates more teamworking within libraries, and a less hierarchical management style. Academic libraries face a period of continuing change which will present challenges to staff and users.

Gauging success

As far as Macaly is concerned, the success of the NCH Action for Children training programme has been amply demonstrated by the ease with which the majority of users have taken to the system. From a technical point of view, Whetlor claims to have "pinched" several PWA follow-up ideas. Team spirit, enthusiasm and determination

At PWA, trainers work closely with project management teams to tailor courses to customer organisations' specific requirements. This ability to work in tandem with other departments within PWA also boosts the trainers' understanding of the particular business needs of customer organisations, and has allowed them to play a critical role in new product development.

"The ideas come from all sorts of people," says Hall. "Self-development at PWA is massive," says Hall. All new trainers are sent on IITT courses and they also undertake technical courses.

"They take a course in product development and one for training techniques. What then are Hall's tips for other trainers?

Questionnaire

The Role of Information Technology in

Human Resource Management

Name of Organization: ___________________________

Respondent Name: ___________________________

Designation: ___________________________

Experience: ___________________________

Address: ___________________________

Ph. #: ___________________________

Q#1. How many departments are in your organization?

________________________________________________

Q#2. Is there a separate personnel department in your organization?

clip_image004clip_image004[1] Yes No

Q#3. If no, then who deals with employees?

________________________________________________

Q#4. Are you using IT in personnel department?

clip_image004[2]clip_image004[3] Yes No

Q#5. If no, why? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#6. If yes, then up to what extent? ________________________________________________

Q#7. Since how long you are using IT in Human Resource

Department? ________________________________________________

Q#8. What is the operational impact of IT on Human Resource

Department?

clip_image004[4]clip_image004[5] Reducing Administrative burden Reducing cost

clip_image004[6]clip_image004[7] Increasing efficiency All

Q#9. How IT influences HR relationship with others?

clip_image004[8]clip_image004[9] Remote access, Increasing connectivity

clip_image004[10]clip_image004[11] Enhancing services All

Q#10. How HR Dpt. uses IT in aligning employees’ activities with the

needs of customers?

________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#11. Do you have IT specialists in Human Resource Department?

       
  clip_image004[12]   clip_image004[13]

Yes No

Q#12. What does role IT play in job description & job specification?

______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#13. Do you conduct any training program for the effective use of

IT in Human Resource Department?

clip_image004[14]clip_image004[15] Yes No

Q#14. If yes, what type of training do you conduct?

       
  clip_image004[16]   clip_image004[17]

On the job training Vestibule training

clip_image004[18] Class-room training

Q#15. Do your employees have easy access to their personal files

through IT?

clip_image004[19]clip_image004[20] Yes No

Q#16How does IT help in Policy initiation & Formulation role of

Human Resource Department? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#17. Is there any improvement in advice giving role of Human

Resource Department by using IT?

clip_image004[21]clip_image004[22] Yes No

Q#18. How does IT improve the service role of Human Resource

Department? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#19. What is the impact of IT on controlling role of Human

Resource Department? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#20. How does IT help Human Resource Department in recruiting &

selecting the employees with in organization? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#21. How does IT aid while making decision about Transfer &

Promotion & lay-off? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#22. Is there any role of IT in Training & Developing the employees

in the organization?

clip_image004[23]clip_image004[24] Yes No

Q#23. How do you monitor Compensation Administration, Benefits &

Services? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#24. How does IT aid Human Resource Department in

Organizational Planning & Development? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#25. How do you ensure Equal-Employment Opportunity through IT? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#26. Does the IT help Human Resource Department in

implementing Health & Safety program?

clip_image004[25]clip_image004[26] Yes No

Q#27. How does IT aid in Developing & Updating the Skill

Inventory? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#28. How does IT help to reduce the administrated burden in HR

Department? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#29. Is there any reduction in the administrated cost by using IT in Human Resource Department?

clip_image004[27]clip_image004[28] Yes No

Q#30. How efficiency is increased in Human Resource Department by using IT? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Q#31. Is there any time saving in Human Resource Department by using IT?

clip_image004[29]clip_image004[30] Yes No

Q#32. How do you save HR data from unauthorized people? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

Thank you

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