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kindly attach mid term and past mid term subjective questions here.thank you

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lo g saray keush o jao .plz agar in question k ilawa kisi k pass unsolved question hain to snd me r attach here...thanks


plzzzzz anyone share latest papers of mgmt625, mera pahla paper mgmt625 ka ha :(

                                                                   AYSHA SHOUKAT

                                                                 M B A (3.5 YEAR) 5TH SAM


What is the difference between Selection and adoption?

Relationship between Adaptation and Selection

One such empirical study conducted by Carroll found the role of strategy in a way that the timing of

executive succession was found to be and important factor in organization survival. Similarly in

biological sense, adaptability is an individual behavioral phenomenon. Penning stressed the role of

adaptation and according to him, “Organization will maneuver themselves in their environment, so

as to acquire optimum external control and will shift their disposition whenever environmental

conditions dictate.” To him entrepreneur is a “volitional individual” who enters an environment and

make strategic choices that ensure the best transactions with the environment.



What are the Evolutionary Thinking Features?

The same concept is known as evolutionary thinking. Now change managers, CEOs and consultants

want to make organization as an evolutionary organization. The evolutionary thinking is described

to entail the following features:

1. All events are time bound

2. No such thing/phenomenon is absolute

3. Focus on historical particular for explaining causation

4. Study of context is important

5. The theory also accounts for diversity of the organic world.

6. Account for variations in organizational strategy and its structure

What is the Dialectical inquiry process?

“Dialectical theory rests on the assumption that the organisational entity

exist in a pluralistic world of colliding events, forces, or contradictory values that compete with

each other for domination and control”

What is devil advocacy ?

Devils’ advocate

In this technique (usually internal consultants) managers play a deliberate role of devil’s advocate

while planners present their recommendations like experts. The focus is what is wrong with the

plan and why it should not be accepted? The assumption behind this activity is that truly good plan

will survive the opposition in the form of devil’s advocacy. Managers (playing Devil Advocate)

does not develop a new world view rather just criticise massively the plan. The role of managers’

behaviour is destructive rather than constructive. And this may psychologically demoralise

planners’ and may result in planners psyche to develop safe plan rather than a progressive one.

                                                                       AYSHA SHOUKAT

                                                                 M B A (3.5 YEAR) 5TH SAM


Discuss leadership crises with respect to organzation and how can this be  managed ? 5 mks

1. Leadership Crisis

As company grows, needs larger production, needs specialized knowledge about the efficiencies of

manufacturing, marketing and finance or capital, therefore needs increased number of professional

people in all functional areas. All this cannot be managed at an informal level. Formalization,

proceduralism and bureaucratization come into play for better financial and managerial control.

Founders found themselves with unwanted managerial responsibilities. They still try to act it in the

past ways. Owners enter into conflict with managers. This issue is cited as agency theory in

corporate governance and strategic management courses. At this point crisis of leadership occurs –

the first revolution. Founders, often hate to step aside even though they are probably temperament

wise unsuited to be managers. So the developmental choice for founder is to choose strong manager

and step aside for perpetual growth or select week manager and compromise on growth

>  discuss various aspects of organzzational change ? 5 mks>



>  list down basic perspectives for interperating  organizationals actions 3 mks




>   list down main features of evolutionary  thinking ? 3 mks

The evolutionary thinking is described

to entail the following features:

1. All events are time bound

2. No such thing/phenomenon is absolute

3. Focus on historical particular for explaining causation

4. Study of context is important

5. The theory also accounts for diversity of the organic world.

6. Account for variations in organizational strategy and its structure


How did a scholar, Winter, relate quality management movement (QMM) to evolutionary theory of

                                                                        AYSHA SHOUKAT

                                                                 M B A (3.5 YEAR) 5TH SAM



change? Ot sure ans but I think its nearer to ans

Ans: Second evidence we found in the Quality Management Movement (QMM) which is well supported

by evolutionary theory. For e.g. Total Quality Management (TQM) means, continuous, marginal or

incremental changes on day-to-day bases in all functional areas like on customer-preferences,

product-attributes, organising in production as well. Winter, a scholar, whose work on this subject

is quite known, links QMM from evolutionary economic characterisation of a firm to evolutionary

economic theory. There are three aspects of organization changes:

1. Corporate knowledge resides in the organisational capabilities embedded in organisational

routines. These routines do not arise from isolated managerial decisions but from a

process of organisational learning. These routines have a large tacit component of


2. There is no sharp distinction between the firm’s technical and organisation component.

Systematic routines may result in creating opportunities for improvement.

3. The capabilities of a firm are not from universal technical hand book but are idiosyncratic

(individuality or personality) outcome of unique firm histories (evolving)

Mr. Winter relate the QMM to evolutionary theory of change.

According to that,

1-     Systematic routines can give the result in producing opportunities for more improvement.

2-     Firms are not coming from books, these are coming from evolution and histories.

Question No: 30   ( Marks: 3 )

List down some of the features of 'Coordination phase'.

                                                                     AYSHA SHOUKAT

                                                                 M B A (3.5 YEAR) 5TH SAM



Ans: Feature are

1-     Decisions related expenditures are carefully decided.

2-     High managerial staff hired at head office to have good check and balance on line managers.

3-     Return on Investment is an important key in this phase and every product is treated as investment.

How can you distinguish between devil’s advocacy and dialectical inquiry process?


Devil’s Advocacy Process:

In this process, planners present their recommendations and managers take decision as role of devil

advocate. The focus is on that what is going wrong with plan and what actions can be taken to get on


Dialectical Inquiry process

Every one has unique knowledge and seeking for consensus for activity. Every one share his

discussion to get good results.

Explain competency multiplier with the help of an example.

Oorganizations have procedure to involve relevant people in processes such as decision-making,

planning, budgeting or the like. Individual vary in their knowledge, skills and interests about a

problem. Initial participation rate vary and participating individual turn out to be slightly more

competent than others. This induces them to become even more competent. Before long, the de

facto composition of the group can change dramatically (than initially conceived). More generally

organizations learn from experience, repeating actions that are successful. As a result they gain

greater experience in areas of success than in areas of failures. This seems sensible and logical. The

                                                                      AYSHA SHOUKAT

                                                                 M B A (3.5 YEAR) 5TH SAM



sensibleness of such specialization depends on the learning rate and rate of change in environment.

The process can easily lead to misplaced specialization if there are infrequent, major shifts in the

environment (increased specialization lead to increased dependence and hence org. is vulnerable to






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