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MGMT628 Current Final Term Paper Spring 2011 Subjective Questions Solved-July 2011

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1.2.purpose of re-engineering 3 marksReengineering:Reengineering involves changing the organization’s structure to support the newbusinessprocesses.This recent intervention radically redesigns the organization’s core workprocesses to create tighter linkage and coordination among thedifferent tasks. This workflowintegration results in faster, more responsive task performance. Reengineering is often accomplished with new information technology thatpermits employees to control and coordinate work processes more effectively. Reengineering often fails if it ignoresbasicprinciples and processes of OD.

purpose of managing process intervention 3 marksProcess interventions are in OD skill used by ODpractitioners, whether managers orprocess interventions is to help the work groupbecome more aware of theway itoperatesand the way itsmembers work with oneanother. Thework groupuses thisknowledge to develop its own problem-solvingability. Process interventions, then, aim at helping thework group to become more aware of its own processes, includingthe way it operates, and uses this knowledge to solve its own problems. The managerpracticingprocess intervention observes individuals and teams in action and helps them learn to diagnoseand solve their own problems.ODprofessionals, to help work groupsbecome more effective. Thepurpose of3. A small definition of OD was given and was asked to "discuss" it. marks Definition of Organization Development (OD): OD is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization’s “processes,” using behavioral science knowledge. (Richard Beckhard) 3

 Analysis of the definition suggests that OD is not just “anything done to better an organization”; it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. 4. Purpose of "dualcareer accommodation"

 3 marks Answer:

To assist members with significant others to find satisfying work assignments

5.6. how organizations respond administratively to the environment 5 marksAdministrativeResponsesThe most common organizational resonses to the environment are administrative, including the formation or clarification of the organization's mission; the developmentof objectives, policies, and budgets; or thecreation of scanning units. Theseresponsescan beeitherproactive or reactiveand are aimed at defining the organization'spurpose and key tasks in relationshp to particularenvironments. As discussed earlier, an organization's mission describes its longtermpurpose,

 including theproducts orservices to be offered and the markets to be served. An effective mission clearlydifferentiates the organization from others in its competitive environment. Forexample, 3M's corepurpose is to solve unsolved problems innovatively. 3M isdistinguished from its competitorsby its attention to unsolved problems and its corecompetence of innovation. Similarly, an organization's objectives, policies, and budgets signal which parts of theenvironment are important. Theyallocateand direct resources to particularenvironmental relationships. Intel's newproduct development objectives and allocation of more than 20 percent of revenues to research and development signa theimportance of its linkageto the technological environment. Finally, organizations maycreate scanning units, such as market research and regulatory relations departments, to respond administrativelyto the environment. difference between  "natural teams" and "temporary task team"  5 marksWork teams may be of two basic types: 1. Natural work team – people come together because they do related jobs or because of the structure of the organizations design. 2. Temporary task team – groups meet for limited periods to work on a specific project or problem and disband after they solve it. 7. how job design and career development are features of highly involved organizations 5 marks

Career Development: Career development helps individuals achieve their career objectives. It follows closely from career planning and includes organizational practices that help employees implement those plans. These may include skill training, performance feedback and coaching, planned job rotation, mentoring, and continuing education. Job designs that provide employees with high levels of discretion, task variety, and meaningful feedback can enhance evolvement. They enable workers to influence daytoday

workplace decisions and to receive intrinsic satisfaction by performing work under enriched conditions. 8.i completely forgot :(Paper2only 5 to 6 mcq's were frompast material,,,,,others wereconceptual  and really somewereconfusing i m sharing my todaypapertotal qest were 64.56mcqz and 8 were subjective. 57=individualintervention are designed to be moreeffective. It will befruitful iffeed back is given? 5 marksIndividual Interventions:These interventions are designed to helppeoplebe more effective or to increase theinformation they haveabout their “blind spot” in the Johari Window. Beforeprocessconsultants can give individual feedback, they first must observe relevant events, ask questions to understand the issues fully, and make certain that the feedback is given to the client in a usable manner. The following areguidelines for effectivefeedback.• Thegiver and receivermust have consensus on the receiver’sgoals.• Thegiver should emphasize description and appreciation.• The giver should be concrete and specific. • Both giver and receiver must have constructive motives. • The giver should not withhold negative feedback if it is relevant. • The giver should own his or her observations, feelings, and judgments. • Feedback should be timed to when the giver and receiver are ready. 58= Characteristics of learning organizations? 5marks Characteristics of a Learning Organization

Four characteristics define a learning organization:

  1. 1. Constant Readiness: The organization exists in constant readiness for change. By staying in tune with its environment, the organization is ready to take advantage of new opportunities. 
  2. 2. Continuous Planning: Instead of a few top executives formulating fixed plans, the learning organization creates flexible plans that are fully known and accepted by the entire organization. The plans are constantly reexamined by those involved with their implementation – not just top management. The old adage that “the top thinks and the bottom acts” has given way to the need for “integrated thinking and acting at all levels.”
  3. 3. Improvised Implementation. The learning organization improvises. Instead of


results in faster, more responsive task performance. Reengineering often is accomplished with new information technology that permits employees to control and coordinate work processes more effectively.

60=how quality of work life influence designed the organization development evaluation? 5marks


Quality of Work Life:

The contribution of the productivity and qualityofwork (QWL) background to OD can be described in two phases. The first phas


integrating technology and people. These QWL programs generally involved joint participation by unions and management in the design of work and resulted in work designs giving employees high levels of discretion, task variety, and feedback about results. Perhaps the most distinguishing characteristic of these QWL programs was the development of selfmanaging work groups as a new form of work design. These groups were composed of multi skilled workers who were given the necessary autonomy and information to design and manage their own task performances. Two definitions of QWL emerged during its initial development. QWL was first defined in terms of people’s reaction to work, particularly individual outcomes related to job satisfaction and mental health. Using this definition, QWL focused primarily on the personal consequences of the work experience and how to improve work to satisfy

First, the engineering approach, which focuses on efficiency and simplification, and results in traditional job and work group designs. Second approach to work design rests on motivational theories and attempts to enrich the work experience. The third and most recent approach to work design derives from sociotechnical systems methods, and seeks to optimize both the social and the technical aspects of work systems.


64=revolutionary change efforts and its features? 3marks

The distinguishing features of the rev



.                      • Change is Triggered by Environmental and Internal Disruptions

.                      • Change is Systemic and Revolutionary

.                      • Change Demands a New Organizing Paradigm

.                      • Change is Driven by Senior Executives and Line Management.

.                      • Continuous Learning and Change.


from telling them how to solve their problems but instead asks questions, focuses their attention on how they are working together, teaches or provides resources where necessary, and listens. On of the major advantages is that teams becomes more independent to solve problems. 

* What is the role of an OD practitioner in steering commi


OD practitioners can play an important role in forming the steering committee. First, they can help develop and maintain group norms of learning and innovation. These norms set the tone for problem solving throughout the parallel structure, second, they can help the committee create a vision statement that refines the structures purpose and promotes ownership of it. Third, they can help Committee members develop and specify objectives and strategies, organizational expectations and required resources, and potential rewards for participation in the parallel structure. 4. Benefits of Employment Security? 2. jManyadditionalbenefits follow from employment assurancesbesides worker’s freecontribution of knowledge and otherefforts to enhnceproductivity. 1. One advantage to firms is the decreased likelihood that they will lay offemployeesduring downturns.Employment security can conferyetanotherbenefit, in that it encouragespeople to take a        longertermperspective on theirobs and organization performance.

Questions of 5 marks each* Stressmanagement helps managing workplace stress. DiscussStress managementprograms help workers cope with the negative consequences ofstress at work. They help managers reduce specific sources of stress, such as roleconflict and ambiguity, and provide methods for reducing such stress symptoms ashypertension and anxiety. * Differentiate Vertical and inter market network? A verticalmarket network is composed of multiple organizations linked to a focalorganization that coordinates the movement of esources from raw materials to end consumer. Nike, for example, has its shoes manufactured in differentplants and then organizes their distribution through retail outlets. An intermarket network represents alliances

among a variety of organizations in different markets and is exemplified by the Japanese keiretsu and the Korean chaebol. * Importance of team building for industries and give an example of industry where team building helps? Team Building:

Team building refers to broad range of planned activities that help group improve the way they accomplish tasks and help group members enhance interpersonal and problemsolving skills. There are several reasons for using team building to improve organizational effectiveness. First, the work group is basic unit of the organization and thus provides a supportive change factor. Second, the operating problems of work groups (or the basic units) are often sources of inefficiency.

* Future relations of OD practitioner and the organization? 


2. ***ual diversity in organization. How would you handle it? (First word is omitted)

Workforce diversity is more than a euphemism for cultural or ethnic differences. Such definition is too narrow and focuses attention away from the broad range of issues that a diverse workforce poses. Diversity results from people who bring different resources and perspectives to the workplace and who have distinctive needs, preferences,

Managing Diversity:

First, the model suggests that an organization's diversity approach is a function of internal and external pressures for and against diversity. Prodiversity forces argue that organization performance is enhanced when the workforce's diversity is embraced as an opportunity. But diversity is often discouraged by those who fear that too many perspectives, beliefs, values, and attitudes dilute concerted action. Second, management's perspective and priorities with respect to diversity can range from resistance to active learning and from marginal to strategic. Third, within management's priorities, the organization's strategic responses can range from reactive to proactive. Fourth, the organization's implementation style can range from episodic to systemic. 

Of the several methods for summarizing diagnostic data in qualitative terms, two of the most important are content analysis and forcefield analysis.

Quantitative Tools:

Methods for analyzing quantitative data range from simple descriptive statistics of items or scales from standard instruments to more sophisticated, multivariate analysis of the underlying instrument properties and relationships among measured variables. The most common quantitative tools are means, standard deviations, frequency distributions, scatter grams, correlation coefficients, and difference tests. These measures are routinely produced by most statisti


Internal networks exits in an organization in certain conditions. Discuss those circumstances. (Marks 3)

(Answer provided by Admin Askari)

Change Agents. The Internal networks work as changing agents for an organization. 
Like you create a network internally to connect different departments, divisions, or
even two business that belong to one owner or group, in order to coordinate the efforts
and work as change agent when required.
The internal networks help most coordination, swift exchange of information, 
maintaining timely available assistance for decision making process.
This answer can be improved also.


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