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Fall, 2015

Assignment no.1

Due Date: 1st December 2015

Total Marks: 10

Objective of activity The prime objective of this activity is to help students understand the basic issues confronted by OD practitioners and how they should deal with them. Learning Outcomes After attempting this assignment students will be able to:

• Identify issues and problems relevant to OD

• Understand different types of consulting models

• Comprehend OD practitioner styles in relation to organizational issues.

OD Issues and OD practitioners

SkyLine is an international airline services providing company. Recently, the industry has seen new entrant, HomeAir, offering relatively lower airline fares with better services to make customers’ travelling experience more comfortable. For instance the online information system at HomeAir offers extra features such as inquiring about customers’ preferred seat, meal and even TV show to be watched during the flight. Similarly, these preferences are ‘remembered’ by the intelligent system for repeat customers. Customer service is kept a top priority at HomeAir so much so that all airline staff goes out of the way to ensure customer satisfaction. HomeAir employees appear more “happy” and “motivated” to do their work as compared to employees at SkyLine. On the other hand, SkyLine also runs an online information system; however, this system is used for basic transactions, flight schedule, inquiry and bookings. Employee performance at SkyLine has been minimal due to the recent financial loss suffered by the company which has resulted in downsizing of employees and late payment of salaries. Amidst financial crisis, SkyLine is depending on the loyalty and dedication of its employees to keep the airline afloat and running. Management at SkyLine is centralized and concentrated at the top of the hierarchy which results in delays in certain day-to-day problems faced by the airline staff on the job. Top management realizes it must do something to save the company and hence it is suggested that an outside consultant should be brought to identify the company’s strength and how to use it to an advantage.

Assignment Tasks

1. Based on the scenario above, identify which issues faced by SkyLine relate to Organizational development. (2 marks)

2. Which type of consulting model has been adopted by SkyLine management? Justify (4 marks)

3. Which OD practitioner style would you recommend to be best suited for SkyLine? (4 marks)


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Replies to This Discussion

Nice I also have recommended it.

task 2 ma kia hoga knsa model lgy ga????

In task 2 I selected Dr Patient Consulting Model ..
See lect 2 in handouts ..

I am really appreciating to you regarding your hard work and struggle for solve this assignment.
But also see books reference because everything is exist in book so you no need to find data from here and there.
Please see below

Organizational Issues:
Organizations need to address certain issues to operate effectively. Figure 9.1 lists these issues along with
the OD interventions that are intended to resolve them. It shows the following four interrelated issues that
are key targets of OD interventions:
1. Strategic issues. Organizations need to decide what products or services they will provide and the
markets in which they will compete, as well as how to relate to their environments and how to transform
themselves to keep pace with changing conditions. These strategic issues are among the most critical facing
organizations in today’s changing and highly competitive environments. OD methods aimed at these issues
are called strategic interventions. The methods are among the most recent additions to OD and include
integrated strategic change, mergers and acquisitions, trans-organizational development, and organization
2. Technology and structure issues. Organizations must decide how to divide work into departments
and then how to coordinate among those departments to support strategic directions. They also must make
decisions about how to deliver products or services and how to link people to tasks. OD methods for
dealing with these structural and technological issues are called techno-structural interventions and include
OD activities relating to organization design, employee involvement, and work design.
3. Human resources issues. These issues are concerned with attracting competent people to the
organization, setting goals for them, appraising and rewarding their performance, and ensuring that they
develop their careers and manage stress. OD techniques aimed at these issues are called human resources
management interventions.
4. Human process issues. These issues have to do with social processes occurring among organization
members, such as communication, decision making, leadership, and group dynamics. OD methods
focusing on these kinds of issues are called human process interventions; included among them are some of
the most common OD techniques, such as conflict resolution and team building.


Consulting to organizations can take many forms. For example, Edgar Schein describes three consulting
i. Purchase of Expertise Model
ii. Doctor-patient Model
iii. Process Consultation Model
In the “purchase of expertise model,” a leader or group identifies a need for information or expertise
that the organization cannot supply. The leader hires a consultant to obtain the information and make a
report, often including recommendations for action. Example would be (1) surveying consumers or
employees about some matter, (2) finding out how best to organize the company after a merger, or (3)
developing a marketing strategy for a new product. This is a typical consulting approach that is widely used.
In the “doctor-patient model,” a leader or group detects symptoms of ill health in some part of the
organization, and calls in a consultant who diagnoses the situation, identifies the causes of problems and
then, like a physician, prescribes a cure. Examples would be calling in “the doctor” to examine (1) low
morale at a particular plant, (2) being over budget and behind schedule on a major project, or (3) a highperforming
manager who suddenly becomes a low-performer. This too is a well-known, traditional
approach to consultation.
In the “process consultation model,” the consultant works with the leader and group to diagnose
strengths and weaknesses, identify problems and opportunities, and develop action plans and methods for
reaching desired goals. In this model the consultant assists the client organization in becoming more
effective at examining and improving its own processes of problem solving, decision-making and action
taking. This third model, typical in OD, encourages greater collaboration between clients and consultants,
engages the resources and talents of the clients, and strengthens clients’ abilities to improve their work


The Pathfinder Style:
The pathfinder style seeks both a high degree of effectiveness and a high degree of member satisfaction,
believing that greater effectiveness is possible when all members are involved and problem-solving is done
through teamwork. There is awareness that confrontation and conflict are often a means to a more
effective organization and to more satisfied individual members. The pathfinder approach uses
collaborative problem solving and challenges the underlying patterns of member behavior. Harold J, Leavitt
uses this term to refer to developing a sense of value and vision. The pathfinder practitioner helps the
organization to focus on its most critical issues and questions.
A survey of about 1,000 OD practitioners found that listening, integrity, and organizational diagnosis were
rated as the most important OD skills. The pathfinder practitioner uses these skills to give the client new
insights into its activities and to help the client system determine how it wishes to change and how it might
go about implement changes. The practitioner rarely informs or instructs the client system, but instead tries
to discover client system problems and to challenge the underlying patterns of behavior of organization
members. The pathfinder practitioner focuses on six processes essential for effective organization 

performance: (1) communication, (2) member role and functions in groups, (3) group problem-solving and
decision-making, (4) group norms and growth, (5) leadership and authority, and (ft) inter-group
cooperation a competition.
We have identified five different practitioner styles in this section. You will have an opportunity to find out
where your own style fits in this classification system. Most organizational problems are complex situations,
however, and may not neatly fit with any one change approach but will depend upon the practitioner, the
nature of the problem, and the organizational climate.
In summary, these five practitioner styles are not mutually exclusive. All the styles can be effective, and they
are interrelated. A practitioner may transition from one style to another to meet changing client system
needs and deal with diverse situations. Frequently, some combination of the styles may be applied.



 Zubair Khan personal Email Ids not allowed here .

 Plz someone help to answer on below question Issue name?

1. Based on the scenario above, identify which issues faced by SkyLine relate to Organizational development. (2 marks)

Naila .. Issues sab case may nention hain .. M to wahin say pick kr k points bnaye hain ..

Please Discuss here about this assignment.Thanks

Our main purpose here discussion not just Solution

We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning and do not appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions.


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