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DUE DATE: 29th JANUARY 2013

MARKS: 30

Topic: Motivational Theories

Learning objectives: To enable you to understand the application of different motivational theories in practical business situations.

Case:

Crisp & Soft – one of the famous food restaurant chains in Karachi had established a reputation for cheap food items at lunch, hi-tea and dinner packages with consistent quality and fast customer service. The manager at Crisp & Soft had the perception that no matter in which city or town the public is in, public will appreciate if they could buy exactly the same variety of dishes at similar prices and same quality standard. To attain this, organization had built a very detailed training program for staff. Moreover, failure to pass the test at the end of the training program or failure to observe the methods and work practices would lead to demotion or dismissal. Each and every activity which is to be performed by the workers has laid down in rules and regulations of the company. A list of some of these is as follows:

                        • Workers will be trained before handling over the tasks of restaurants.

                        • If any employee came late by 5 minutes, then his/her salary will be deducted.

                        • No one is allowed to leave the office without approval of restaurant manager.

                        • If any employee is not meeting the requirement of greeting all the customers at restaurant with same welcome, he/she will face to an explanation by manager.

 

The management felt proud on the fact that they had thought everything and workers did not have to take any initiative on their own, all expected problems had been foreseen and procedures have been set to deal with all of them.

As far as the compensation package is concerned, workers and lower level staff were paid at reasonable rate, with free uniform and meals. HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) System is installed by the management. Secondly, managerial level staff is receiving market based salary and also having membership of social club of the restaurant.

Requirements:

1: Identify the practices of organization that are indicating the application of reinforcement theory? Marks: 10

2: You are required to suggest some measures of positive reinforcement that can be implemented by the management of Crisp & Soft restaurant. Marks: 10

3: Assess which level of Maslow’s hierarchy of need the organization is satisfying for lower level staff and managerial level staff? Explain Marks: 10

 

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Thanks Sir Saim My assignment is complete Thank u so much

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model—Psychologist Abraham Maslow’s theory of
motivation proposing that people have several different needs that they attempt to satisfy
in their work.
These needs are hierarchical in importance; lower-level needs must be met before a person
will try to satisfy higher-level needs. Once a set of needs has been satisfied, it ceases to
motivate behavior.
Introduction to Business –MGT 211 VU
© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 113
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Biological Needs
Biological needs are related to human body’s survival. e.g. food, drink, air, sleep etc.
Safety Needs
Safety from: Cold, Heat, Sand, Storm, Earthquake, Animals, Enemies
Use of Hierarchy in Motivation
Biological needs can be fulfilled by:
· Giving salaries.
· Providing free or cheaper food to employees.
· Providing routine items at concessional prices.
Safety Needs
Organization can provide safety devices to employees. For instance:
· Helmet
· Glasses
· Gloves
· Special purpose shoes
· Medical Facilities
· Houses
· House rent
· Pick & drop service
· Insurance
· Pension plans
· Preventing people from accidents
Social Needs
Organizations encourage informal organizational activities.
These include:
Combined lunch or dinner
Sports
Fun fair
Musical Programs
Introduction to Business –MGT 211 VU
© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 114
Self Esteem
It means worth of human beings.
These include:
Designation of Individuals
Status in the organization
Recognition of employees in the organization
Self esteem has direct relationship with productivity. Various techniques can be used to
make self esteem of employees high.
These can be:
Finding titles for employees
Recognition
Awards
Cash rewards
Increment in the salary
Promotion
Raising status of employees
Self Actualization
Self actualization is the fullest utilization of one’s potential.
These include:
High Challenges
High position in the organization

thnkzzzzz

any one plz upload total solution plz

Case:

Crisp & Soft – one of the famous food restaurant chains in Karachi had established a reputation for cheap food items at lunch, hi-tea and dinner packages with consistent quality and fast customer service. The manager at Crisp & Soft had the perception that no matter in which city or town the public is in, public will appreciate if they could buy exactly the same variety of dishes at similar prices and same quality standard. To attain this, organization had built a very detailed training program for staff, (Ans:-1) Moreover, failure to pass the test at the end of the training program or failure to observe the methods and work practices would lead to demotion or dismissal. Each and every activity which is to be performed by the workers has laid down in rules and regulations of the company. A list of some of these is as follows: 

        • Workers will be trained before handling over the tasks of restaurants.

        • If any employee came late by 5 minutes, then his/her salary will be deducted.

        • No one is allowed to leave the office without approval of restaurant manager.

        • If any employee is not meeting the requirement of greeting all the customers at  restaurant with

           same welcome, he/she will face to an explanation by manager) 

 

 The management felt proud on the fact that they had thought everything and workers did not have to take any initiative on their own, all expected problems had been foreseen and procedures have been set to deal with all of them. As far as the compensation package is concerned, (Ans:-3)  workers and lower level staff were paid at reasonable rate, with free uniform and meals. HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) System is installed by the management. Secondly, managerial level staff is receiving market based salary and also having membership of social club of the restaurant.

Note:- You can give answer of Q#1 & Q#3 after read the bold paragraph, please arrange your answer in appropriate shape, if you copy, paste these paragraph,  

 

 

Hi...

Your stuff really helped, i need help with 3rd question... the Marlow's theory has 5 levels... how are we supposed to answer that?? I think it satisfies psychological needs, esteem and self-actualization at some level but i am lost how to arrange an answer...

maslow's hierarchy of needs diagram

@Laureate, First mentioned the benefits provided by the Crisp & Soft restaurant to lower level staff and managerial level staff and then mentioned which hierarchy of maslow's of needs satisfy it. 

Laureate H Thanks 

Ans:-2

Customers come to your restaurant just as much for the service you provide as the food you prepare. If your employees are not motivated to perform during work, your customers will notice and your monthly sales will shrink. Use some positive reinforcement / motivational tools to encourage your servers to perform at their maximum whenever it is their turn on the floor.

 

1.      Team building exercises foster team work and encourage motivation among your restaurant employees. For example, if you take your employees to a rock climbing gym and they have to work together to reach the top, their motivation to help one another will build relationships that hopefully carry over to your restaurant.

 

2.      Observe your employees to learn about specific desires, motivations and dislikes. Once you understand your employees more completely, you can use this information to help motivate them to produce higher quality and quantity results. For example, you might discover employee skills that you can encourage by assigning extra tasks. As employees complete extra tasks, you can recognize this extra effort in various ways.

  

3.      Institute an open dialogue policy between employees and management. Encourage employees to share ideas, goals, and both negative and positive feedback. When you listen to employees’ ideas and give weight to feedback, employees feel valued and important. Employees who feel important usually feel motivated to perform high-quality work.

 

4.      Respond to problems and issues when employees communicate. When employees see you work to correct problems and solve issues, they are more likely to trust the management and they are more likely to feel like a valued part of the company.

 

5.      Create a system of hierarchy in the restaurant with an abundance of titles. Titles help employees feel successful as they advance up the ladder of hierarchy in the restaurant. Even if you do not have the ability to provide a salary increase with each rung of the ladder, you might be able to motivate employees to perform and advance with regular promotions.

 

6.      Look for employees with first-rate skills and enterprising attitudes. Give additional responsibilities and work with these employees to promote them into management positions.

 

7.      Deliver regular performance reviews of all employees. Provide constructive feedback and encourage employees to continue to work enthusiastically to receive positive performance reviews.

 

8.      Use salary increases in conjunction with positive performance reviews. After a set period of time -- every three to six months, perhaps -- employees with exemplary performance reviews can expect some kind of salary increase.

 

9.      Institute an incentive such as naming an employee of the month. Each month, management should select an employee who shows exceptional leadership skills or energetic work habits. 

+ ((( Saim Rao ))) Thanks for sharing ur idea 

1: Identify the practices of organization that are indicating the application of reinforcement theory?  Marks: 10

 

Overview of Reinforcement Theory

Behaviorist B.F. Skinner derived the Reinforcement Theory, one of the oldest theories of motivation. The theory may also be known as behaviorism or operant conditioning which is still commonly taught in psychology today. Reinforcement theory has been used in many areas of study including animal training, raising children, and motivating employees in the workplace. Reinforcement theories focus on observable behavior rather than personal states, like needs theories do. Reinforcement theory focuses on the environmental factors that contribute to shaping behavior. Simply put, reinforcement theory claims that stimuli are used to shape behaviors. There are four primary approaches to reinforcement theory: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction, and punishment, which will be covered in a later paragraph.

Reinforcement theory, which is a form of operant conditioning, includes several components; by analyzing its steps, the Law of Effect and the possible approaches to achieve desired results we can understand the value of the theory through its application within the workplace

Types of Reinforcement

According to Huitt & Hummel (1997), four methods are employed in operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment.  The table below is derived from the table created by Huitt & Hummel (1997).

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT

Reinforcement theory provides two methods of increasing desirable behaviors.  One is positive reinforcement and the other is negative reinforcement

To avoid any confusion we can think of positive as a plus sign (+) and negative as minus sign (-).  In other words:

  • Positive Reinforcement: Give (+) what individuals like when they have performed the desired behavior (Griggs, 2009).
  • Negative Reinforcement: Remove (-) what individuals do not like when they have performed the desired behavior (Griggs, 2009).

In the case of negative reinforcement, it is important to remember that negative does not mean "bad". Positive and negative have similar connotations in the application of punishment.

Positive Reinforcement

Positive reinforcement is, “the offering of desirable effects or consequences for a behavior with the intention of increasing the chance of that behavior being repeated in the future” (Positive Reinforcement, n.d.).

Positive reinforcement uses the reward system. The reward system is a collection of brain structures which attempt to regulate and control behavior by inducing pleasurable effects. The rewards in the workplace include, but are not limited to:  monetary bonuses, promotions, praise, paid holiday leave, and attention. In educational settings the rewards can include:  food, verbal praise, or a preferred item (such as a toy or a break on a swing). Giving rewards may not result in the desired effect or behavior. The reward must stimulate the person to produce the desired behavior. This means that the reinforcer should be highly motivating to the individual. For example, in the workplace a paycheck or a bonus is a highly motivating factor for many people.

B.F. Skinner introduced people to positive reinforcement by conducting experiments on animals, most notably his rat experiment. Skinner designed a box with a lever inside that released food when pressed. He placed a hungry rat into the box to see if the rat could figure out how to get to the food. When the rat was first placed into the box, it fumbled around until it inadvertently hit the lever and the food was produced. Through several trials, the rat learned to go straight for the lever to produce the food when it was hungry. Therefore, B.F. Skinner tested positive reinforcement, and concluded it does produce desired behaviors (McLeod, 2007).

Negative Reinforcement

Negative reinforcement is a, "psychological reinforcement by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus when a desired response occurs" (Negative Reinforcement, n.d.).

Negative reinforcement uses the reward system. A person is rewarded for desired behavior by having something unpleasant removed. This removal is the reward. For example, in the workplace a person may find it undesirable to be monitored closely. If a person is doing their job to the held standard, they may not be monitored as closely anymore. This removal of the monitoring is the reward for consistently doing their job well.

B.F. Skinner used the rat to demonstrate positive reinforcement, but he also utilized the same test to prove negative reinforcement. Skinner placed an electric current inside the box. The electric current was an unpleasant stimulus for the rat. The rat inadvertently hit the lever and learned that this turned the electric current off. Through several trials, the rat learned that if it went straight to the lever, it would turn off the current (McLeod, 2007).

Avoidance Learning

Avoidance learning acts similarly to negative reinforcement except, "the desired behavior serves to prevent the onset of a noxious stimulus, or in a variant, terminates such a stimulus that already exists." (Miner, 2007) Criticism from a supervisor could serve as a noxious stimulus. While avoidance learning can serve to be effective in some cases, positive reinforcement is often preferred. (Miner, 2007) Avoidance learning can be seen in the workplace when an employee exhibits the desired behavior in an effort to avoid the consequence, such as being criticized by one's supervisor.

When looking at avoidance learning, one can easily see and understand that the main goal is to understand what the unpleasent stimulus is and then it can be avoided. When an employee knows that they will be terminated for having too many unexcused absences therefore they will make sure not to perform these actions. With this when an employee brings in an excuse slip for an absence the negative consequence is avoided. (PSU, Lesson 3, p. 4).

NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT, EXTINCTION, AND POSITIVE PUNISHMENT

Reinforcement theory provides two methods of eliminating undesirable behaviors.  One is negative punishment and the other is positive punishment

Again, to avoid any confusion we can think of positive as a plus sign (+) and negative as a minus sign (-).  In other words:

Positive Punishment: Give (+) individuals what they do not like when they have performed the undesired behavior (Griggs, 2009). Positive punishment is what we think of when we think of a "punishment"

  • Negative Punishment: Remove (-) what individuals like when they have performed the undesired behavior (Griggs, 2009).

Positive Punishment

The type of punishment most people are familiar with is positive punishment. Positive punishment is easier for people to identify because it is common in society. It is usually called “punishment” or “punishment by application” (D. Hockenbury & S. Hockenbury, 2010). Positive punishment occurs when a stimulus is presented following an undesired behavior and subsequent occurrences of the undesired behavior are reduced or eliminated (Cheney & Pierce, 2004). Using the example of a chatty co-worker, the employee could be orally reprimanded for spending too much time away from his desk. It is important to realize that even though consequences such as suspension, demotions, etc. induce dislike, they do not qualify as punishments unless they lessen or eliminate the undesired behavior.  

Positive punishment is effective in eliminating undesired behaviors but it does have limitations. Positive punishment has been found to be more effective when the stimulus is added immediately following the undesired behavior as opposed to applying delayed stimulus. Another factor is consistent application of a stimulus following an undesired behavior is more effective than occasional application of a stimulus (Cheney & Pierce, 2004). The greatest drawback is that positive punishment fails to teach desirable behaviors.  Furthermore, positive punishment can produce undesirable emotional reactions such as passivity, fear, anxiety, or hostility (Skinner, 1974; as cited in Cheney & Pierce, 2004).

Punishment is seen as more acceptable than positive reinforcement because "people believe they are free to choose to behave in responsible ways to avoid punishment." (Maag, 2001). Our societal values of independence, and a tendency to view the world in terms of being punished for bad or immoral behavior tend to predispose us to treat inappropriate behaviors with punishment, rather than focusing on the value of positive reinforcement for doing the right thing.

Extinction

Extinction, on the other hand, involves withholding the pleasing stimulus that is maintaining the unwanted behavior each time the behavior occurs. This happens until the behavior gradually decreases to zero or the desired level (M. Sundel & S. Sundel, 2005). Using the above example of the disruptive employee, his supervisor instructs his co-workers to ignore his non work-related comments and not respond to them.  The response from his co-workers is the pleasing stimulus maintaining his behavior.  Without it, the employee no longer chats about non work-related business and becomes more productive as a result. It is important to remember that extinction is not permanent and that the behavior may return after the extinction process is complete, a process called spontaneous recovery (Coon, 2006). 

Skinner found that non-reinforcement of behavior to achieve extinction is much less effective than reinforcement of behavior that is continuous. This is due to the fact that any intermittent reinforcement of the unwanted behavior can lead to reoccurrence. "This is why many of our student's undesirable behaviors are so difficult to stop. We might be able to resist a child's nagging most of the time, but if we yield every once in a while, the child will persist with it." (Crain, 2004) Often times, behavior not modified is behavior accepted.

Extinction may decrease the frequency of desirable behavior as well.  If good behavior is consistently ignored, it may cease, just as in the elimination of undesirable behavior (Tosi, Mero & Rizzo, 2001).  For example, an employee regularly stays late at work to assist the next shift in catching up after a very busy day.  No praise or thanks is ever given to the employee by her co-workers or supervisor, so eventually, she leaves work on time and stops assisting the next shift.  Ignoring her good behavior caused its extinction. Tosi et al. (2001) note that, because good behavior may also be eliminated, "Managers should be sensitive to the wide array of possibilities of extinction in the workplace" (p. 143).

Negative Punishment

Negative punishment involves removing a pleasing stimulus other than the one maintaining the behavior in order to decrease the frequency of the behavior. Normally, the behavior decreases immediately (M. Sundel & S. Sundel, 2005).  An example of negative punishment might be an office worker who disrupts his co-workers by constantly chatting about non work-related subjects.  His co-workers usually respond to him and are polite, which is the pleasing stimulus maintaining his disruptive behavior.  His supervisor informs him that, if he remains disruptive, he will not receive his yearly pay raise.  The removal of the pay raise is the negative punishment in his example because it is a pleasing stimulus, but not the one directly maintaining his behavior (M. Sundel & S. Sundel, 2005).  According to D. Hockenbury and S. Hockenbury (2010), negative punishment may also be referred to as punishment by removal.

Guidelines to ensure effective workplace punishment:

  • Act swiftly:  The closer the disciplinary action is to the actual offense, the more likely it is that the employee will associate the punishment with the offense or unwanted behavior and not the dispenser of the punishment (Robbins, Odendaal, & Roodt, 2009).
  • Be consistent:  Punishment must be doled out consistently between employees and also within individuals.  If an employee is punished for lateness, he or she must be punished for each late occurrence thereafter.  If punishments are not consistent, rules will lose impact, there may be a decline in morale, and employees may question the competence of the dispenser of the punishment.  It is reasonable, however, to consider any mitigating factors in each punishment situation, such as past history and performance.  Punishment may be adjusted in those situations, provided the rationale is made abundantly clear to all concerned (Robbins et al., 2009).
  • Suggest alternative behaviors:  It is important to clearly explain the reasons for the punishment and offer the employee alternative good behaviors.  Disciplining an employee for an undesirable behavior only makes clear to him or her, what not to do.  Suggesting alternatives will educate the employee on what is the preferred behavior and make it more likely that the behavior will be changed to one that is more desirable (Robbins et al., 2009). 
  • Utilize the five to one rule:  According to Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer and Vohs (2001), because bad interactions are more powerful emotionally than good interactions, it is important to balance the good and bad by more frequently using positive reinforcement rather than punishment.  A good ratio is five enjoyable interactions to one disagreeable interaction (Baumeister et al., 2001).
  • Punish in private and praise in public:  Private punishment is more likely to be seen as constructive, and public punishment is more likely to cause embarrassment and negative effects if done in front of one's peers (Hellriegel & Slocum Jr., 2007).
  • Punish and Reward.  Desirable behaviors should be rewarded and undesirable behaviors should be punished (Redmond, 2010).

Useful Tools for Reinforcement Theory in the Workplace

Organizational Behavior Modification/Management (OB Mod):

OB Mod systematically applies reinforcement theory in workplace applications (Bucklin, Alvero, Dickinson, Austin, and Jackson, 2000).  A very publicized example of OB Mod in organizations was the Emery Air Freight company.  This company had organizational problems such as employees not using the correct sized containers for shipping.  The results were hefty costs in shipping for the company.  As a solution, Emery Air Freight began using OB Mod to increase productivity and reduce costs.  Managers chose to focus on feedback and positive reinforcement.  This allowed managers to specify desired behaviors and praise employees for their improvement and progress.  The effect of implementing OB Mod was apparent after one day.  Performance increases from 45 percent up to 95 percent (standard).  Emery Air Freight saved $3 million in costs alone (Redmond, 2010).

Why organizations use OB Mod:

1) To increase productivity

2) To reduce absenteeism

3) To increase safety behaviors

4) To reduce lost time due to injuries

(Redmond, 2010)

Below is a model of OB Mod, also called Social Learning (Luthan and Kreither, 1974):

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