|Dated: Jul 11, 14|
Assignment # 02
introduction to business (MGT211)
This is to inform that Assignment No. 2 will be opened on July 14, 2014 and due date of assignment submission will be July 18, 2014.
A 24 hours extra/grace period after the due date is usually available to overcome uploading difficulties which may be faced by the students on last date. This extra time should only be used to meet the emergencies; and above mentioned due date should always be treated as final to avoid any inconvenience.
To open the assignment file, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader/ PDF Reader installed on your computer.
For acquiring the relevant knowledge, do not rely only on handouts but watch the course video lectures and read additional material available online or in any other mode.
me Allama to nahi hun per
Tariq bhai, thats very nice. My suggestion came true less u-fone. I have placed it in 3rd quadrant because they are charging less prices.
Ab koi yeh na kahey keh samajh nahi ai
please see the below diagram , and draw at your own similar to this..
official website of PTA, Mobilink, Telenor, Warid, Zong and U-fone. Found few facts indicated by these sites. These are summarized below
Mobilink Telenor Warid U-fone Zong
Users 37.1 Mn 33.5 Mn 12.7 Mn 24.5 Mn 15.6 Mn
Avg Call rate/min Rs. 2.1 2.00 1.60 1.98 1.60
SMS Rs. 1.7 1.00 1.50 1.55 1.00
Cellular Subscribers 28.9% 26.1% 9.9% 18.6% 16.4%
CPM 3.5 2.25 2.00 3.00 3.00
Tariff For Prepaid and Postpaid connections
this will help you in making graph
Fighting Falcon Shakeel mujy ni smj ai abi b
Doli bahna aap ki khair hey.
Market segmentation is the process in marketing of grouping a market (i.e. customers) into smaller subgroups. This is not something that is arbitrarily imposed on society: it is derived from the recognition that the total market is often made up of submarkets (called 'segments'). These segments are homogeneous within (i.e. people in the segment are similar to each other in their attitudes about certain variables).
Because of this intra-group similarity, they are likely to respond somewhat similarly to a given marketing strategy. That is, they are likely to have similar feeling and ideas about a marketing mix comprised of a given product or service, sold at a given price, distributed in a certain way, and promoted in a certain way.
The Need for Market Segmentation
The marketing concept calls for understanding customers and satisfying their needs better than the competition. But different customers have different needs, and it rarely is possible to satisfy all customers by treating them alike.
Mass marketing refers to treatment of the market as a homogenous group and offering the same marketing mix to all customers. Mass marketing allows economies of scale to be realized through mass production, mass distribution, and mass communication. The drawback of mass marketing is that customer needs and preferences differ and the same offering is unlikely to be viewed as optimal by all customers. If firms ignored the differing customer needs, another firm likely would enter the market with a product that serves a specific group, and the incumbent firms would lose those customers.
Target marketing on the other hand recognizes the diversity of customers and does not try to please all of them with the same offering. The first step in target marketing is to identify different market segments and their needs.
The following are some examples of geographic variables often used in segmentation.
• Region: by continent, country, state, or even neighborhood
• Size of metropolitan area: segmented according to size of population
• Population density: often classified as urban, suburban, or rural
• Climate: according to weather patterns common to certain geographic regions
Some demographic segmentation variables include:
• Family size
• Family lifecycle
• Generation: baby-boomers, Generation X, etc.
• Social class
Many of these variables have standard categories for their values. For example, family lifecycle often is expressed as bachelor, married with no children (DINKS: Double Income, No Kids), full-nest, emptynest, or solitary survivor. Some of these categories have several stages, for example, full-nest I, II, or III depending on the age of the children.
Psychographic segmentation groups customers according to their lifestyle. Activities, interests, and opinions (AIO) surveys are one tool for measuring lifestyle. Some psychographic variables include:
Behavioral segmentation is based on actual customer behavior toward products. Some behavioralistic
• Benefits sought
• Usage rate
• Brand loyalty
• User status: potential, first-time, regular, etc.
• Readiness to buy
• Occasions: holidays and events that stimulate purchases
Behavioral segmentation has the advantage of using variables that are closely related to the product itself. It is a fairly direct starting point for market segmentation. When numerous variables are combined to give an in-depth understanding of a segment, this is referred to as depth segmentation. When enough information is combined to create a clear picture of a typical member of a segment, this is referred to as a buyer profile. When the profile is limited to demographic variables it is called a demographic profile (typically shortened to "a demographic"). A statistical technique commonly used in determining a profile is cluster analysis.
Marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories:
• Place (distribution)
The term "marketing mix" became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The Concept of the Marketing Mix. Borden began using the term in his teaching in the late 1940's after James Culliton had described the marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients". The ingredients in Borden's marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and analysis. E. Jerome McCarthy later grouped these ingredients into the four categories that today are known as the 4 P's
These four P's are the parameters that the marketing manager can control, subject to the internal and external constraints of the marketing environment. The goal is to make decisions that center the four P's on the customers in the target market in order to create perceived value and generate a positive response.
The term "product" refers to tangible, physical products as well as services. Here are some examples of the product decisions to be made:
• Brand name
• Repairs and Support
• Accessories and services
Some examples of pricing decisions to be made include:
• Pricing strategy (skim, penetration, etc.)
• Suggested retail price
• Volume discounts and wholesale pricing
• Cash and early payment discounts
• Seasonal pricing
• Price flexibility
• Price discrimination
Distribution (Place) Decisions
Distribution is about getting the products to the customer. Some examples of distribution decisions include:
• Distribution channels
• Market coverage (inclusive, selective, or exclusive distribution)
• Specific channel members
• Inventory management
• Distribution centers
• Order processing
• Reverse logistics
In the context of the marketing mix, promotion represents the various aspects of marketing
communication, that is, the communication of information about the product with the goal of generating a positive customer response. Marketing communication decisions include:
• Promotional strategy (push, pull, etc.)
• Personal selling & sales force
• Sales promotions
• Public relations & publicity
• Marketing communications budget