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MGT402 - Cost & Management Accounting Assignment No. 02 Solution & Discussion Due Date:30-12-2011

Q. No. 01 (9 + 9 Marks)
“Cost of Production Report”
Model Manufacturing Company manufactures a product by using process cost system.
The manufacturing process of the organization is carried on by two departments -
Department A and Department B. Production statistics of Department A for December
show the following data:
Units
Units in process - Sep. 01 1,500
Units completed and transferred 5,000
Units put into process 7,000
Units lost abnormally 600
(100% as to material & 35 % as to conversion cost)
Normal loss (units) 400
Units in process - Sep. 30 2,500
Production Costs of Department A
Cost of Work in process (Sep. 01) Rs.
Materials 22,000
Labor 9,000
Factory overhead 4,000
Costs incurred during month:
Materials 8,000
Labor 5,450
Factory overhead 2,790
Additional information:
o Opening work in process units: completed as to material 100% and
conversion cost 55%.
o Closing work in process units: completed 100 % as to material while to
conversion cost:
40 % of Units were 60 % complete
45 % of Units were 40 % complete
Remaining Units were 25 % complete
Virtual University of Pakistan (Fall semester 2011)
MGT-402
Required:
You are required to calculate the total cost accounted for Department A under:
1. FIFO cost method.
2. Weighted average cost method.

Q. No. 02 (4 + 4 + 4 Marks)
“Joint Product & By Product”
Hypothetical Company manufactures different products such as A, B, C, D & E jointly.
During the month of November 2011, the company manufactures 16,300 units. A total
cost of Rs. 16,790 was incurred to produce these units.
Further information is provided as:
Prod. Qty. Mfg. P/U Sale Price Units Sold Further cost needed
(%) (Rs.) (Grams) (Rs. P/U)
A 34 4 5,542 1.1
B 28 3 4,564 0.9
C 19 2 3,097 0.6
D 12 6 1,956 1.5
E 7 5 1,141 1.3
100 16,300
Required: You are required to allocate the above cost on the basis of:
• Physical quantity ratio method
• Selling price ratio method
• Hypothetical market value method
All Supporting Formulas and calculations are required as they carry marks.

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 MGT 402 Assignment solution helpful meterial

Process Costing Systems
Report for English 4 1999




1. Process Costing Systems - What is it and when is it used?

Illustrating process costing

2. Three cases

2.1 Case 1: Process Costing with nobeginning or ending work - in -process inventory
2.2 Case 2: Process costing with no beginning but an ending work - in - Process Inventory
2.3 Case 3: Process costing with both beginning and ending work - in -
process inventory 

3. Weighted-average method
4. First-In, First-out Method
5. Transferred-in costs in process costing 

5.1 Transferred-in Costs and the weigthed-average method 
5.2 Transferred-in Costs and the FIFO-Method

6. Common Mistakes with Transferred-in Costs
7. Mention of sources used

1. Process Costing Systems - What is it and when is it used?
A process-costing system is a costing system in which the cost of a product or service is obtained by assigning costs to masses of like or similar units. Unit costs are then computed on an average basis. Process-costing systems are used in industries that produce like or similar units which are often mass produced. In these industries, products are manufactured in a very similar way. The companies usually use the same amount of direct materials, direct manufacturing labor costs and manufacturing overhead costs. Industries that use process costing systems are for example: chemical processing, oil refining, pharmaceuticals, plastics, brick and tile manufacturing, semiconductor chips, beverages and breakfast cereals.
The difference between job costing and process costing is the extent of averaging used to compute unit costs of product and services. The cost object in job costing is a job that constitutes a distinctly identifiable product or service. The quantity of manufacturing resources is different in any job. It would be incorrect to cost each job at the same average manufacturing cost. So, when like or similar units are mass produced, process costing averages manufacturing costs over all units produced.
The costs of a product are important for inventory calculations, pricing decisions and product profitability analysis. It's also important for measuring how well the management is done and if costs are reduced effectively. 

Illustrating process costing
The best way to show how process costing works, is by example:
Global Defense, Inc, manufactures thousands of components for missiles and military equipment. One of these is called DG-19. The product-costing system for DG-19 has a single direct-cost strategy (direct materials) and a single indirect-cost category (conversion costs). Each unit passes through two departments: the Assembly Department and the Testing Department. Every effort is made to make sure that all DG-19 products are identical. Direct materials are added at the beginning of the process in Assembly. Additional direct materials are added at the end of processing in the Testing Department. Conversion costs are added evenly during both processes. They include manufacturing labor, indirect materials, energy, plant depreciation and so on. After leaving the Testing Department, the DG-19 component is transferred to Finished Goods.

2. Three cases
2.1 Case 1: Process Costing with no beginning or ending work - in - process inventory
During January, the first month of the period, Global Defense starts with the manufacturing process. All units will start and end in this period. Altogether, Global Defense will manufacture 400 units of DG-19 during this period.

Direct materials in this period: $ 32.000
Conversion costs in this period: $ 24.000
_______
Total Assembly costs in January: $ 56.000


Global Defense records direct materials and conversion costs in the Assembly Department as these costs are incurred. By averaging, the assembly cost per unit would be $ 56.000 / 400 units = $ 140:

Direct materials costs by unit ($32.000 / 400) $ 80
Conversion costs per unit ($ 24.000 / 400) $ 60
_____
Assembly Department cost per unit $ 140


Each unit is identical in this case, so we assume that all units receive the same amount of direct materials and conversion costs. The unit costs can be averaged by dividing total costs in a given accounting period by total units manufactured. This approach is for example used by banks to compute the unit costs of 100.000 similar customer deposits made in a month. It is usually used by organizations with mass production of standard units and no incomplete units after the period.

2.2 Case 2: Process costing with no beginning but an ending work - in - Process Inventory
There is no beginning inventory in February, because all 400 units produced in January had been fully completed. Due to customer delays in placing orders, it was only possible to produce 175 units in February.
The 225 partially assembled units as of February 28 were fully processed with respect to direct materials, because all direct materials in the Assembly Department are added at the beginning of the assembly process. Conversion costs are added evenly during the assembly process. Based on the work completed relative to the total work required to be done, an Assembly Department supervisor estimates that the partially assembled units were, on average, 60 % complete as to conversion costs.
Total costs for February:

Direct materials costs in February $ 32.000
Conversion costs February $ 18.600
_______
Total Assembly Departments costs $ 50.600


Problem: How should Global Defense calculate the cost of fully assembled units and the cost of the partially assembled units still in process?
The following four steps help us to find the answer:

Step 1: Summarize the flow of physical unit of output
Step 2: Compute output in terms of equivalent units
Step 3: Compute equivalent unit costs
Step 4: Summarize total costs to account for and assign these cost to units completed and to units in ending work in process


Step 1 tracks the physical unit of output. It shows, where they come from and how many units are there to account for, and where they go and how they are accounted for.
Step 2 measures the output in equivalent units, not in physical units, because not all units had been completed. The 400 units are complete in terms of equivalent units of direct materials, because all direct materials are added in the Assembly Department at the initial stage of the process. So you count all 400 units in equivalent direct costs.
The 175 fully assembled units are completely processed with respect to conversion costs. The partially assembled units in ending process are 60 % complete (on average). Therefore, the conversion costs in 225 partially assembled units is equivalent to conversion costs in 135 (60% of 225) fully assembled units. So, 310 equivalent units of conversion costs are assembled and transferred out and 135 equivalent units are in ending work - in - process inventory.
In step 3, equivalent unit costs are computed by dividing direct materials and conversion costs added during February by the related quantity of equivalent units of work done in February:

Direct costs Conversion costs
Costs added during February: $ 32.000 $ 18.600
Divide by equivalent units work done in February: / 400 / 300
________ _________
Cost per equivalent unit of work done in February: $ 80 $ 60

In Step 4, total costs to account for are summarized and assigned to units completed and transferred out and to units still in process at the end of February. Since the beginning balance of the work - in - process is zero, total costs to account for consist of the costs added during February: direct materials $ 32.000 and conversion costs $ 18.600.
Direct material costs are 225 times $80 (=$18.000) + Conversion costs: 135 times $60 (=$8.100). Total costs are therefore: $18.000 + $8.100 = $26.100.

2.3 Case 3: Process costing with both beginning and ending work - in - process inventory
In march, Global Defense has 225 partially assembled units in the Assembly Department. During march, Global Defense placed another 275 units into production.
Step 1 traces the physical units of production. In march, 400 units are completed and transferred out, 100units are in ending inventory.
Step 2 computes the output in terms of equivalent units: 275 equivalent units of direct materials and 315 equivalent units of conversion costs.
Step 3 computes equivalent unit costs. Direct materials: $ 80; conversion materials: $ 60
Step 4 summarizes total costs to account for and assigns these costs to units completed and to units in ending work in progress.
The costs that get assigned to each of these categories depend, as in all inventory accounting, on the specific assumptions regarding the flow of costs. Next are described to alternative methods, the weighted-average method and the first-in, first-out method.

3. Weighted-average method
The weighted-average process-costing method assigns the average equivalent unit cost of all work done to date (regardless of when it was done) to equivalent units completed and transferred out, and to equivalent units in ending inventory. The weighted-average cost is simply the average of various equivalent unit costs entering the work in process account.

4. First-In, First-out Method
The First-in, first-out (FIFO) process-costing method assigns the cost of the earliest equivalent units available (starting with the equivalent units in beginning work-in-process inventory. This method assumes that the earliest equivalent units in work in process - Assembly account are completed first.
5. Transferred-in costs in process costing
Transferred-in costs (or previous department costs) are costs incurred in a previous department that are carried forward as part of the product's cost as it moves to a subsequent department. That means, costs move with the units when they are transferred to a new department. So, computations of Testing costs must include transferred-in costs, additional direct materials costs and conversion costs added in Testing.
The four -step procedure is used to account for the costs of a subsequent department that has transferred-in costs. Units are fully completed as to transferred-in costs because these costs are just carried forward from the previous process. Direct materials costs have a zero degree of completion in both beginning and ending work-in-process inventories, because in Testing, direct materials are introduced at the end of the process. That completes steps 1 and 2.
5.1 Transferred-in Costs and the weigthed-average method

In step 3, the equivalent unit costs are computed. In step 4, the total costs to account for are summarized, that is the total debits to Work in Process under the weighted-average method. After that, these costs are assigned to units completed and to units in ending work-in-process inventory. Beginning work in process and work done in the current period are totaled and merged together for purposes of computing weighted-average costs.
A company may split the Work in Process account into Work in Process - Testing, Transferred-in Costs, Work in Process - Testing, Direct Materials and Work in Process - Testing, Conversion costs. The journal entries would contain this detail, though the underlying reasoning and techniques would be unaffected.

5.2 Transferred-in Costs and the FIFO-Method
The costs transferred-in from the Assembly Department are different when the weighted-average rather than the FIFO method is used in step 3. 
In step 4, the total costs to account for are summarized, consisting of the beginning inventory plus costs added during the current period, under the FIFO-method. These costs differ from the total debits to Work on Process under the weighted-average method, because of the different costs of completed units transferred-in from the Assembly Department under the weighted-average and FIFO methods.
When assigning costs, the FIFO method keeps the beginning inventory separate and distinct from the work done during the current period.
Each department in interdepartmental transfers is regarded as being separate and distinct for accounting purposes. All costs transferred in during a given accounting period are carried at one unit cost figure, regardless of whether previous departments used the weighted-average or the FIFO method.

6. Common Mistakes with Transferred-in Costs
Here are some common pitfalls to avoid when accounting for transferred-in costs:

  1. Remember to include transferred-in costs from previous departments in your calculations. Such costs should be treated as if they were another kind of direct material added at the beginning of the process. In other words, when successive departments are involved, transferred units from one department become all or a part of the direct materials of the next department; however, they are called transferred-in costs, not direct materials costs.
  2. In calculating costs to be transferred on a FIFO basis, do not overlook the costs assigned at the beginning of the period to units that were in process but are now included in the units transferred.
  3. Unit costs may fluctuate between periods. Therefore, transferred units may contain batches accumulated at different unit costs.
  4. Units may be measured in different terms in different departments. Consider each department separately. Unit costs could be based on kilograms in the first department and liters in the second , so as units are received by the second department, their measurementsmust be converted to liters.


7. Mention of sources used

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