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HRM Notes

Notes about function of management and types of manager which includes;top managers, middle managers,first line managers.Management skills including;conceptual skills,human relation skills,communication skills,administrative skills,prolem solving and leadership skills.

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           Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources. Management may be defined in many authors by different ways.        

  • According to Lawrence A Appley – “Management is the development of people and not the direction of things”.
  • According to Joseph Massie – “Management is defined as the process by which a cooperative group directs action towards common goals”.

Management has the following 3 characteristics:

  1. It is a process or series of continuing and related activities.
  2. It involves and concentrates on reaching organizational goals.                 
  3.  It reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organization resources.

There are following five function of management.

  • Planning
  • Organization
  • Staffing
  • Directing/Leading
  • Controlling


      Planning requires that managers be aware of environmental conditions facing their organization and forecast future conditions. It also requires that managers be good decision-makers. Planners must establish objectives, which are statements of what needs to be achieved and when. Planners must then identify alternative courses of action for achieving objectives. After evaluating the various alternatives, planners must make decisions about the best courses of action for achieving objectives. They must then formulate necessary steps and ensure effective implementation of plans. Finally, planners must constantly evaluate the success of their plans and take corrective action when necessary. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals.

Its activities include:

ü     Analyzing current situations.

ü     Determining the organizational objectives.

ü     Deciding the activities to be involved.

ü     Choosing strategies.

ü     Determining resources to achieve organizational goals.



       Organizing is an important managerial activity by which managers bring together the manpower and material resources for the achievement of objectives of the enterprises. Organization has also been defined as the process of establishing relationships among the members of the enterprise. The relationships are created in terms of authority and responsibility. Each member in the organization is assigned a specific responsibility or duty to perform and is granted the corresponding authority to perform his duty.

Organizing as a process involves:

  • Identification of activities.
  • Classification of grouping of activities.
  • Assignment of duties
  • Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility



     After an organization's structural design is in place, it needs people with the right skills, knowledge, and abilities to fill in that structure. People are an organization's most important resource, because people either create or undermine an organization's reputation for quality in both products and service.

Staffing is that part of the process of management which is concerned with acquiring, developing, employing, appraising, remunerating and retaining people so that right type of people are available at right positions and at right time in the organization.

An organization must respond to change effectively in order to remain competitive. The right staff can carry an organization through a period of change and ensure its future success.



Leading involves influencing others toward the attainment of organizational objectives. Effective leading requires the manager to motivate subordinates, communicate effectively, and effectively use power. If managers are effective leaders, their subordinates will be enthusiastic about exerting effort toward the attainment of organizational objectives.

To become effective at leading, managers must first understand their subordinates' personalities, values, attitudes, and emotions. Therefore, the behavioral sciences have made many contributions to the understanding of this function of management. Personality research and studies of job attitudes provide important information as to how managers can most effectively lead subordinates.

Its activities include:

ü   Directing the workforce.

ü    Motivating your subordinates.

ü    Communicating with employees


       Controlling involves ensuring that performance does not deviate from standards. Controlling consists of three steps, which include establishing performance standards, comparing actual performance against standards, and taking corrective action when necessary. Performance standards are often stated in monetary terms such as revenue, costs, or profits, but may also be stated in other terms, such as units produced, number of defective products, or levels of customer service.

The measurement of performance can be done in several ways, depending on the performance standards, including financial statements, sales reports, production results, customer satisfaction, and formal performance appraisals. Managers at all levels engage in the managerial function of controlling to some degree.



           Manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary. For many people, this is their first step into a management career.

Types of managers

l    Top Managers.

l    Middle Managers.

l    First-Line Managers.

Responsibilities of Top Managers

  • Creating a positive organizational culture through language and action.
  • Monitoring their business environments.
  • Senior executives are responsible for the overall management and effectiveness of the organization.
  • They also focus on long-term issues and emphasize the survival and growth of the organization.
  •  They are concerned with the interaction between the organization

and its external environment.

  • Top-level managers include Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Operating Officer (COO); company President, Vice-President, and members of the top executive committee

Responsibilities of Middle Managers

  • Plan and allocate resources to meet objectives.
  • Coordinate and link groups, departments, and divisions
  • They are the link between top-level managers and frontline managers.
  • Monitor and manage the performance of subunits and managers who report to them
  • Implement changes or strategies generated by top managers

Responsibilities of First-Line Managers

  • Manage the performance of entry-level employees.
  • Encourage, monitor, and reward the performance of workers.
  • Teach entry-level employees how to do their jobs.
  • Lower level managers who supervise the operational activities of the


  • Make detailed schedules and operating plans.


        Management is a challenging job. it requires certain skills to accomplish such a challenge. Thus, essential skills which every manager needs for doing a better management are called as Managerial skills.

There are some managerial skills are under,


          Conceptual skill is the ability to see the organization as a whole. It includes Analytical, Creative and Initiative skills. It helps the manager to identify the causes of the problems and not the symptoms. It helps him to solve the problems for the benefit of the entire organization. It helps the manager to fix goals for the whole organization and to plan for every situation. According to Prof. Daniel Katz, conceptual skills are mostly required by the top-level management because they spend more time in planning, organizing and problem solving.


Human relations skills are also called Interpersonal skills. It is an ability to work with people. It helps the managers to understand communicate and work with others it also helps the managers to lead motivate and develop team spirit. Human relations skills are required by all managers at all levels of management. This is so, since all managers have to interact and work with people develop team spirit.


Communication skills are required equally at all three levels of management. A manager must be able to communicate the plans and policies to the workers. Similarly, he must listen and solve the problems of the workers. He must encourage a free-flow of communication in the organization.


Administrative skills are required at the top-level management. The top-level managers should know how to make plans and policies. They should also know how to get the work done. They should be able to co-ordinate different activities of the organization. They should also be able to control the full organization.



Leadership skill is the ability to influence human behavior. A manager requires leadership skills to motivate the workers. These skills help the Manager to get the work done through the workers.




Problem solving skills are also called as Design skills. A manager should know how to identify a problem. He should also possess an ability to find a best solution for solving any specific problem. This requires intelligence, experience and up-to-date knowledge of the latest developments.


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