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MGT501 Glossary Short Notes

Absenteeism :

Any failure of an employee to report for or to remain at work as scheduled, regardless of reason.

Absolute rating systems :

Rating formats that evaluate each employee in terms of performance standards, without reference to other employees.

acceptability :

The extent to which a performance measure is deemed to be satisfactory or adequate by those who use it.

 

accepting diversity :

Learning to value and respect styles and ways of behaving that differ from one's own.

 

action learning :

A process in which participants learn through experience and application.

 

action programs :

Programs, including the activities of recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, training, and transfer, that help organizations adapt to changes in their environments.

 

active listening :

Listening in which five things are done well: taking time to listen, communicating verbally and nonverbally, not interrupting or arguing, watching for verbal and nonverbal cues, and summarizing what was said and what was agreed to.

 

adjustment :

The managerial activities intended to maintain compliance with the organization's human resource policies and business strategies.

 

adverse impact discrimination :

Unintentional discrimination that occurs when identical standards or procedures unrelated to success on a job are applied to everyone, despite the fact that such standards or procedures lead to a substantial difference in employment outcomes for the members of a particular group.

 

affirmative action :

Action intended to overcome the effects of past or present discriminatory policies or practices, or other barriers to equal employment opportunity.

 

age grading :

Subconscious expectations about what people can and cannot do at particular times of their lives.

 

agency shop :

A union security provision stipulating that although employees need not join the union that represents them, in lieu of dues they must pay a service charge for representation.

 

agreeableness :

The degree to which an individual is cooperative, warm, and agreeable, versus cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.

 

alternation ranking :

A ranking method in which a rater initially lists all employees on a sheet of paper and then chooses the best employee, worst employee, second best, second worst, and so forth until all employees have been ranked.

 

alternative dispute resolution (ADR) :

A formal, structured policy for dispute resolution that may involve third-party mediation and arbitration.

 

annuity problem :

The situation that exists when past merit payments, incorporated into an employee's base pay, form an annuity (a sum of money received at regular intervals), allowing formerly productive employees to slack off for several years while still earning high pay.

 

antidiscrimination rule :

A principle that holds that employers can obtain tax advantages only for those benefits that do not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees.

 

applicant group :

Individuals who are eligible for and interested in selection or promotion.

 

assessment center method :

A process that evaluates a candidate's potential for management on the basis of multiple assessment techniques, standardized methods of making inferences from such techniques, and pooled judgments from multiple assessors.

 

assessment phase of training :

The phase whose purpose is to define what the employee should learn in relation to desired job behaviors.

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Replies to This Discussion

cascading process :

Periodic review of work plans by both supervisors and subordinates in order to identify goals attained, problems encountered, and the need for training.

 

case law :

The courts' interpretations of laws and determination of how those laws will be enforced, which serve as precedents to guide future legal decisions.

 

cash-balance plan :

A pension plan in which each employee receives steady annual credit toward an eventual pension, adding to his or her pension account "cash balance."

 

central tendency :

In rating employees, a tendency to give employees an average rating on each criterion.

 

certiorari :

Discretionary review by the Supreme Court when conflicting conclusions have been reached by lower courts or when a major question of constitutional interpretation is involved.

 

change facilitator :

An individual who anticipates the need for change in strategy and prepares the organization for that change; a key role of a human resource professional.

 

checkoff :

A union security provision under which an employee may request that union dues be deducted from her or his pay and be sent directly to the union.

 

circumstantial evidence :

Statistical evidence used as a method of proving the intention to discriminate systematically against classes of individuals.

 

closed shop :

A union security provision stipulating that an individual must join the union that represents employees in order to be considered for employment.

 

collaborator :

An individual who works well both inside and outside an organization, and who shares information rather than promoting competition; a key role of a human resources professional.

 

collective bargaining unit :

The group of employees eligible to vote in a representation election.

 

collectivism :

The extent to which members of a culture give preference to group over individual goals.

 

community of interest :

A defined unit that reflects the shared interests of the employees involved.

 

comparison quitters :

Rationally evaluate alternative jobs and are relatively free of strong negative emotions toward their former employers.

 

compensable factors :

Common job characteristics that an organization is willing to pay for, such as skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.

 

compensation :

The human resource management function that deals with every type of reward that individuals receive in return for performing work.

 

compensatory damages :

In civil cases, damages that are awarded to reimburse a plaintiff for injuries or harm.

 

competencies :

Characteristics of individuals that are necessary for successful performance, with behavioral indicators associated with high performance.

 

competency-based pay system :

A pay system under which workers are paid on the basis of the number of jobs they are capable of doing, that is, on the basis of their skills or their depth of knowledge.

 

competency models :

Attempt to identify variables related to overall organizational fit and to identify personality characteristics consistent with the organization's vision.

 

competitive strategies :

The means that firms use to compete for business in the marketplace and to gain competitive advantage.

 

conditional quitters :

Will quit their job as soon as they get another job offer that meets certain conditions.

 

conscientiousness :

The degree to which an individual is hard-working, organized, dependable, and persevering versus lazy, disorganized, and unreliable.

 

consideration :

The aspect of leadership behavior that reflects management actions oriented toward developing mutual trust, respect for subordinates' ideas, and consideration of their feelings.

 

conspiracy doctrine :

A claim by employers that employees are conspiring against them in restraint of trade (for instance, by striking for higher wages).

 

contract compliance :

Adherence of contractors and subcontractors to equal employment opportunity, affirmative action, and other requirements of federal contract work.

 

contrast effects :

A tendency among interviewers to evaluate a current candidate's interview performance relative to the performances of immediately preceding candidates.

 

contrast error :

A rating error occurring when an appraiser compares several employees with one another rather than with an objective standard of performance.

 

contributory plans :

Group health care plans in which employees share in the cost of the premiums.


control group design :

A study design in which training is provided to one group but not to a second group that is similar to the trained group in terms of relevant characteristics.

 

cosmopolitan managers :

Managers who are sensitive to cultural differences, respect the distinctive practices of others, and make allowances for such factors when communicating with representatives of different cultural groups.

cosmopolitan perspective :

A perspective that comprises sensitivity to cultural differences, respect for distinctive practices of others, and making allowances for such factors in communicating with representatives of different cultural groups.


cost control :

The practice of keeping business costs at the lowest possible level in order for the business to be competitive.


cost shifting :

In health care, a situation in which one group of patients pays less than the true cost of their medical care.


cost-reduction strategy :

A competitive strategy with the primary objective of gaining competitive advantage by being the lowest-cost producer of goods or provider of services.


criteria :

The standards used to measure performance.

 

critical incidents :

In job analysis, vignettes consisting of brief actual reports that illustrate particularly effective or ineffective worker behaviors; a behavior oriented rating method consisting of such anecdotal reports.

 

culture shock :

The frustrations, conflict, anxiety, and feelings of alienation experienced by those who enter an unfamiliar culture.

ethical decisions about behavior :

Decisions that concern a person's conformity to moral standards or to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group; decisions that take into account not only a person's own interests but also, equally, the interests of all others affected by the decisions.

 

ethnic minorities :

People classified according to common traits and customs.

 

externalities :

Social costs of production that are not necessarily included on a firm's profit-and-loss statement.

featherbedding :

Requiring an employer in a laborcontract provision to pay for services that are not performed by hiring more employees than are needed or by limiting production.

 

financial rewards :

The component of an organizational reward system that includes direct payments, such as salary, and indirect payments, such as employee benefits.

glass ceiling :

The barrier faced by women in breaking through to senior management positions, so called because although women can see the top jobs, they cannot actually reach them.

 

global challenge :

Training needs stimulated by the expansion of many firms into global markets. Such needs involve the training of local nationals, as well as preparing employees from the home country to work in foreign markets.

 

global corporation :

A corporation that has become an "insider" in any market or nation where it operates and is thus competitive with domestic firms operating in local markets.

 

globalites :

Sophisticated international executives drawn from many countries.

 

goal theory :

The theory that an individual's conscious goals or intentions regulate her or his behavior.

 

goals and timetables :

Flexible objectives and schedules for hiring and promoting underrepresented group members to ensure compliance with equal opportunity employment and affirmative action requirements.

 

grandfather clause :

A plan that allows older workers to stay enrolled in the original pension plan if the organization decides to change plans.

 

graphic rating scales :

Do not yield the depth of essays or critical incidents, but they are less time-consuming to develop and administer.

 

grievance :

An alleged violation of the rights of workers on the job.

 

grievance arbitration :

The final stage of the grievance process, which consists of compulsory, binding arbitration; used as an alternative to a work stoppage and to ensure labor peace for the duration of a labor contract.

 

grievance procedures :

Procedures by which an employee can seek a formal, impartial review of a decision that affects him or her; a formal process to help the parties involved resolve a dispute.

 

group life insurance :

Life insurance benefits, usually yearly renewable term insurance, provided for all employees as part of a benefits package.

 

guided team self-correction :

Providing guidance to team members in reviewing team events; identifying errors and exchanging feedback; developing plans for the future.

halo error :

A rating error occurring when an appraiser rates an employee high (or low) on many aspects of job performance because the appraiser believes the employee performs well (or poorly) on some specific aspect.

 

hard quotas :

In an organization's recruitment and selection process, a mandate to hire or promote specific numbers or proportions of women or minority-group members.

 

headhunter :

An executive recruiter.

 

health awareness :

Knowledge of the present and future consequences of behaviors and lifestyles and the risks they may present.

 

health maintenance organization (HMO) :

An organized system of health care, with the emphasis on preventive medicine, that assures the delivery of services to employees who enroll voluntarily under a prepayment plan, thereby committing themselves to using the services of only those doctors and hospitals that are members of the plan.

 

health promotion :

A corporation's promotion of health awareness through four steps: educating employees about health-risk factors; identifying health-risk factors faced by employees; helping employees eliminate these risks; and helping employees maintain the new, healthier lifestyle.

 

higher-of-home-or-host compensation :

Localizes expatriates in the host-country salary program but establishes a compensation floor based on home-country compensation so that expatriates never receive less than what they would be paid at home for a comparable position.

 

high-performance work practices :

Work practices that maximize the fit between the company's social system and technology.

 

high-performance work systems challenge :

Increasingly sophisticated technological systems that will impose training and retraining requirements on the existing workforce.

 

home country :

An expatriate's country of residence.

 

host country :

The country in which an expatriate is working.

 

hostile environment harassment :

Verbal or physical conduct that creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment or interferes with an employee's job performance.

 

HR strategy :

Parallels and facilitates implementation of the strategic business plan.

 

human resource accounting :

An approach to assessing human resource systems that considers only the investments made in managers and not the returns on those investments.

 

human resource forecasts :

The human resource planning activity that predicts future human resource requirements, including the number of workers needed, the number expected to be available, the skills mix required, and the internal versus external labor supply.

 

human resource information system :

The method used by an organization to collect, store, analyze, report, and evaluate information and data on people, jobs, and costs.

 

human resource management (HRM) system :

An overall approach to management, comprising staffing, retention, development, adjustment, and managing change.

 

human resource planning (HRP) :

An effort to anticipate future business and environmental demands on an organization, and to provide qualified people to fulfill that business and satisfy those demands; HRP includes talent inventories, human resource forecasts, action plans, and control and evaluation.

implied promises :

Oral promises and implied covenants of good faith and fair dealing as well as explicit ones.

 

impulsive quitters :

Quit on the spot without any advance planning.

 

in-basket test :

A situational test in which an individual is presented with items that might appear in the in-basket of an administrative officer, is given appropriate background information, and is directed to deal with the material as though he or she were actually on the job.

 

in-house temporaries :

Temporary workers who work directly for the hiring organization, as opposed to those supplied from temporary agencies.

 

in-plant slowdowns :

The action of union workers of staying on the job instead of striking, but carrying out their tasks "by the book," showing no initiative and taking no shortcuts.


incentives :

One-time supplements, tied to levels of job performance, to the base pay of employees, including nonexempt and unionized employees.

 

income-maintenance laws :

Laws designed to provide employees and their families with income security in case of death, disability, unemployment, or retirement.

 

indirect costs of accidents :

Costs that cannot be avoided by a corporation when an employee has an accident, such as wages paid for time lost, cost of damage to material or equipment, and any other expense created in conjunction with the accident.

 

indirect labor :

Workers who provide essential services to line workers.

 

indirect measures :

Measures that do not deal directly with cost; expressed in terms of time, quantity, or quality.

 

indirect measures of training outcomes :

Improvements in job performance or decreases in error, scrap, and waste.

 

globalization :

The interdependence of business operations internationally; commerce without borders.

 

"hot cargo" agreements :

Refusals by the management or union members of a company to handle another employer's products because of that employer's relationship with a particular union.

 

human capital metrics :

People-related measures that focus on outcomes that are directly relevant to the strategic objectives of a business.

 

informational justice :

Justice expressed in terms of providing explanations or accounts for decisions made.

 

integrative bargaining :

In negotiations, the bargaining posture that assumes that the goals of the parties are not mutually exclusive, that it is possible for both sides to achieve their objectives; also known as win–win bargaining.

 

internal criteria :

Measures of reaction and learning that are concerned with outcomes of the training program per se.

 

internal equity :

Determination of whether or not pay rates are fair in terms of the relative worth of individual jobs to an organization.

 

international alliance :

A collaboration between two or more multinational companies that allows them jointly to pursue a common goal.

 

interpersonal challenge :

The need, as more firms move to employee involvement and teams in the workplace, for team members to learn behaviors such as asking for ideas, offering help without being asked, listening and feedback skills, and recognizing and considering the ideas of others.


Inter-rater reliability :

An estimate of reliability obtained from independent ratings of the same sample of behavior by two different scorers.

 

inventories :

Standardized measures of behavior, such as interests, attitudes, and opinions, that do not have right and wrong answers.

job analysis :

The process of obtaining information about jobs, including the tasks to be done on the jobs as well as the personal characteristics necessary to do the tasks.

 

job description :

A written summary of task requirements for a particular job.

 

job evaluation :

Assessment of the relative worth of jobs to a firm.

 

job families :

Job classification systems that group jobs according to their similarities.

 

job posting :

The advertising of available jobs internally through the use of bulletin boards (electronic or hardcopy) or in lists available to all employees.

 

job satisfaction :

A pleasurable feeling that results from the perception that a job fulfills or allows for the fulfillment of its holder's important job values.

 

job sharing :

An approach that allows two employees to share the job responsibilities normally handled by only one employee, and to receive salary and benefits in proportion to their contribution.

 

just cause :

As it pertains to arbitration cases, the concept that requires an employer not only to produce persuasive evidence of an employee's liability or negligence, but also to provide the employee a fair hearing and to impose a penalty appropriate to the proven offense.

 

key jobs :

Jobs that are characterized by stable tasks and stable job specifications; also known as benchmark jobs.

 

knowledge capital :

The value of the knowledge possessed by people at all levels of an organization.

 

labor market :

A geographical area within which the forces of supply (people looking for work) interact with the forces of demand (employers looking for people) and thereby determine the price of labor.

 

leaderless group discussion (LGD) :

A situational test in which a group of participants is given a job-related topic and is asked to carry on a discussion about it for a period of time, after which observers rate the performance of each participant.

 

leniency :

The tendency to rate every employee high or excellent on all criteria.

 

liability without fault :

The principle that forms the foundation for workers' compensation laws, under which benefits are provided not because of any liability or negligence on the part of the employer, but as a matter of social policy.

 

Likert method of summed ratings :

A type of behavioral checklist with declarative sentences and weighted response categories; the rater checks the response category that he or she thinks best describes the employee and sums the weights of the responses that were checked for each item.

 

local perspective :

A viewpoint that includes no appreciation for cultural differences.

 

lockout :

The shutting down of plant operations by management when contract negotiations fail.

 

long-term disability (LTD) plans :

Disability insurance plans that provide benefits when an employee is disabled for 6 months or longer, usually at no more than 60 percent of base pay.

 

long-term versus short-term orientation :

Refers to the extent to which a culture programs its members to accept delayed gratification of material, social, and emotional needs.

 

loss-control program :

A way to sustain a safety policy through four components: a safety budget, safety records, management's personal concern, and management's good example.

 

lump-sum bonus :

Employees receive an end-of-year bonus that does not build into base pay.

 

maintenance of membership :

A union security provision stipulating that an employee must remain a member of the union once he or she joins.

 

quid pro quo harassment :

Sexual harassment that is a condition of employment.

 

Resumix Human Skills Management System :

An automated résumé-processing system that uses electronic technology to process résumés, input data into an applicant database, and provide online access to résumé and skills information on available job candidates.

 

reverse discrimination :

Discrimination against whites (especially white males) and in favor of members of protected groups.

 

reverse mentoring :

A mentoring program in which an older manager meets with a younger subordinate to learn about technologies such as the Internet and e-commerce.

 

right-to-work laws :

Laws that prohibit compulsory union membership as a condition of continued employment.

secondary boycott :

A boycott occurring when a union appeals to firms or other unions to stop doing business with an employer who sells or handles struck products.

 

secret-ballot election :

If the union received a majority of the ballots, the union becomes certified as the exclusive bargaining representative of all employees in the unit.

 

selection :

The process of choosing among candidates or employees for hire or promotion.

 

selection ratio :

The percentage of applicants hired, which is used in evaluating the usefulness of any predictor.

 

self-assessment :

In career management a process in which employees focus on their own career goals.

 

seniority :

Privileged status attained by length of employment.

 

seniority system :

An established business practice that allots to employees ever-improving employment rights and benefits as their relative lengths of pertinent employment increase.

 

sensitivity :

The capability of a performance appraisal system to distinguish effective from ineffective performers.

 

"70 percent comfortable" rule :

Saturn Corporation's guideline for reaching consensus among team members: Each team member must feel at least 70 percent comfortable with any decision made by the team.

 

severity :

The tendency to rate every employee low on the criteria being evaluated.

 

severance pay :

Payments, usually based on length of service, organization level, and reason for termination, provided to employees whose employment is terminated.

 

sexual harassment :

Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment; unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance; or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.

 

shrinkage :

Losses due to bookkeeping errors and employee, customer, and vendor theft.

 

silent generation :

People born between 1930 and 1945, who dedicated themselves to their employers, made sacrifices to get ahead, and currently hold many positions of power.

 

simple ranking :

Requires only that the rater order all employees from highest to lowest, from "best" employee to "worst" employee.

 

sit-down strike :

Workers refuse to leave the premises until employers agree to meet their demands for recognition.

 

cross-cultural training :

Refers to formal programs designed to prepare persons of one culture to interact effectively in another culture or to interact more effectively with persons from different cultures.

 

enterprise unions :

Unions in which membership is limited to regular employees of a single company regardless of whether they are blue-collar or white-collar employees.

 

erroneous rejection :

In the selection of personnel, the rejection of someone who should have been accepted.

 

essential functions :

Job functions that require relatively more time and have serious consequences of error or nonperformance associated with them.

 

ethical dilemmas :

Situations that have the potential to result in a breach of acceptable behavior.

 

ethnic :

Pertaining to groups of people classified according to common traits and customs.

 

ethnocentrism :

The view of an organization that the way things are done in the parent country is the best way, no matter where the business is conducted.

 

evaluation phase of training :

A twofold process that involves establishing indicators of success in training as well as on the job and determining exactly what job-related changes have occurred as a result of the training.

 

exclusive representation :

The concept that one and only one union, selected by majority vote, will exist in a given job territory, although multiple unions may represent different groups of employees who work for the same employer.

 

exempt employees :

Employees who are exempt from the overtime provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

 

expatriate :

Anyone working outside her or his home country with a planned return to that or a third country; also known as a foreign-service employee.

 

experience-based interview :

An employment interview in which candidates are asked to provide detailed accounts of how they reacted in actual job-related situations.

 

expert system (ES) :

An interactive computer program that combines the knowledge of subject-matter experts and uses this information to recommend a solution for the user; may be used to enhance communication about and understanding of employee benefit programs.

 

external criteria :

Measures of behavior and results that indicate the impact of training on the job.

 

external equity :

"Fairness" in the wages paid by an organization, in terms of competitive market rates outside the organization.

 

extroversion :

Gregariousness, assertiveness, and sociability in an individual, as opposed to reserved, timid, and quiet.

 

fact-finding :

A dispute-resolution mechanism in which each party submits whatever information it believes is relevant to a resolution of the dispute, and a neutral fact finder then makes a study of the evidence and prepares a report on the facts.

 

fairness :

As it pertains to employee performance rewards, the employees' perceptions that rewards are given honestly and impartially, without favoritism or prejudice; an employee's perception depends on a comparison with the reward received and some comparison standard, such as rewards received by others, rewards received previously, or rewards promised by the organization.

 

family-friendly firms :

Organizations with policies, such as on-site child care and flexible work schedules, that take into account the families of employees.

 

feedback :

Evaluative or corrective information transmitted to employees about their attempts to improve their job performance.

 

femininity :

The extent to which members of a culture consider sex-role distinctions to be minimal and emphasize quality of life, as opposed to work, as the central value in a person's life.

 

fiduciaries :

Pension trustees.

 

fiduciary duty of loyalty :

An obligation by employees to maintain all trade secrets with which their employers have entrusted them; also provides a former employer with legal recourse if an executive joins a competitor and reveals trade secrets.

 

flexible benefits :

Benefits provided under a plan that allows employees to choose their benefits from among the alternatives offered by the organization.

 

flexible spending accounts :

Accounts into which employees can deposit pretax dollars (up to a specified amount) to pay for additional benefits.

flextime :

A strategy that allows any employee the right, within certain limitations, to set his or her own workday hours.

 

forced distribution :

A rating method in which the overall distribution of ratings is forced into a normal, or bell-shaped, curve, under the assumption that a relatively small portion of employees is truly outstanding, a relatively small portion is unsatisfactory, and all other employees fall in between.

 

foreign-service employee :

Anyone working outside her or his home country with a planned return to that or a third country; also known as an expatriate.

 

formal recruitment sources :

External recruitment channels, including university relations, executive search firms, employment agencies, and recruitment advertising.

 

401(k) plan :

A defined-contribution pension plan in which an employee can deduct a certain amount of his or her income from taxes and place the money into a personal retirement account; if the employer adds matching funds, the combined sums grow taxfree until they are withdrawn, usually at retirement.

 

frame-of-reference training :

A form of rater training that attempts to establish a common perspective and standards among caters.

 

free-speech clause :

The right of management to express its opinion about unions or unionism to employees, provided that it does not threaten or promise favors to employees to obtain antiunion actions.

 

functional HR skills :

Include, for example, those in recruitment, selection, performance management, training and development, labor relations, and compensation.

 

gain sharing :

An organization-wide incentive program in which employee cooperation leads to information sharing and employee involvement, which in turn lead to new behaviors that improve organizational productivity; the increase in productivity results in a financial bonus (based on the amount of increase), which is distributed monthly or quarterly.

 

gatekeeper :

A primary-care physician who monitors the medical history and care of each employee and his or her family.

 

Generation X :

People born between 1965 and 1977, who grew up in times of rapid change, both social and economic; also known as baby busters.

 

Generation Y :

People born between 1977 and 1997; includes offspring of baby boomers as well as an influx of immigrants through the 1990s. These people have grown up and are growing up with sophisticated technologies, having been exposed to them much earlier in life than members of Generation X.

 

generational diversity :

Important differences in values, aspirations, and beliefs that characterize the swing generation, the silent generation, the baby boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y.

 

geocentrism :

In the recruitment of executives for multinational companies, a strategy with an international perspective that emphasizes the unrestricted use of people of all nationalities.

 

six sigma :

An effort to make error-free projects 99.9997 percent of the time, or just 3.4 errors per million opportunities.

 

simplified employee pension :

A defined-contribution pension plan under which a small-business employer can contribute a certain percentage or amount of an employee's salary tax-free to an individual retirement account; the employee is vested immediately for the amount paid into the account but cannot with-draw any funds before age 59 1⁄2 without penalty.

 

situational interview :

An employment interview in which candidates are asked to describe how they think they would respond in certain job-related situations.

 

situational tests :

Standardized measures of behavior whose primary objective is to assess the ability to do rather than the ability to know through miniature replicas of actual job requirements; also known as work-sample tests.

 

skip-level policy :

An organizational policy that allows an employee with a problem to proceed directly to the next higher level of management above his or her supervisor.

 

social challenge :

In the context of training, it refers to the number of unskilled and undereducated youth who will be needed for entry-level jobs, and the need to train currently underutilized groups of racial and ethnic minorities, women, and older workers.

 

social learning theory :

The theory that individuals in groups learn appropriate behaviors and attitudes from one another.

 

socialization :

In the employee recruitment and selection process, the introduction of new employees to company policies, practices, and benefits through an orientation program; the mutual adaptation of the new employee and the new employer to one another.

 

individual analysis :

In the assessment of training needs, the level of analysis that determines how well each employee is performing the tasks that make up his or her job.

 

individual equity :

Determination of whether or not each individual's pay is "fair" relative to that of other individuals doing the same or similar jobs.

 

individualism :

The extent to which members of a culture emphasize personal rather than group goals.

 

informal recruitment sources :

Recruitment sources such as walk-ins, write-ins, and employee referrals.

 

initial screening :

In the employee recruitment and selection process, a cursory selection of possible job candidates from a pool of qualified candidates.

 

initiating structure :

The aspect of leadership behavior that reflects the extent to which an individual defines and structures her or his role and those of her or his subordinates toward task accomplishment.

 

innovation strategy :

A competitive strategy with the primary objective of developing products or services that differ from those of competitors.

 

innovator :

An individual who creates new approaches to motivating and managing people rather than relying on past procedures; a key role of a human resource professional.

 

institutional memories :

Memories (primarily of workers with long service) of corporate traditions and of how and why things are done as they are in an organization.

 

integrity tests :

Overt (clear-purpose) tests that are designed to assess directly attitudes toward dishonest behaviors and personality-based (disguised-purpose) tests that aim to predict a broad range of counterproductive behaviors at work.

 

interactional justice :

The quality of interpersonal treatment that employees receive in their everyday work.

 

interest arbitration :

A dispute-resolution mechanism in which a neutral third party hears the positions of both parties and decides on binding settlement terms.

 

job specification :

A written summary of worker requirements for a particular job.

 

justice :

The maintenance or administration of what is just, especially by the impartial adjustment of conflicting claims or the assignment of merited rewards or punishments.

 

localization :

The practice of paying expatriates on the same scale as local nationals in the country of assignment.

 

managed care :

A health care system in which a doctor's clearance for treatment is required for the employee before he or she enters the hospital.

 

managed health :

Total health and productivity management in which patients are treated under the same health-care delivery system, regardless of whether they became ill or were injured at work or on their own time.

 

managed-disability programs :

Disability insurance plans that focus on making sure that employees with disabilities receive the care and rehabilitation they need to help them return to work quickly.

 

management by objectives (MBO) :

A philosophy of management with a results-oriented rating method that relies on goal-setting to establish objectives for the organization as a whole, for each department, for each manager, and for each employee, thus providing a measure of each employee's contribution to the success of the organization.

 

management controls :

Measures instituted by management in an attempt to increase safe worker behaviors.

 

managing change :

The ongoing managerial process of enhancing the ability of an organization to anticipate and respond to developments in its external and internal environments, and to enable employees at all levels to cope with the changes.

 

managing diversity :

Establishing a heterogeneous workforce (including white men) to perform to its potential in an equitable work environment where no member or group of members enjoys an advantage or suffers a disadvantage.

 

maquiladoras :

Border factories that import auto parts and electronics, process them, and send them north again, all duty-free.

 

market-based pay system :

A pay system that uses a direct market-pricing approach for all of a firm's jobs.

 

masculinity :

The extent to which members of a culture differentiate very strongly by gender and the dominant cultural values are work-related.

 

massed practice :

Practice sessions that are crowded together.

 

meaningfulness of material :

Material that is rich in associations for the trainees and is therefore easily understood by them.

 

mediation :

A process by which a neutral third party attempts to help the parties in a dispute reach a settlement of the issues that divide them.

 

mentor :

One who acts or is selected to act as teacher, advisor, sponsor, and confidant for a new hire or a small group of new hires in order to share his or her knowledge about the dynamics of power and politics, facilitate socialization, and improve the newcomers' chances for survival and growth in the organization.

 

merged-gender mortality tables :

Mortality tables that, rather than treating males and females separately, show the combined number of persons living, the combined number of persons dying, and the mergedgender mortality rate for each age.

 

merit guide charts :

Charts that are used to determine the size of an employee's merit increase for a given level of performance; the intersection on the chart of the employee's performance level and his or her location in a pay grade identifies the percentage of pay increase.

 

merit-pay systems :

Pay systems, most commonly applied to exempt employees, under which employees receive permanent increases, tied to levels of job performance, in their base pay.

 

meta-analysis :

A statistical cumulation of research results across studies.

 

mid-career plateauing :

Performance by mid-career workers at an acceptable but not outstanding level, coupled with little or no effort to improve performance.

 

mixed-motive case :

A discrimination case in which an employment decision was based on a combination of job-related as well as unlawful factors.

 

mobility premium :

A one-time payment to an expatriate for each move—overseas, back home, or to another overseas assignment.

 

modified balance-sheet approach :

In terms of international compensation, linking salary to a region rather than to the home country.

 

modular corporation :

A new organizational form in which the basic idea is to focus on a few core competencies —those a company does best—and to outsource everything else to a network of suppliers.

 

mommy wars :

Personal conflicts experienced by women in the workforce, especially those in demanding executive positions, as they juggle work and family roles.

 

money-purchase plan :

A defined-contribution pension plan in which the employer contributes a set percentage of each vested employee's salary to his or her retirement account; annual investment earnings and losses are added to or subtracted from the account balance.

 

motion study :

A method of studying how a job is done.

 

narrative essay :

Simplest type of absolute rating system, in which a rater describes, in writing, an employee's strengths, weaknesses, and potential, together with suggestions for improvement.

 

needs assessment :

The process used to determine whether training is necessary.

 

negligent hiring :

The failure of an employer to check closely enough on a prospective employee, who then commits a crime in the course of performing his or her job duties.

 

neuroticism :

The degree to which an individual is insecure, anxious, depressed, and emotional, versus calm, self-confident, and cool.

 

no-compete agreements :

Clauses in a contract that bar an individual from working for a competitor for six months to two years if he or she is fired, if the job is eliminated, or if the individual leaves voluntarily.

 

noncontributory plan :

The employer pays the full cost of insurance premiums for employees.

 

nonfinancial rewards :

The component of an organizational reward system that includes everything in a work environment that enhances a worker's sense of self-respect and esteem by others, such as training opportunities, involvement in decision making, and recognition.

 

norms of behavior :

Local customs created from a culture's value system.

 

objective career :

A sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime; commonly referred to simply as one's career.

 

objective personality and interest inventories :

Inventories that provide a clear stimulus and a clear set of responses from which to choose.

 

obsolescence :

As it pertains to human resource management, the tendency for knowledge or skills to become out of date.

 

ombudspersons :

People designated to investigate claims of unfair treatment or to act as intermediaries between an employee and senior management and recommend possible courses of action to the parties.

 

O Net (Occupational Information Network) :

A national occupational system that provides comprehensive descriptions of the attributes of workers and jobs.

 

open-door policies :

Organizational policies that allow employees to approach senior managers with problems that they may not be willing to take to their immediate supervisors.

 

openness :

Posting salary ranges, experts contend, is a public show of trust in employees.

 

openness to experience :

The degree to which an individual is creative, curious, and cultured, versus practical with narrow interests.

 

operational planning :

Short- to middle-range business planning that addresses issues associated with the growth of current or new operations, as well as with any specific problems that might disrupt the pace of planned growth; also known as tactical planning.

 

organization analysis :

In the assessment of training needs, the level of analysis that focuses on identifying where within the organization training is needed.

 

operations analysis :

In the assessment of training needs, the level of analysis that attempts to identify the content of training—what an employee must do in order to perform competently.

 

organization :

In business, a group of people who perform specialized tasks that are coordinated to enhance the value or utility of some good or service that is wanted by and provided to a set of customers or clients.

 

organization development :

Systematic, long-range programs of organizational improvement.

 

organizational citizenship behaviors :

Discretionary behaviors performed outside an employee's formal role, which help other employees perform their jobs or which show support for and conscientiousness toward an organization.

 

organizational commitment :

The degree to which an employee identifies with an organization and is willing to put forth effort on its behalf.

 

organizational culture :

The pattern of basic assumptions developed by an organization in learning to adapt to both its external and its internal environments.

 

organizational entry :

The process of becoming more involved in a particular organization.

 

organizational reward system :

A system for providing both financial and nonfinancial rewards; includes anything an employee values and desires that an employer is able and willing to offer in exchange for employee contributions.

 

organizational support :

The extent to which an organization values employees' general contributions and cares for their well being.

 

orientation :

Familiarization with and adaptation to a situation or an environment.

 

outsourcing :

Shifting work other than the organization's core competencies to a network of outside suppliers and contractors.

 

overlearning :

Practicing far beyond the point where a task has been performed correctly only several times to the point that the task becomes "second nature."

 

paired comparisons :

A behavior-oriented rating method in which an employee is compared to every other employee; the rater chooses the "better" of each pair and each employee's rank is determined by counting the number of times she or he was rated superior.

 

paradigm shift :

In management philosophy, a dramatic change in the way of thinking about business problems and organizations.

 

parallel forms reliability estimate :

The coefficient of correlation between two sets of scores obtained from two forms of the same test.

 

passive nondiscrimination :

An organization's commitment to treat all races and both sexes equally in all decisions about hiring, promotion, and pay, but with no attempt to recruit actively among prospective minority applicants.

 

pattern bargaining :

Negotiating the same contract provisions for several firms in the same industry, with the intent of making wages and benefits uniform industrywide.

 

Paul principle :

The phenomenon that over time, people become uneducated, and therefore incompetent, to perform at a level at which they once performed adequately.

 

pay compression :

A narrowing of the ratios of pay between jobs or pay grades in a firm's pay structure.

 

peer assessment :

A general term denoting three basic methods that members of a well defined group use in judging each other's performance.

 

peer nomination :

A method of peer assessment that requires each group member to designate a certain number of group members as highest or lowest on a performance dimension.

 

peer ranking :

A method of peer assessment that requires each group member to rank the performance of all other members from best to worst.

 

peer rating :

A method of peer assessment that requires each group member to rate the performance of every other group member.


pension :

A sum of money paid at regular intervals to an employee who has retired from a company and is eligible to receive such benefits.

 

performance-accelerated shares :

Stock that vests sooner if the executive meets goals ahead of schedule.

 

performance appraisal :

A review of the job-relevant strengths and weaknesses of an individual or a team in an organization.

 

performance definition :

A way to ensure that individual employees or teams know what is expected of them, and that they stay focused on effective performance by paying attention to goals, measures, and assessment.

 

performance encouragement :

Provision of a sufficient amount of rewards that employees really value, in a timely, fair manner.

 

performance facilitation :

An approach to management in which roadblocks to successful performance of employees are eliminated, adequate resources to get a job done right and on time are provided, and careful attention is paid to the selection of employees.

 

performance management :

A broad process that requires managers to define, facilitate, and encourage performance by providing timely feedback and constantly focusing everyone's attention on the ultimate objectives.

 

performance shares :

Essentially stock grants awarded for meeting goals.

 

performance standards :

Criteria that specify how well, not how, work is to be done, by defining levels of acceptable or unacceptable employee behavior.

 

personality :

The set of characteristics of a person that account for the consistent way he or she responds to situations.

 

placement :

In the employee recruitment and selection process, the assignment of individuals to particular jobs.

 

plateaued workers :

Employees who are at a standstill in their jobs, either organizationally, through a lack of available promotions, or personally, through lack of ability or desire.

 

point-of-service plans :

Health care plans that offer the choice of using the plan's network of doctors and hospitals (and paying no deductible and only small copayments for office visits) or seeing a physician outside the network (and paying 30 to 40 percent of the total cost); an in-network gatekeeper must approve all services.

 

portability :

Tax-free transfer of vested benefits to another employer or to an individual retirement account if a vested employee changes jobs and if the present employer agrees.

 

positive discipline :

An alternative discipline procedure that includes the following steps: an oral reminder; a written reminder; and a decision-making leave, which is the employee's last chance to reform.


power distance :

The extent to which members of a culture accept the unequal distribution of power.

 

practicality :

Implies that appraisal instruments are easy for managers and employees to understand and use.

 

pre-employment training programs :

Programs developed by industry-specific, community-based coalitions, where member companies contribute time, money, and expertise to design training, and they also contribute employees to teach courses.

strategic planning :

Long-range business planning that involves fundamental decisions about the very nature of the business, including defining the organization's philosophy; formulating statements of identity, purpose, and objectives; evaluating strengths, weaknesses, and competitive dynamics; determining organizational design; developing strategies; and devising programs.

 

succession plans :

Internal labor supply forecasts— consisting of setting a planning horizon, identifying replacement candidates for each key position, assessing current performance and readiness for promotion, identifying career-development needs, and integrating the career goals of individuals with company goals— that are used to ensure the availability of competent executive talent.

 

swing generation :

Those people born between 1910 and 1929, who struggled through the Great Depression, fought in World War II, and rebuilt the American economy after that war.

 

sympathy strikes :

Refusals by employees of one bargaining unit to cross a picket line of a different bargaining unit.

 

system :

A network of interrelated components.

 

systemic discrimination :

Any business practice that results in the denial of equal employment opportunity.

 

systems approach :

An approach to managing human resources that provides a conceptual framework for integrating the various components within the system and for linking the human resource management (HRM) system with larger organizational needs.

 

tactical planning :

Short- to middle-range business planning that addresses issues associated with the growth of current or new operations, as well as with any specific problems that might disrupt the pace of planned growth; also known as operational planning.

 

talent inventory :

The human resource planning activity that assesses current human resources skills, abilities, and potential, and analyzes how those resources are currently being used.

 

team :

A group of individuals who are working together toward a common goal.

 

team-coordination training :

Focusing on teamwork skills that facilitate information exchange, cooperation, and coordination of job-related behaviors.

 

teleworking :

Work carried out in a location that is remote from central offices or production facilities, where the worker has no personal contact with coworkers but is able to communicate with them using electronic means.

 

telecommuting :

An approach, made possible by the use of computer and electronic technology in which an employee works either full-time or part-time from his or her home.

 

test-retest reliability :

An estimate of reliability obtained from two administrations of the same test at two different times.

 

tests :

Standardized measures of behavior, such as math and vocabulary skills, that have right and wrong answers.

 

third-country national :

An expatriate who has transferred to an additional country while working abroad.

 

360-degree feedback :

Performance assessments from above, below and at the same level as an employee. It may also include feedback from customers.

 

"Three-C" logic :

An approach to organizational design based on the strategies of command, control, and compartmentalization.

 

time study :

A study conducted to determine how fast a job should be done.

 

time-based strategy :

A competitive strategy with the primary goal of being the fastest innovator, producer, distributor, and responder to customer feedback; also known as a speed strategy.

 

total health and productivity management :

A developing trend toward integrating disability coverage with workers' compensation and, eventually, with group health care; also known as managed health.

 

total quality management (TQM) :

A management approach that emphasizes the continuous improvement of products and processes to ensure long-term customer satisfaction; TQM has a group problem-solving focus that encourages employee empowerment.

 

tournament model of upward mobility :

A model of career success based on the assumption that an individual must have a challenging first job and receive quick, early promotions in order to be successful in his or her career; so called because, as in a tournament, everyone has an equal chance in the early contests but the losers are not eligible for the later, major contests.

 

training :

Planned programs designed to improve performance at the individual, group, and/or organizational levels.


training outcomes :

The effectiveness of a training program based on cognitive, skill-based, affective, and results outcomes.

 

training paradox :

The seemingly contradictory fact that training employees to develop their skills and improve their performance increases their employability outside the company while simultaneously increasing their job security and desire to stay with their current employer.

 

transfer :

The extent to which competencies learned in training can be applied on the job.

 

transfer of training :

The use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training on the job.

transnational corporation :

Uses geo-diversity to great advantage, placing their top executives and core corporate functions in different countries to gain a competitive edge through the availability of talent or capital, or low costs, or proximity to their most important customers.

 

troubled employee :

An individual with unresolved personal or work-related problems.

 

trust gap :

A frame of mind in which employees mistrust senior management's intentions, doubt its competence, and resent its self-congratulatory pay.

 

turnover :

Any permanent departure of employees beyond organizational boundaries.

 

two-tier wage schemes :

Wage practices that set lower starting pay and smaller increments in pay for new employees.

 

type A behavior pattern :

A hard-driving, aggressive, competitive, impatient pattern of behavior.

 

uncertainty avoidance :

The extent to which members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous situations and thus emphasize ritual behavior, rules, and stability.

 

uncontrollable costs :

Costs that are beyond the control of an organization.

 

unequal treatment :

Disparate treatment of employees based on an intention to discriminate.

 

unfair labor practice strikes :

Strikes that are caused or prolonged by unfair labor practices of the employer.

 

union shop :

A union-security provision stipulating that, as a condition of continued employment, an individual must join the union that represents employees after a probationary period.

 

union-security clause :

In a contract, a clause designed to force all employees to join the union in order to remain working.

 

unprotected strikes :

Both lawful and unlawful work stoppages, such as sit-down strikes, slowdowns, and wildcat strikes, in which participants' jobs are not protected by law; thus the participants may be discharged by their employer.

 

utility analysis :

A method of converting measures of staffing or training outcomes into the metric of dollars.

 

validity :

Evidence regarding the appropriateness or meaningfulness of inferences about scores from a measurement procedure.

 

variable-pay systems :

Pay programs that are linked to profit and productivity gains.

 

vesting :

Guarantee as a legal right with no contingencies, of an employee's retirement benefits after a certain length of employment.

 

virtual corporation :

A new organizational form in which teams of specialists come together to work on a project and then disband when the project is finished.

 

virtual organization :

An organizational form in which teams of specialists come together through technology to work on a project, and disband when the project is finished.

 

virtual workplace :

A new organizational form based on the idea of working anytime, anywhere—in real space or in cyberspace.

 

visioning :

Conceptualizing what should be happening in the future, and having the ability to excite and inspire others in making the vision a reality.

 

voice systems :

Organizational systems that provide individuals and groups with the capacity to be heard, with a way to communicate their interests upward.

 

weighted application blanks (WABs) :

Statistically significant relationships between responses to questions on application forms and later measures of job performance.


Weingarten rights :

Rights defined by the Supreme Court in NLRB v. J. Weingarten, Inc., stating that a union employee has the right to demand that a union representative be present at an investigatory interview that the employee reasonably believes may result in disciplinary action; Weingarten rights also extend to nonunion employees.

 

wellness programs :

Programs that focus on prevention to help employees build lifestyles that will enable them to achieve their full physical and mental potential.

 

whistle-blowing :

Disclosure by former or current organization members of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices under the control of their employers.

 

willful violations :

Violations of OSHA requirements in which an employer either knew that what was being done constituted a violation of federal regulations or was aware that a hazardous condition existed and made no reasonable effort to eliminate it.

 

win–lose bargaining :

In negotiations, the bargaining posture that assumes that the goals of the parties are irreconcilable; also known as distributive bargaining.

 

win–win bargaining :

In negotiations, the bargaining posture that assumes that the goals of the parties are not mutually exclusive, that it is possible for both sides to achieve their objectives; also known as integrative bargaining.

 

work-life program :

An employer-sponsored benefit or working condition that helps employees to balance work and nonwork demands.

 

work planning and review :

Places greater emphasis on the periodic review of work plans by both supervisor and subordinate in order to identify goals attained, problems encountered, and the needs for training.

 

"Work-Out" program :

General Electric's program to involve every employee in improving efficiency and to foster communication between lower-level employees and bosses.


work-sample tests :

Standardized measures of behavior whose primary objective is to assess the ability to do rather than the ability to know through miniature replicas of actual job requirements; also known as situational tests.

 

workers' compensation programs :

Programs that provide payments to workers who are injured on the job, or who contract a work-related illness.

 

workforce forecasting :

The purpose is to estimate labor requirements at some future time period.

 

workforce planning :

Identification of the numbers of employees and the skills needed to perform available jobs, based on an understanding of available competencies and changes in jobs required by corporate goals.

 

workforce utilization :

A means of identifying whether the composition of the workforce—measured by race and sex—employed in a particular job category in a particular firm represents the composition of the entire labor market available to perform that job.

 

workload standards :

Standards that provide relatively objective definitions of jobs, give employees targets to shoot for, and make it easier for supervisors to assign work equitably.

 

workplace aggression :

Efforts by individuals to harm others with whom they work, or have worked, or their organization.

 

yearly renewable term insurance :

Group life insurance in which each employee is insured one year at a time.

 

attitudes :

Internal states that focus on particular aspects of or objects in the environment.

 

authority :

For managers at all levels, the organizationally granted right to influence the actions and behavior of the workers they manage.

 

authorization cards :

Cards, signed by employees, which designate the union as the employee's exclusive representative in bargaining with management.

 

baby-boom generation :

People born between 1946 and 1964, currently 55 percent of the workforce, who believe that the business of business includes leadership in redressing social inequities.

 

balance :

In a pay system, the relative size of pay differentials among different segments of the workforce.

 

balance-sheet approach :

A method of compensating expatriates in which the primary objective is to ensure that the expatriates neither gain nor lose financially compared with their home-country peers.

 

bargaining impasse :

The situation that occurs when the parties involved in negotiations are unable to move further toward settlement.

 

bargaining unit :

A group of employees eligible to vote in a representation election.

 

behavior costing :

An approach to assessing human resource systems that focuses on dollar estimates of the behaviors of employees, measuring the economic consequences of their behaviors.

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