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MGT501 Glossary Short Notes

Absenteeism :

Any failure of an employee to report for or to remain at work as scheduled, regardless of reason.

Absolute rating systems :

Rating formats that evaluate each employee in terms of performance standards, without reference to other employees.

acceptability :

The extent to which a performance measure is deemed to be satisfactory or adequate by those who use it.


accepting diversity :

Learning to value and respect styles and ways of behaving that differ from one's own.


action learning :

A process in which participants learn through experience and application.


action programs :

Programs, including the activities of recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, training, and transfer, that help organizations adapt to changes in their environments.


active listening :

Listening in which five things are done well: taking time to listen, communicating verbally and nonverbally, not interrupting or arguing, watching for verbal and nonverbal cues, and summarizing what was said and what was agreed to.


adjustment :

The managerial activities intended to maintain compliance with the organization's human resource policies and business strategies.


adverse impact discrimination :

Unintentional discrimination that occurs when identical standards or procedures unrelated to success on a job are applied to everyone, despite the fact that such standards or procedures lead to a substantial difference in employment outcomes for the members of a particular group.


affirmative action :

Action intended to overcome the effects of past or present discriminatory policies or practices, or other barriers to equal employment opportunity.


age grading :

Subconscious expectations about what people can and cannot do at particular times of their lives.


agency shop :

A union security provision stipulating that although employees need not join the union that represents them, in lieu of dues they must pay a service charge for representation.


agreeableness :

The degree to which an individual is cooperative, warm, and agreeable, versus cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.


alternation ranking :

A ranking method in which a rater initially lists all employees on a sheet of paper and then chooses the best employee, worst employee, second best, second worst, and so forth until all employees have been ranked.


alternative dispute resolution (ADR) :

A formal, structured policy for dispute resolution that may involve third-party mediation and arbitration.


annuity problem :

The situation that exists when past merit payments, incorporated into an employee's base pay, form an annuity (a sum of money received at regular intervals), allowing formerly productive employees to slack off for several years while still earning high pay.


antidiscrimination rule :

A principle that holds that employers can obtain tax advantages only for those benefits that do not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees.


applicant group :

Individuals who are eligible for and interested in selection or promotion.


assessment center method :

A process that evaluates a candidate's potential for management on the basis of multiple assessment techniques, standardized methods of making inferences from such techniques, and pooled judgments from multiple assessors.


assessment phase of training :

The phase whose purpose is to define what the employee should learn in relation to desired job behaviors.

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Replies to This Discussion

behavior modeling :

Acting as a role model. The fundamental characteristic of modeling is that learning takes place by observation of the role model's behavior or by imagining his or her experience.


behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARSs) :

Graphic rating scales that define the dimensions to be rated in behavioral terms and use critical incidents to describe various levels of performance.


behavior-oriented rating method :

An appraisal method in which employee performance is rated either by comparing the performance of employees to that of other employees or by evaluating each employee in terms of performance standards without reference to others.


benchmark jobs :

Jobs that are characterized by stable tasks and stable job specifications; also known as key jobs.


"best-of-both-worlds" benefits :

In global corporations, an approach to benefits coverage stating that wherever possible, the expatriate is given home-country benefits coverage, but if there is no home-country plan in a certain benefit area, the employee may join the host-country plan.


blended life course :

A lifestyle with balance in the ongoing mix of work, leisure, and education.


bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs) :

Otherwise prohibited discriminatory factors that are exempted from coverage under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 when they are considered reasonably necessary to the operation of a particular business or enterprise.


break-even value :

The length of time an observed training effect would need to be maintained in order to recover the cost of the training program.


business game :

A situational test in which candidates play themselves, not an assigned role, and are evaluated within a group.


cafeteria benefits :

A package of benefits offered to workers; both "basic" and "optional" items are included, and each worker can pick and choose among the alternative options.


card check :

A process in which a union secures authorization cards from more than 50 percent of employees, giving it the right to ask management directly for the right to exclusive representation.


career :

A sequence of positions occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime; also known as one's objective career.


career paths :

Logical and possible sequences of positions that could be held in an organization, based on an analysis of what people actually do in the organization.


career planning :

A support mechanism to help employees plan out their long-term career goals.


career sponsor :

An individual (usually a group vice president or higher) who is appointed to look out for an expatriate's career interests while she or he is abroad, to keep the expatriate abreast of company developments, and to counsel the expatriate when she or he returns home.

career success :

The measure of career development and satisfaction over a period of time.


conciliation agreement :

An agreement reached between the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs and an employer to provide relief for the victims of unlawful discrimination.


concurrent engineering :

A design process that relies on teams of experts from design, manufacturing, and marketing working simultaneously on a project.


cross-training :

Providing exposure to and practice with their teammates' tasks, roles, and responsibilities in an effort to increase shared understanding and knowledge among team members.


culture :

The characteristic customs, social patterns, beliefs, and values of people in a particular country or region, or in a particular racial or religious group.


debarment :

The act of barring a contractor or subcontractor from any government-contract work because of violations of equal employment opportunity and affirmative action requirements.


decertification :

Revocation of a union's status as the exclusive bargaining agent for the workers.


decision support system (DSS) :

An interactive computer program designed to provide relevant information and to answer what-if questions; may be used to enhance communication about and understanding of employee benefit programs.


defined-benefit plans :

Pension plans under which an employer promises to pay a retiree a stated pension, often expressed as a percentage of preretirement pay.

defined-contribution plan :

A type of pension plan that fixes a rate for employer contributions to a pension fund; future benefits depend on how fast the fund grows.


Delphi technique :

A structured approach for reaching a consensus judgment among experts, consisting of successive rounds in which experts independently generate information that is summarized by an intermediary and fed back to the experts for revision until there is a convergence of expert opinion.


demotions :

Downward internal moves in an organization that usually involve cuts in pay and reduced status, privileges, and opportunities.


dental HMOs :

Health maintenance plans for dental care that operate in the same way as medical HMOs.


desirable qualifications :

In job specifications, those qualities and skills that are advantageous but are not absolutely necessary for the performance of a particular job.


destructive criticism :

Criticism that is general in nature; that is frequently delivered in a biting, sarcastic tone; and that often attributes poor performance to internal causes.


development :

The managerial function of preserving and enhancing employees' competence in their jobs by improving their knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics.


direct contracting :

In health care, a system in which doctors are free to charge, organize, and treat patients as they choose.


direct evidence :

In a discrimination case, an open expression of hatred, disrespect, or inequality, knowingly directed against members of a particular group, revealing pure bias.


direct measures :

Measures that deal with actual costs, such as accumulated direct costs of recruiting.


direct measures of training outcomes :

Value of a training program expressed in terms of objective measures of performance.


disability :

A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.


disability management :

A method of controlling disability-leave costs that emphasizes a partnership among physician, employee, manager, and human resources representative.


discrimination :

The giving of an unfair advantage (or disadvantage) to the members of a particular group in comparison with the members of other groups.


disease management :

A combination of strategies developed to reduce the cost of chronic conditions that require significant changes in behavior.


distributed practice :

Practice sessions with rest intervals between the sessions.


distributive bargaining :

In negotiations, the bargaining posture that assumes that the goals of the parties are irreconcilable; also known as win–lose bargaining.


distributive justice :

Justice that focuses on the fairness of the outcomes of decisions, for example, in the allocation of bonuses or merit pay, or in making reasonable accommodations for employees with disabilities.


diversity-based recruitment & preferential hiring :

An organization's recruitment policy that systematically favors women and minorities in hiring and promotion decisions; also known as a soft-quota system.

doctrine of constructive receipt :

The principle that holds that an individual must pay taxes on benefits that have monetary value when the individual receives them.

downsizing :

The planned elimination of positions or jobs in an organization.


due process :

In legal proceedings, a judicial requirement that treatment of an individual may not be unfair, arbitrary, or unreasonable.


dynamic characteristics of jobs :

Characteristics of jobs that change over time, like those of public accountants or lifeguards.


economic strikes :

Actions by a union of withdrawing its labor in support of bargaining demands, including those for recognition or organization.


efficiency wage hypothesis :

The assumption that payment of wage premiums by employers to attract the best talent available will enhance productivity and thus offset any increase in labor costs.


efficient purchaser indexes :

Assume that a person is not completely new to a situation and has learned about some local brands and outlets and therefore pays prices that are lower than someone who is not familiar with the location.


employee assistance programs :

Programs that offer professional counseling, medical services, and rehabilitation opportunities to all troubled employees.


employee relations :

All the practices that implement the philosophy and policy of an organization with respect to employment.


employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) :

Organization-wide incentive programs in which employees receive shares of company stock, thereby becoming owners or part owners of the company; shares are deposited into employees' accounts and dividends from the stock are added to the accounts.


employee voice :

A method of ensuring procedural justice within an organization by providing individuals and groups with an opportunity to be heard—a way to communicate their interests upward.


employment-at-will :

An employment situation in which an employee agrees to work for an employer but there is no specification of how long the parties expect the agreement to last.


engineering controls :

Modifications of the work environment that attempt to eliminate unsafe work conditions and neutralize unsafe worker behaviors.


entrepreneurs :

Enterprising, decisive managers who can thrive in high-risk environments and can respond rapidly to changing conditions.


equal employment opportunity (EEO) :

Nondiscriminatory employment practices that ensure evaluation of candidates for jobs in terms of job-related criteria only, and fair and equal treatment of employees on the job.


equal employment opportunity (EEO) for women :

The raising of awareness of issues among both men and women so that women can be given a fair chance to think about their interests and potential, to investigate other possibilities, to make intelligent choices, and then to be considered for openings or promotions on an equal basis with men.


equalization :

An approach to international compensation in which an employer deducts standard home-country amounts from an expatriate's salary for income taxes, housing, and goods and services, and then pays the balance, in home-country currency.


equity :

The fairness of a pay system, assessed in terms of the relative worth of jobs to the organization, competitive market rates outside the organization, and the pay received by others doing the same job.


equity norm :

A reward-allocation practice, common across cultures, in which rewards are distributed to group members on the basis of their contributions.


erroneous acceptance :

In the selection of personnel, the selection of someone who should have been rejected.


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