MGT501 Human Resource Management Short Notes, Destination Lectures 01 to 22
MGT501 HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
SHORT NOTES FROM LEC 1 TO 22 BY PARISHY
Planning is specifying and deciding of appropriate actions in advance to achieve the goals.
Organizing is the coordination of all organizational resources needed to achieve the goals.
Leading is directing, encouraging, motivating and communicating with employees, individually and in groups.
Controlling means to get job done in the given time?
It is a ratio of input and output. (Doing things right).
It is the degree to which the organizations out put correspond to the needs and wants of the external environment.
This concept states that the whole is greater then the sum of its parts. i.g. 2+2=5 (fifth unit is synergic affect)
The unique combination of physical behaviour/traits that describes a person?
Perception is the mental process to pay attention.
It consist of feelings, believes and behaviors?
Rules and principles that define right and wrong conduct.
All individuals and groups that are directly or indirectly affected by an organization’s decision.
Individuals are important units of any organization.
It involves taking action in anticipation of environmental changes
It involves simply reacting to environmental changes after they occur.
It is the right to make decisions, to direct the work of others, and to give orders.
Executives are the top level managers who report directly to the corporations chief executive officer.
Are people who perform tasks in wide variety of human resource related areas.
Specialist may be a HR executive, manager or non manager who typically is concerned with only one of the functional areas of HRM.
A situation in which employment decisions are not affected by discrimination
To make an employment decisions, not on the basis of legitimate job related factors.
Or a situation in which employment decisions are affected by discrimination
A group is defined as two or more interacting individuals who come together to achieve particular goal.
Type of Groups
i. Formal (a work group that is established by organization for specific assignment or task)
ii. Informal (a group i.e. formed naturally due to social relations)
A group of highly independent members, committed to accomplish a common goal.
Types of Teams
i. Self managed
ii. cross departmental
iii. quality circles (problem solving)
iv. virtual teams
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Any difference among people: age, profession, sexual orientation, life style, tenure with the organization or position.
Sources of Workforce Diversity
i. older workers
iv. religious and culture
vii. education and skills
How organization cultivate a diverse workforce?
i. securing top management support
ii. organizational assessment
iii. attracting employees
iv. developing employees
v. retaining employees
Simply it is management of human or people or it is process of working with different resources in such a way to accomplish organizational goals.
CHALLENGES OF HRM IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT
i. Environmental Challenges
· rapid change
· workforce diversity
· involving work and family roles (to avoid nepotism)
· skill shortage
ii. Organizational Challenges
· controlling costs
· improving quality
· creating distinctive capabilities
iii. Individual Challenges
· ethics and social responsibility
· brain drain
· job insecurity
· matching people
Why are we concerned with HR Management?
1. It helps you to get results through others.
2. It helps you to avoid common personnel mistakes.
3. It helps you to gain competitive advantage.
4. It helps you to attract people.
5. It helps you to develop people.
6. It helps you to motivate people.
7. It helps you to keep talented people.
An organization’s member who perform management function.
i. Strategic Manager (Senior/Top manager)
ii. Tactical Manager (Middle manager)
iii. Operational Manager (Lower level or line manager)
i. Technical Skills (knowledge of proficiency)
ii. Humans Skills (ability to work well)
iii. Conceptual skills. (Ability to think)
ROLES OF MANAGERS
i. Inter-Personal Roles (done by line manager)
· Figurehead (duties that are symbolic in nature)
· Leadership (hire, train, motivate and maintain discipline)
· Liaison (contact outsiders who provide the manager with information)
ii. Informational Roles (done by middle manager)
· Monitor (collect information from organizations)
· Disseminator (transmit information to organizational members)
· Spokesperson (represent the organization to outsiders)
iii. Decisional roles (done by top manager)
· Entrepreneur (manager initiate new projects)
· Disturbance handlers (take corrective actions in response to problems)
· Resource allocates (responsible for allocating resources)
· Negotiator role (discuss issues and bargain with other units)
Is to keep a stable workforce that meets needs of the organization
It is process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved.
BENEFITS OF PLANNING
IMPORTANCE OF HR PLANNING
FORECASTING OF PLANNING INVOLVES TWO ACTIVITIES
SURPLUS OF WORKERS FORECASTED
Can be settled down through
SHORTAGE OF WORKERS FORECASTED
Can be settled down through
BASIC FUNCTION OF HR DEPARTMENT
organization needs qualified individuals, in specific jobs at specific places and times in order to accomplish its goals
not only include training & development but also
include individual career planning, development activity and appraisal.
COMPENSATION AND BENEFIT
includes all rewards given to employee
SAFETY AND HEALTH
safety refers to protecting employee from injuries and health refers to physical and mental well being
EMPLOYEE AND LABOUR RELATIONS
to maintain good relations b/w managers and staff
HUMAN RESOURCE RESEARCH
to search efficient/capable workers from the market
INTER RELATIONSHIP OF HRM FUNCTIONS
all functions are highly inter related
(A systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some specific task)
· Why to work in organization?
People can be more productive by working in groups then alone?
· What is organizational behaviour?
It is concerned with the actions of people at work.
i. Formal Organization (official part of organization)
ii. Informal organization (un official part of organization)
CHALLENGES of today’s organization?
ii. diverse workforce
iii. multiple stakeholders
v. rapid changes
ENVIRONMENT OF HRM
BASIC FACTORS OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
BASIC FACTORS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
WHY UNDERSTNDING THE LEAGAL ENVIRONMENT IS IMPORTANT?
Understanding with HRM law is important for three reasons:
a. Line Authority
Line authority entitles a manager to direct the work of an employee. It is the employer-employee authority relationship that extends from top to bottom. A line manager directs the work of employees and makes certain decisions without consulting anyone.
b. Staff Mangers and Staff Authority
Staff managers have staff authority. A manager's function is classified as line or staff based on the organization's objectives. As organizations get larger and more complex, line managers find that they do not have the time, expertise, or resources to get their jobs done effectively.
c. Functional control
The authority applied by a personnel manager as a coordinator of personnel activities. Here the manager acts as “the right arm of the top executive.”
IV. Line Manager
Authorized to direct the work of subordinates—they’re always someone’s boss. In addition, line managers are in charge of accomplishing the organization’s basic goals. Line Managers’ Human Resource Management Responsibilities
4. Improving job performance
5. Gaining creative cooperation
6. Interpreting policies and procedures
7. Controlling labor costs
8. Developing employee abilities
9. Creating and maintaining departmental morale
10. Protecting employees’ health and physical condition
V. Staff Manager
Authorized to assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic goals. HR managers are generally staff managers.
Responsibilities Of Staff Managers
Staff managers assist and advise line managers in accomplishing these basic goals. They do, however, need to work in partnership with each other to be successful.
VI. Human Resource Manager:
An individual who normally acts in an advisory or staff capacity, working with other managers to help them deal with human resource matters.
VII. Distinguish among human resource executives, generalists, and specialists.
a. HR Executives
Executives are top-level managers, who report directly to the corporation’s chief executive officer or the head of a major division.
b. HR Generalists:
Generalists are people who perform tasks in a wide variety of human resource-related areas. The generalist is involved in several, or all, of the human resource management functions.
c. HR Specialist:
Specialist may be a human resource executive, manager, or non-manager who typically is concerned with only one of the functional areas of human resource management.
Legal context of HR decisions
Doing the Right Thing
Compliance with the law is the right thing to do. The primary requirement of these laws is to mandate good management practice.
Limiting Potential Liability
Considerable financial liabilities can occur when HR laws are broken or perceived to be broken.
Legal regulation of HRM
Legal environment and considerations can influence potential and prospective as well as current employees of the organization to Prospective Employees.
To make an employment decision, not on the basis of legitimate job-related factors...Any employment decision: hiring, promotions, pay, discipline, etc fail to use job-related factors (e.g., essential job qualifications, job performance, etc.), and for employment decisions Instead, of legitimate factors employer uses false stereotypes and prejudices.
A situation in which employment decisions are not affected by discrimination.
Laws affecting HRM:
The laws affecting HRM can be divided into two broad categories: equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws and other laws.
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
The concept of equal employment opportunity has undergone much modification and fine-tuning since the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964.
A strategy intended to achieve fair employment by urging employers to hire certain groups of people who were discriminated against in the past Steps that are taken for the purpose of eliminating the present effects of past discrimination
Major Federal Laws (USA)
Human resource decisions that were made in the past may no longer be feasible.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
This law requires the same pay for men and women who do the same job in the same organization. Basically this law provides protection against discrimination based upon sex.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRA) Title VII
Amended by Civil Rights Act of 1991(Title VII of Civil Rights Act)
This act prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA)
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (amended 1978, 1986) prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals who are over 40 years of age. The latest amendment not only gives older employees the option to continue working past age 70.
THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), passed in 1990, prohibits discrimination
against qualified individuals with disabilities.
EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246, AS AMENDED BY EO 11375
Every executive department and agency that administers a program involving federal financial assistance will require adherence to a policy of nondiscrimination in employment as a condition for the approval of a grant, contract, loan, insurance, or guarantee.
Human Resource Information System (HRIs)
HRISs are systems used to collect, record, and store, analyze, and retrieve data concerning an organization's human resources.
Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis
• Training And Development
• Compensation and Benefits
• Safety and Health
• Employee and Labor Relations
• Legal Considerations
Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
• What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish?
• When does the job have to be completed?
• Where is the job to be accomplished?
• How does the worker do the job?
• Why is the job done?
• What qualifications are needed to perform the job?
When Job analysis is performed?
Job analysis is conducted under following situations.
• When the organization is founded
• When new jobs are created
VI. Uses of Job Analysis Information
1. Recruitment and Selection
3. Performance Appraisal
5. Discovering Unassigned Duties
6. EEO Compliance
VII. Steps in Job Analysis
The job analysis process has the following steps:
1. Identify how the information will be used
2. Review relevant background information
3. Select representative positions to analyze
4. Analyze the job by collecting data
5. Review and verify the job analysis informatio
It is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for them.
1. Job analysis Methods:-
a. The interview
d. Participant Diary/Logs
e. Quantitative job analysis techniques:-
· Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs.
· Department of labor procedure (DOL) is a standardized method for rating, classifying, and comparing virtually every kind of job based on data, people, and things.
· Functional job analysis: Rates a job on data and identifies performance standards and training requirements.
f. Using multiple sources of information
2. Source of Data:-
· Job analyst
· Job analyst(HR)
· Outside consultant
3. Problems with Job analysis
· Time consuming and requires much patience
· Might be a reflection of stereotypes.
Contains the job title, the FLSA stats, date and possible space to indicate who approved the description, the location of the job.
Human resource planning(HRP):-
It is the process of systematically reviewing human resource requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, which the requires skills, is available when they are needed.
Human resource Forecasting techniques:-
1. Zero based forecasting:-
This method users the organization’s level of employment as the starting point for determining future staffing needs.
2. Bottom-up Approach:-
A forecasting method in which each successive level of the organization, starting with the lowest, forecasts its employee requirements in order to , ultimately, provide an aggregate forecast of employment needs.
3. Use of mathematical Methods:-
it can assist in forecasting HR requirements. The relationship between sales demand and the number of employees needed is a positive one.
it is a technique for experimenting with a real-world situation through a mathematical model representing that situation.
Forecasting HR requirements :-
A requirements forecast is an estimate of the numbers and kind of employees the organization will need at future dates in order to realize its goals.
Forecasting HR Availability:-
Determining whether the firm will be able to secure employees with the necessary skills and from what sources these individuals may be obtained is called an availability forecast.
Surplus of employees Forecasted:-
· Restricted Hiring
· Reduced hours
· Early retirement
Shortage of workers forecasted:-
· Creative recruiting
· Compensation incentives
· Training programs
· Different selection standards
The process of ensuring that a qualified person is available to assume a managerial position one the position is vacant.
It is the process of determining a comprehensive job profile of the key positions and then ensuring that key prospects are properly developed to match these qualifications.
HR hiring process:-
o Goals of Recruitment
o To attract qualifies applicants
o To discourage non qualifies applicants.
Constraints of recruitment process:-
1. Image of the organization
2. Attractiveness of the job
3. Government influence
4. labor market influence
5. recruiting costs
6. global issues
Philosophy of the recruitment:-
1. Internal Recruitment
2. External Recruitment
It is used to evaluate the importance of job by considering its contribution towards achievements of the objectives of organization.
It refers to the process of attracting potential job applicants from the available labor force.
Internal source recruitment:-
When job vacancies exist, the first place that an organization should look for placement is within itself. The major forms of the internal recruitment include:-
· Promotion from with in.
· Job posting.
· Contacts and referrals.
External sources of recruitment:-
1. High schools and vocational schools
2. Community colleges
3. Colleges and universities
4. Competitors and other firms
6. Older individuals
7. military personnel
8. Self-Employed workers
External Recruitment methods:-
b. Employment Agencies
e. Executive search Firms
f. Professional Associations
g. Unsolicited walk-in applicants
h. Open houses
i. Event recruiting
j. Virtual job fairs
k. Cyber recruiting
Alternatives to Recruitment;-
b. Contingent workers
c. Professional employer organization (Employee leasing)
The effectiveness of the recruitment process also depends upon the acceptability of the yield ratio.
It is also known as part-timers, temporaries and independent contractors, comprise the fastest-growing segment of our economy.
It is the process of choosing from a group of applicants those individuals best suited for a particular position.
Environmental factors affecting the selection process:-
· Legal consideration
· Speed of decision making
· Organizational hierarchy
· Applicant pool
· Type of organization
· Probationary period
· Selection criteria:-
o Skills and abilities
o Personnal characteristics
Steps in the selection process:-
1. Initial screening
2. Application blank
3. per-employment testing
· General intelligence tests
· Aptitude Tests
· Personality and interest tests
· Achievement Tests
· Honesty Tests
· Structured interview
· Unstructured interview
· Mixed interview
5. Background checks
6. Conditional job offer
7. medical Exam/drug tests
8. Final selection decision
A. Employment Tests
I. Administration of selection tests:
· Advantages and disadvantages of using tests:
· Potential Problems Using Selection Tests
II. Characteristics of Properly Designed Selection Tests
Types of Validation Studies
a. Criterion-Related Validity
b. Content Validity
c. Construct Validity
III. Types Of Employment Tests
· Cognitive Aptitude Tests
· Psychomotor Abilities Tests
· Job Knowledge Tests
· Work-Sample Tests (Simulations)
· Vocational Interest Tests
· Personality Tests
· Drug and Alcohol Testing
· Genetic Testing
· j. Internet Testing
B. Job Interviews
I. Interview Planning
II. Content of The Interview
· Occupational experience:
· Academic achievement:
· Interpersonal skills:
· Personal qualities:
· Organizational fit:
III. Types of Interviews
· The Unstructured (Nondirective) Interview
· The Structured (Directive Or Patterned) Interv
1. Situational questions:
2. Job knowledge questions:
3. Job-sample simulation questions:
4. Worker requirements questions:
· Behavior Description Interviewing
IV. Methods of Interviewing
· One-On-One Interview
· Group Interview
· Board Interview
· Stress Interview
V. Realistic Job Previews
VI. Legal Implications of Interviewing
VII. How To Avoid Common Interviewing Mistakes
· Snap Judgments:
· Negative Emphasis:
· Poor Knowledge of Job:
· Pressure to Hire:
· Candidate Order
· Influence of Nonverbal Behavior:
VIII. Guidelines for Conducting an Interview
· Plan the interview.
· Establish rapport.
· Ask questions.
HR in Practice gives do’s and don’ts of interview questions.
· Close the interview.
· Review the interview.
A. Background Investigations
This step is used to check accuracy of application form through former employers and references. Verification of education and legal status to work Credit history Criminal records is also made.
Negligent Hiring and Retention
Negligent hiring has become a critical concern in the selection process. An employer can be held responsible for an employee’s unlawful acts if it does not reasonably investigate applicants’ backgrounds and then assigns potentially dangerous persons to positions where they can inflict harm.
B. Conditional Job Offer
After obtaining and evaluating information about the finalists in a job selection process, the manager must take the most critical step of all: making the actual hiring decision. The person whose qualifications most closely conform to the requirements of the open position should be selected.
C. Physical Exam
After the decision has been made to extend a job offer, the next phase of the selection process involves the completion of a physical examination for the successful applicant.
D. Permanent Job Offer
If physical test/exam proves eligibility of the candidate as per requirement of the job, final offer is made to applicant by the concerned department or supervisor in the concerned department.
Notification to Candidates:
The selection process results should be made known to candidates—
successful and unsuccessful—as soon as possible. Any delay may result in the firm losing a prime candidate,
E. Selecting Managers
While selecting mangers for the organization, organizations can hev three ptions which are:
I. Hiring Parent Country Nationals (PCN)
II. Hiring Host Country Nationals (HCN)
III. Hiring third Country Nationals (TCN)
All of these approaches are having some pros and cons let’s discuss them briefly:
I. Parent-Country Nationals
Parent country nationals are residents of home country.
· Better organizational Control and Coordination
· Promising managers are given International experience.
· PCNs are the best people for the job.
· Adaptation to the host country may take a long time
· PCNs may impose an inappropriate headquarter style
· Compensation for PCNs and HCNs may differ
II. Host-Country Nationals
Host country national are residents of the host country.
· Language and other barriers are eliminated
· Hiring costs are reduced
· No work permit is required
· Continuity of management improved
· Control and Coordination of headquarters may be impeded.
· Hiring HCN’s limits opportunities for PCN’s to gain overseas experience.
III. Third-Country Nationals
If required talent is not available in home or host country than national s of the third country can be hired as mangers.
· Salary and benefits requirements may be lower than for PCNs
· TCNs may be better informed than PCNs about the host country.
· The host Government may resent the hiring of TCNs
· TCNs may not want to return to their own countries after assignment.
Teaching the corporate culture and philosophies about how to do business
Assumptions about Socialization
• Influences performance
• Increases organizational stability
• New members suffer anxiety
• Does not occur in a vacuum
Employee orientation programs provide new employees with the basic background information required to perform their jobs satisfactorily.
• Welcome party
• Job rotation
• On job training etc.
I. Purposes of Socialization
Socialization formats are unique to each firm. However, some basic purposes include emphasizing these areas: the employment situation (job, department, and company), company policies and rules, compensation and benefits, corporate culture, team membership, employee development, dealing with change, and socialization.
a. The Employment Situation
A basic purpose, from the firm’s viewpoint, is to have the new employee become productive as quickly as possible.
b. Company Policies and Rules
Every job within an organization must be performed considering the guidelines and constraints provided by policies and rules.
c. Compensation and Benefits
Employees will have a special interest in obtaining information about the reward system.
d. Corporate Culture
The firm’s culture reflects, in effect, how we do things around here.
e. Team Membership
A new employee’s ability and willingness to work in teams is most likely determined before he or she is hired.
f. Employee Development
Employees should know exactly what is expected of them and what is required by the firm for advancement in the job or via promotion.
g. Dealing With Change
Employees at all levels must learn to effectively deal with change in order to survive in their jobs.
In order to reduce the fear that new employees may experience, attempts should be made to integrate the person into the informal organization.
II. Stages in socialization Process:
Socialization can be conceptualized as a process made up of three stages.
a. Pre-arrival Stage:
This stage explicitly recognizes that each individual arrives with a set of organizational values, attitudes, and expectations.
b. Encounter Stage:
Upon entry into the organization, new members enter the encounter stage. Here the individuals face the possible dichotomy between their expectations about their jobs, their coworkers, their supervisors, and the organization in general and reality.
c. Metamorphosis Stage:
Finally the new member must workout any problems discovered during the encounter stage. This may mean going through changes.
III. Many People Socialize new Hires
New employee socialization or orientation covers the activities involved in introducing a new employee to the organization and to his or her work unit.
a. HRM Department:
HRM department can conduct the orientation in order to socialize the newly hired employees with the working environment of the organization.
Immediate supervisor of particular department can also be the source of informing the employees about the culture, rules, procedures and policies of the organization.
Peers and coworkers of the new hires can perform the orientation function in order to tell the expectation of employers and requirements of the organization as can also answer the queries raised from the employee side.
d. Organizational culture:
Every organization has its own unique culture. This culture includes longstanding, and often unwritten, rules and regulation; a special language that facilitates communication among members; shared standards of relevance as to the critical aspects of the work that is to be done;.
The CEO’s first responsibility is to welcome new employees aboard and talk to them about what a good job choice they made. The CEO is in position to inspire these new employees by talking about what it is like to work for the organization.
IV. Topics covered in employee Orientation program:
Following topics are covered in orientation or socialization process.
Regarding the organization, supervisor, trainers, and coworkers and to system
b. Job Duties:
It provides job related information like, Job location Job tasks Job safety
c. Organizational Issues:
This provides the information about the overall organization it may
include; History of employer, organization of employer, name & titles of key executive, employee’s titles and departments, layout of physical facilities, probationary period.
d. Employee Benefits:
This part provides the information about the benefits that are offered by
the organization like; Pay scales & paydays, vacations rest break, training & education benefits, counseling, housing facilities, insurance benefits, retirement program,
The Hiring Process
Hiring process is completed here because orientation or the socialization process is the last step of hiring.
Training is a process whereby people acquire capabilities to aid in the achievement of organizational goals.
All efforts to provide employees with the abilities the organizations will need in the future
D. Training and Development Trends:
• Skill requirements will continue to increase
• Workforce will become significantly better educated & more diverse
• Corporate restructuring reshapes businesses
• Technology will revolutionize certain training delivery methods
• The role of training departments will change
• More flexible courses aimed specifically at performance improvement
• More firms will strive to become learning organizations
• Emphasis on human performance management will accelerate
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from direct or indirect experience.
• Learning organization
Learning organizations are firms that recognize the critical importance of continuous performance-related.
B. Training Defined:
Training typically focuses on providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance.
I. Challenges in Training
· Is training the solution to the problems?
· Are the goals of training clear and realistic?
· Is training a good investment?
· Will the training work?
· Is Training the Solution?
· Are the Goals Clear and Realistic?
· Is Training a Good Investment?
· Will Training Work?
II. The Training Process
“What are our Training needs?” and “What do we want to accomplish through our TRAINING efforts?”
Phases of Training
a. Phase 1: Needs Assessment & Establishing Objectives
In order to compete effectively, firms must keep their employees well trained. The first step in the Training process is to determine Training needs.
It is an examination of the kinds of problems that an organization is experiencing and where they are located within organization.
An operational analysis identifies the kinds of the skills and behaviors required of the incumbents of a given job and the standards of performance that must be met.
The objective of the personnel analysis is to examine how well individual employees are performing their jobs.
• Number of employees experiencing skill deficiency:
Number of employees supposed to be trained.
• Severity of skill deficiency:
What are the advantages that are being faced by the organization due to absence of that skill?
• Importance of skill:
How important is skill to be possessed by workforce.
• Extent to which skill can be improved with Training:
Would there be real difference in skill level in case the training program is conducted.
Determining Training Needs:
Following sources can help organization to assess either there is a need for Training or not.
· Company records
· Customer complaints
· New Technology
· Employee grievances
· Interviews with managers
· Customer satisfaction surveys
Establishing Training Objectives
Objectives are desired end results. In human resource, clear and concise objectives must be formulated
b. Phase 2: Delivering the Training
The training program that results from assessment should be a direct response to an organizational problem or need. These are summarized below:
a. Location Options
b. On the job: Training is at the actual work site using the actual work equipment
c. Off the job: Training away from the actual work site. Training is at a Training facility designed specifically for Training
c. Phase 3: Training Methods
The Lecture is an efficient means of transmitting large amounts of factual information to a relatively large number of people at the same time.
• Case method
A Training method in which trainees are expected to study the information provided in the case and make decisions based on it.
Simulators are training devices of varying degrees of complexity that duplicate the real world.
This type of training refers to the process of having new worker, called an apprentice, work alongside and under the direction of skilled technician.
Internships and assistantships provide training similar to apprenticeship training; however’ assistantships and internships typically refer to occupations that require a higher level of the formal education than that required by the skilled trades.
• Coaching And Mentoring
Some organizations assign an experienced to serve as a mentor for new employees.
Conferences and group discussions, used extensively for making decisions, can also be used as a form of training
Simulations that represent actual business situations are referred to as business games.
• Role playing
A Training method in which participants are required to respond to specific problems they may actually encounter in their jobs.
Computer based training is a teaching method that takes advantage of the speed, memory, and data manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction.
Multimedia is an application that enhances computer-based learning with audio, animation, graphics, and interactive video.
• Virtual reality
It is a unique computer-based approach that permits trainees to view objects from a perspective otherwise impractical or impossible.
• Video Training
The use of videotapes continues to be a popular Training method. An illustration of the use of videotapes is provided by behavior modeling.
• Vestibule training
Training that takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles the actual equipment used on the job.
Why Transfer of Training Fails
• Don’t learn material
• Don’t understand “real life” applications
• Lack of confidence
• Forgetting the material
d. Phase 4:Evaluating Training
• Participants’ Opinions:
Evaluating a training program by asking the participants’ opinions of it is an
inexpensive approach that provides an immediate response and suggestions for improvements.
• Behavioral Change:
Tests may indicate fairly accurately what has been learned, but they give little
insight into desired behavioral changes.
• Accomplishment of Training Objectives:
Still another approach to evaluating training programs involves determining the extent to which stated objectives have been achieved.
Benchmarking utilizes exemplary practices of other organizations to evaluate and improve training programs. It is estimated that up to 70 percent of American firms engage in some sort of benchmarking.
• A Case for Simplicity:
Value is the measure of impact and positive change elicited by the training.