FALL 201 5
ASSIGNMENT NO. 01
TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (MGT510 )
Due date: December 07, 2015
Topic: Quality Management Components
OBJECTIVE OF THE ACTIVITY
The objective of the activity is to know about the role and importance of
quality procedures .
After attempt ing this activity student s will be able to;
1. Learn how a company develops quality policy, control, assurance
improvement standards .
2. Learn about implementation of quality management procedures .
In early 20 th century, theories were developed for improveme nt of quality
and efficiency of work, produc t s / s e rvice s . With the advanc eme n t of
statis tical methods , quality cont rol and quality assur anc e began in the
1920s and 1930s . Quality management ensures that an organization,
produc t or service is consistent . It has four main component s : quality
planning, quality control , quality assurance and quality improvement .
Quality assurance and quality control are two import ant aspect s of quality
Dairyland is a leading brand in the dairy sector with opera t ions running
successfully across the country. It is a major supplier of value- added dairy
products and the company mission is to provide best quality products to
consumers . Dairyland (Pvt) Limited is committed to prove itself a quality
orient ed company with strict empha s i s upon maint aining world class quality
in all our dairy products by adopting the standard quality procedures .
Despite of following all quality control procedures and practices its dairy
products are lower in quality as compare to its competitor s like Nestle.
Being student of TQM, what would you sugge s t to Dairyland quality
management team that how they can improve the quality taste of the dairy
products through the overall process of quality management ? Discuss with
solid reasons .
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How Dairyland Company improve the quality taste of the dairy products through the process of quality management?
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1.1.2. Food Safety
One of the most important reasons for analyzing foods from both the consumers and the manufacturers standpoint is to ensure that they are safe. It would be economically disastrous, as well as being rather unpleasant to consumers, if a food manufacturer sold a product that was harmful or toxic. A food may be considered to be unsafe because it contains harmful microorganisms (e.g., Listeria, Salmonella), toxic chemicals (e.g., pesticides, herbicides) or extraneous matter (e.g., glass, wood, metal, insect matter).� It is therefore important that food manufacturers do everything they can to ensure that these harmful substances are not present, or that they are effectively eliminated before the food is consumed. This can be achieved by following �good manufacturing practice� regulations specified by the government for specific food products and by having analytical techniques that are capable of detecting harmful substances. In many situations it is important to use analytical techniques that have a high sensitivity, i.e., that can reliably detect low levels of harmful material. Food manufacturers and government laboratories routinely analyze food products to ensure that they do not contain harmful substances and that the food production facility is operating correctly.
1.1.3. Quality control
The food industry is highly competitive and food manufacturers are continually trying to increase their market-share and profits. To do this they must ensure that their products are of higher quality, less expensive, and more desirable than their competitors, whilst ensuring that they are safe and nutritious. To meet these rigorous standards food manufacturers need analytical techniques to analyze food materials before, during and after the manufacturing process to ensure that the final product meets the desired standards. In a food factory one starts with a number of different raw materials, processes them in a certain manner (e.g. heat, cool, mix, dry), packages them for consumption and then stores them. The food is then transported to a warehouse or retailer where it is sold for consumption.
One of the most important concerns of the food manufacturer is to produce a final product that consistently has the same overall properties, i.e. appearance, texture, flavor and shelf life. When we purchase a particular food product we expect its properties to be the same (or very similar) to previous times, and not to vary from purchase-to-purchase. Ideally, a food manufacture wants to take the raw ingredients, process them in a certain way and produce a product with specific desirable properties. Unfortunately, the properties of the raw ingredients and the processing conditions vary from time to time which causes the properties of the final product to vary, often in an unpredictable way. How can food manufacturers control these variations?� Firstly, they can understand the role that different food ingredients and processing operations play in determining the final properties of foods, so that they can rationally control the manufacturing process to produce a final product with consistent properties.� This type of information can be established through research and development work (see later).� Secondly, they can monitor the properties of foods during production to ensure that they are meeting the specified requirements, and if a problem is detected during the production process, appropriate actions can be taken to maintain final product quality.
Characterization of raw materials.� Manufacturers measure the properties of incoming raw materials to ensure that they meet certain minimum standards of quality that have previously been defined by the manufacturer. If these standards are not met the manufacturer rejects the material. Even when a batch of raw materials has been accepted, variations in its properties might lead to changes in the properties of the final product. By analyzing the raw materials it is often possible to predict their subsequent behavior during processing so that the processing conditions can be altered to produce a final product with the desired properties. For example, the color of potato chips depends on the concentration of reducing sugars in the potatoes that they are manufactured from: the higher the concentration, the browner the potato chip. Thus it is necessary to have an analytical technique to measure the concentration of reducing sugars in the potatoes so that the frying conditions can be altered to produce the optimum colored potato chip.
Monitoring of food properties during processing.� It is advantageous for food manufacturers to be able to measure the properties of foods during processing. Thus, if any problem develops, then it can be quickly detected, and the process adjusted to compensate for it. This helps to improve the overall quality of a food and to reduce the amount of material and time wasted. For example, if a manufacturer were producing a salad dressing product, and the oil content became too high or too low they would want to adjust the processing conditions to eliminate this problem. Traditionally, samples are removed from the process and tested in a quality assurance laboratory. This procedure is often fairly time-consuming and means that some of the product is usually wasted before a particular problem becomes apparent. For this reason, there is an increasing tendency in the food industry to use analytical techniques which are capable of rapidly measuring the properties of foods on-line, without having to remove a sample from the process. These techniques allow problems to be determined much more quickly and therefore lead to improved product quality and less waste. The ideal criteria for an on-line technique is that it be capable of rapid and precise measurements, it is non-intrusive, it is nondestructive and that it can be automated.
Characterization of final product.� Once the product has been made it is important to analyze its properties to ensure that it meets the appropriate legal and labeling requirements, that it is safe, and that it is of high quality. It is also important to ensure that it retains its desirable properties up to the time when it is consumed.
A system known as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) has been developed, whose aim is to systematically identify the ingredients or processes that may cause problems (hazard analysis), assign locations (critical control points) within the manufacturing process where the properties of the food must be measured to ensure that safety and quality are maintained, and to specify the appropriate action to take if a problem is identified. The type of analytical technique required to carry out the analysis is often specified. In addition, the manufacturer must keep detailed documentation of the performance and results of these tests.� HACCP was initially developed for safety testing of foods, but it or similar systems are also now being used to test food quality.
1.1.4. Research and Development
In recent years, there have been significant changes in the preferences of consumers for foods that are healthier, higher quality, lower cost and more exotic. Individual food manufacturers must respond rapidly to these changes in order to remain competitive within the food industry. To meet these demands food manufacturers often employ a number of scientists whose primary objective is to carry out research that will lead to the development of new products, the improvement of existing products and the reduction of manufacturing costs.
Many scientists working in universities, government research laboratories and large food companies carry out basic research. Experiments are designed to provide information that leads to a better understanding of the role that different ingredients and processing operations play in determining the overall properties of foods. Research is mainly directed towards investigating the structure and interaction of food ingredients, and how they are effected by changes in environment, such as temperature, pressure and mechanical agitation. Basic research tends to be carried out on simple model systems with well-defined compositions and properties, rather than real foods with complex compositions and structures, so that the researchers can focus on particular aspects of the system.� Scientists working for food companies or ingredient suppliers usually carry out product development. Food Scientists working in this area use their knowledge of food ingredients and processing operations to improve the properties of existing products or to develop new products. In practice, there is a great deal of overlap between basic research and product development, with the basic researchers providing information that can be used by the product developers to rationally optimize food composition and properties.� In both fundamental research and product development analytical techniques are needed to characterize the overall properties of foods (e.g., color, texture, flavor, shelf-life etc.), to ascertain the role that each ingredient plays in determining the overall properties of foods, and to determine how the properties of foods are affected by various processing conditions (e.g., storage, heating, mixing, freezing).
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