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Graded Discussion Board
SME MANAGEMENT (MGT601)
This is to inform that Graded Discussion Board (GDB) No. 01 will be opened on 29th May, 2015 for discussion and last date of discussion will be 02nd June, 2015.
Topic/Area for Discussion:
“NGO's & their role in economic development”
This Graded Discussion Board will cover first 12 lessons.
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|Starting Date||Friday, May 29, 2015|
Tuesday, June 02, 2015
Topic of Discussion:
No doubt, today is the era of advancement and entrepreneurship. Many countries have proved themselves on the horizon of progress through adopting SME's regime. Japan, Korea, China and Hong Kong are the land mark in the field of Small & Medium Enterprise by contributing a major portion in terms of exports and employment generation.
Considering the developing countries and third world countries, the situation is quiet morbid as governments are unable to spare enough funds to uplift the condition of SME’s. Here comes different NGO’s, who actually doing a lot in uplifting the socio economic condition and is working in collaboration with government. NGO’s role and working is being criticized heavily due to many reasons. Many NGO’s are facing different allegations and are facing many types of problems.
Being a student of SME’s and having a view of SME’s working in Pakistan. Do you think that Role of NGO’s is positive in economic development? Why or Why not, Discuss logically. Moreover what could be the possible problems faced by Different NGO’s operating in Pakistan.
easy gdb.. just search on google collect the material and write it in your own words.. dont copy paste
NGO's are playing vital role in the develpmnt of a country's economy specially of third word countries they are sharing the burden of government to resolve the issues related to humans their needs and other fields.. so they are playing a positive role in economy.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. But the term NGO encompasses a vast category of groups and organizations.
The World Bank, for example, defines NGOs as “private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or undertake community development.” A World Bank Key Document, Working With NGOs, adds, “In wider usage, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organization which is independent from government. NGOs are typically value-based organizations which depend, in whole or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary service. Although the NGO sector has become increasingly professionalized over the last two decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics.”
Different sources refer to these groups with different names, using NGOs, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs), charities, non-profits charities/charitable organizations, third sector organizations and so on.
These terms encompass a wide variety of groups, ranging from corporate-funded think tanks, to community groups, grassroot activist groups, development and research organizations, advocacy groups, operational, emergency/humanitarian relief focused, and so on. While there may be distinctions in specific situations, this section deals with a high level look at these issues, and so these terms may be used interchangeably, and sometimes using NGOs as the umbrella term.
Since the 1970s, it has been noted how there are more non-governmental organizations than ever before trying to fill in the gaps that governments either will not, or cannot.
The above-mentioned World Bank document points out that “Since the mid-1970s, the NGO sector in both developed and developing countries has experienced exponential growth…. It is now estimated that over 15 percent of total overseas development aid is channeled through NGOs.” That is, roughly $8 billion dollars. Recognizing that statistics are notoriously incomplete, the World Bank adds that there are an estimated 6,000 to 30,000 national NGOs in developing countries alone, while the number of community-based organizations in the developing world number in the hundreds of thousands.
Such organizations must operate as a non-profit group. While in that respect, NGOs are meant to be politically independent, in reality it is a difficult task, because they must receive funding from their government, from other institutions, businesses and/or from private sources. All or some of these can have direct or indirect political weight on decisions and actions that NGOs make.
Non-governmental organisations originally appeared in the mid nineteenth century. After the Second World War, and with the creation of the United Nations, the need and place for a consultative role for organisations that were neither governments nor member states was recognised. The acceptance of these bodies led to the term ‘Non-governmental organisations’. The Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (ECOSOC) originally defined these bodies as ‘any international body that is not founded by an international treaty’, however the United Nations now describe a Non-Governmental Organisation as a “not-for-profit, voluntary citizen’s group, which is organised on a local, national, or international level to address issues in support of the public good. Task oriented and made up of people with common interests, NGOs perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions, bring citizens concerns to governments, monitor policy and programme implementation, and encourage participation of Civil Society stakeholders at the community level.” They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms, and help monitor and implement international agreements.
NGOs have, since the end of the Second World War, become increasingly more important to global development. They often hold an interesting role in a nation’s political, economic or social activities, as well as assessing and addressing problems in both national and international issues, such as human, political and women’s rights, economic development, democratisation, inoculation and immunisation, health care, or the environment.
In 2001, research showed that there were around forty thousand internationally operating NGOs. These do not include national NGOs, of which there can be several hundred thousand in a single country. Others work by themselves, unassisted by the UN or other international organizations, in both developed and developing countries. The United Nations Department of Public Information (DPI) works in close cooperation with national governments, NGOs and other international organizations in order to harmonize the work done by NGOs.
The DPI and NGOs have worked in cooperation with one another for a long time. ECOSOC has called for effective information programmes for all NGOs so as to disseminate information to the public about the NGOs work as well as the work of the UN. The department’s outreach division acts as a mediator and co-ordinator between NGOs and the DPI. In 2007 there were 1664 NGOs with strong connections to the DPI, including 668 that are associated with ECOSOC. However, recognising the large number of NGOs that work in cooperation with the UN, relations between NGOs and the UN are not always easy. Some NGOs face increasing competition to be heard from the private sector, whereas others face negative reactions from certain member states. Therefore, the role of the NGO in the United Nations, as well as the role of the NGO in the developing world, is not always as effective as possible.
However, in the developing world, the role of NGOs is often critical. In years of drought or famine, the non-governmental organisations have been pivotal in providing food to those most marginalised. NGOs often provide essential services in the developing world that in developed countries governmental agencies or institutions would provide. Normally, NGOs provide services that are in line with current incumbent governmental policy, acting as a contributor to economic development, essential services, employment and the budget. In a wider approach, NGOs are also the source and centre of social justice to the marginalised members of society in developing countries or failed states. NGOs are often left as the only ones that defend or promote the economic needs and requirements for developing states, often bringing cases to the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organisation and World Bank. Developing nations and NGOs often find allies in one another when opposing legislation, economic terms or agreements from global institutions.
The United Nations has recognised the special role that CSOs and NGOs hold. The Millennium Development Goals, as well as the United Nations Development Programme have recognised the work put in by NGOs in developing countries. This fact has also been recognised by the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) - European Union Cotonou Convention. Many countries have benefited from the development assistance channel opened by non-governmental organisations, as many countries’ overseas development aid goes through NGOs and CSOs.
If the Millennium Development Goals are to be achieved in many of the developing, the role of NGOs will have to be recognised by the international community. Their efforts are often more effective than much bilateral aid. However, the role of NGOs has also been criticised, as many international experts estimate that much of the work done by NGOs is not harmonised or tailor-made to the countries preferences and peculiarities, causing the quality of aid to suffer.
Check this power point slides, After page num 13..
thnx for sharing Kiran & zee