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Important announcement

Graded Discussion Board

Business Ethics (MGT610)


Dear Students!

This is to inform that Graded Discussion Board (GDB) No. 01 will be opened on November 19, 2014 for discussion and last date for posting your discussion will be November 20, 2014.


This Graded Discussion Board will cover first 10 lessons.


Topic: “Morality and Business Ethics




Topic: Morality and Business Ethics

Standards of Business Ethics

Marks: 10 marks

Due Date: November 20, 2014


  • To understand the basis of business ethics
  • Comprehend the meaning, its use and implications
  • To analyze different flavors of ethics, morality, law and etiquettes


Morality has five popular standards to follow, and you have read them thoroughly. The standards of morality stand at different levels of society, and we are somehow related to all of them. Following case will help you to segregate three standards and you will see that how we can distinguish these levels from each other.


Mr. Sheldon has been working as an HR manager for the last 8 years. His ethnicity is Hispanic by mother and British by his father. So he is emotionally inclined towards these two races and prefers to hire people from these ethnicities. By law, he has the right to choose most suitable candidate for the vacancy, so there is no legal restriction on him in this regard. His close friend Mr. Wilson, who is working as Manager Admin in the same company, belongs to a British family, but he always ask Mr. Sheldon not to be racist and try to take decisions on merit. Mr. Sheldon said that there is no legal restriction on him, so no need to take care of it. But Mr. Wilson always talks about morality, value, and ethics of these practices.


Figure 1_Hierarchy of Morality


Note: If you face any difficulty in viewing this GDB, you may download from the following link



 After reading the above scenario, what do you think that Mr. Sheldon is violating at which level of morality? Support your answer with logical reasons.

 (5+5 = 10 Marks)

GDB Attachment Document :


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Replies to This Discussion

motivation k 5 standers konsay hain 

1. Emotions
2. Impartial considerations
3. Preferred Values
4. Adequacy
5. Benefit/Detriment for Humanity

kiya hum ne morality k five standards main se koe aik standard batana hai ya kuch aur? any idea?

m khud yhi soch rahi abhi k 

Mr. Sheldon is violating at
which level of morality?

i guess, we have to relate this scenario with three standards because they are mentioning in GDB that ( Following case will help you to segregate three standards and you will see that how we can distinguish these levels from each other) so what will be those three standards? 

Kohlberg's six stages can be more generally grouped into three levels of two stages each: pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional.[7][8][9] Following Piaget's constructivist requirements for a stage model, as described in his theory of cognitive development, it is extremely rare to regress in stages—to lose the use of higher stage abilities.[14][15] Stages cannot be skipped; each provides a new and necessary perspective, more comprehensive and differentiated than its predecessors but integrated with them.[14][15]

Level 1 (Pre-Conventional)
1. Obedience and punishment orientation
(How can I avoid punishment?)
2. Self-interest orientation
(What's in it for me?)
(Paying for a benefit)
Level 2 (Conventional)
3. Interpersonal accord and conformity
(Social norms)
(The good boy/girl attitude)
4. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation
(Law and order morality)
Level 3 (Post-Conventional)
5. Social contract orientation
6. Universal ethical principles
(Principled conscience)

The understanding gained in each stage is retained in later stages, but may be regarded by those in later stages as simplistic, lacking in sufficient attention to detail.


The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level consists of the first and second stages of moral development, and is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner. A child with pre-conventional morality has not yet adopted or internalized society's conventions regarding what is right or wrong, but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring.[7][8][9]

In Stage one (obedience and punishment driven), individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves. For example, an action is perceived as morally wrong because the perpetrator is punished. "The last time I did that I got spanked so I will not do it again." The worse the punishment for the act is, the more "bad" the act is perceived to be.[16] This can give rise to an inference that even innocent victims are guilty in proportion to their suffering. It is "egocentric," lacking recognition that others' points of view are different from one's own.[17] There is "deference to superior power or prestige."[17]

An example of obedience and punishment driven morality would be a child refusing to do something because it is wrong and that the consequences could result in punishment. For example, a child's classmate tries to dare the child in playing hooky from school. The child would apply obedience and punishment driven morality by refusing to play hooky because he would get punished. Another example of obedience and punishment driven morality is when a child refuses to cheat on a test because the child would get punished

Stage two (self-interest driven) expresses the "what's in it for me" position, in which right behavior is defined by whatever the individual believes to be in their best interest but understood in a narrow way which does not consider one's reputation or relationships to groups of people. Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, but only to a point where it might further the individual's own interests. As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a "You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours." mentality.[2] The lack of a societal perspective in the pre-conventional level is quite different from the social contract (stage five), as all actions have the purpose of serving the individual's own needs or interests. For the stage two theorist, the world's perspective is often seen as moral relativism.

An example of self-interest driven is when a child is asked by his parents to do a chore. The child asks "what's in it for me?" The parents would offer the child an incentive by giving a child an allowance to pay them for their chores. The child is motivated to do chores for self-interest. Another example of self-interest driven is when a child does their homework in exchange for better grades and rewards from their parents


The conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults. To reason in a conventional way is to judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society's views and expectations. The conventional level consists of the third and fourth stages of moral development. Conventional morality is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong. At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society's norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. Adherence to rules and conventions is somewhat rigid, however, and a rule's appropriateness or fairness is seldom questioned.[7][8][9]

In Stage three (good intentions as determined by social consensus), the self enters society by conforming to social standards. Individuals are receptive to approval or disapproval from others as it reflects society's views. They try to be a "good boy" or "good girl" to live up to these expectations,[2] having learned that being regarded as good benefits the self. Stage three reasoning may judge the morality of an action by evaluating its consequences in terms of a person's relationships, which now begin to include things like respect, gratitude and the "golden rule". "I want to be liked and thought well of; apparently, not being naughty makes people like me." Conforming to the rules for one's social role is not yet fully understood. The intentions of actors play a more significant role in reasoning at this stage; one may feel more forgiving if one thinks, "they mean well ..."[2]

In Stage four (authority and social order obedience driven), it is important to obey laws, dictums and social conventions because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society. Moral reasoning in stage four is thus beyond the need for individual approval exhibited in stage three. A central ideal or ideals often prescribe what is right and wrong. If one person violates a law, perhaps everyone would — thus there is an obligation and a duty to uphold laws and rules. When someone does violate a law, it is morally wrong;culpability is thus a significant factor in this stage as it separates the bad domains from the good ones. Most active members of society remain at stage four, where morality is still predominantly dictated by an outside force.[2]


The post-conventional level, also known as the principled level, is marked by a growing realization that individuals are separate entities from society, and that the individual’s own perspective may take precedence over society’s view; individuals may disobey rules inconsistent with their own principles. Post-conventional moralists live by their own ethical principles — principles that typically include such basic human rights as life, liberty, and justice. People who exhibit post-conventional morality view rules as useful but changeable mechanisms — ideally rules can maintain the general social order and protect human rights. Rules are not absolute dictates that must be obeyed without question. Because post-conventional individuals elevate their own moral evaluation of a situation over social conventions, their behavior, especially at stage six, can be confused with that of those at the pre-conventional level.

Some theorists have speculated that many people may never reach this level of abstract moral reasoning.[7][8][9]

In Stage five (social contract driven), the world is viewed as holding different opinions, rights and values. Such perspectives should be mutually respected as unique to each person or community. Laws are regarded as social contracts rather than rigid edicts. Those that do not promote the general welfare should be changed when necessary to meet “the greatest good for the greatest number of people."[8] This is achieved through majority decision and inevitable compromiseDemocratic government is ostensibly based on stage five reasoning.

In Stage six (universal ethical principles driven), moral reasoning is based on abstract reasoning using universal ethical principles. Laws are valid only insofar as they are grounded in justice, and a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. Legal rights are unnecessary, as social contracts are not essential for deonticmoral action. Decisions are not reached hypothetically in a conditional way but rather categorically in an absolute way, as in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.[18] This involves an individual imagining what they would do in another’s shoes, if they believed what that other person imagines to be true.[19] The resulting consensus is the action taken. In this way action is never a means but always an end in itself; the individual acts because it is right, and not because it avoids punishment, is in their best interest, expected, legal, or previously agreed upon. Although Kohlberg insisted that stage six exists, he found it difficult to identify individuals who consistently operated at that level.[15]

hum ny to ye dekhna hy k un ki requirment kya hy wo sirf ye pooch rahy hain k morality k 5 levels main sy kis level ko Mr.sheldon violate kr rahy hain Simple 

standers to oper just btain hain un ka requirment sy to koi relation nae .

yes i agree with Mulan. but i hv nt found these standards up till now in the text.

"Morality has five popular standards to follow, and you have read them thoroughly." where are these except in the GDB???

Main point for discussions

"Mr. Sheldon is violating at which level of morality"?

read the case then decided.....

"Emotions" my points of view....
anyone discuss pls???

no emotion to nahi aye ga

preferred values ko violate to nhi kar rahay ? m i right ??

yes u are right


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