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Business Ethics  (MGT610)                      100% Solved Q&A                                     

autonomous morality :

the last of Kohlberg's stages of moral development (also known as postconventional or principled morality); at these stages the individual has questioned previous laws and values and sees the value of reason in morality.


business ethics :

A specialized study of the moral standards that apply to business policies, institutions, organizations, and behavior.


consistency requirement :

the necessity of moral principles to be applied the same way to everyone in similar circumstances.


conventional morality :

the middle two of Kohlberg's stages, characterized by the ability to see situations from the point of view of others and to subordinate the needs of the individual to the needs of the group.


cyberspace :

a term used to denote the existence of information on an electronic network of linked computer systems.


 

descriptive study :

investigation attempting to explain or describe the world without reaching any conclusions about whether the world is as it should be.


ethical relativism :

the theory that morality varies according to culture and/or time.


ethics :

the study of morality or the moral standards of a society or an individual.


genetic engineering :

new techniques that allow change in the genes of the cells of humans, animals, and plants.


globalization :

the worldwide process by which the economic and social systems of nations have become connected.

information technology :

powerful and compact technologies that have allowed us to capture, manipulate, and move information in new and creative ways.


law of agency :

a law that specifies the duties of persons who agree to act on behalf of another party and who are authorized by agreement so to act.


moral reasoning :

the reasoning process by which human behaviors, institutions, or policies are judged to be in or out accordance with moral standards.


moral responsibility :

the idea that agents are culpable for acting or neglecting to act.


moral standards :

norms about the kinds of actions believed to be morally right and wrong.

morality :

the standards that an individual or a group has about what is right and wrong or good and evil (also, the subject that ethics investigates).


multinational corporation :

a company that maintains manufacturing, marketing, service, or administrative operations in many different host countries.


nanotechnology :

a new field that encompasses the development of tiny structures only billionths of a meter in size.


nonmoral standards :

standards by which we judge what is right/ wrong or good/bad in a nonmoral way.


normative study :

investigation attempting to reach conclusions about what things are good or bad, or about what actions are right or wrong.

preconventional morality :

the first two stages of Kohlberg's stages of moral development, centering on response to rules, punishments, and social expectations.


prisoner’s dilemma :

a situation where two parties must choose whether to cooperate or not; both gain when both cooperate, while if only one cooperates the other gains even more, and if both do not cooperate both lose.


capitalist justice :

the belief that benefits should be distributed according to the value of the contribution made by the individual to a group.


categorical :

the requirement that I must act such that the maxim of my action could be made universal law (or the requirement that in acting I always treat others as ends in themselves and never as a means to an end).


communitarian ethic :

concrete communities and communal relationships have fundamental value that should be preserved and maintained.

compensatory justice :

the belief that persons should have restored to them what they lose as the result of another's wrong action.


cost-benefit analysis :

analyzes desirability of a project by comparing present and future economic benefits to present and future economic costs.


difference principle :

productive societies incorporate inequalities, but work to improve the position of the neediest.


distributive justice :

concerned with the fair distribution of society's benefits and burdens; the belief that individuals who are similar in all relevant respects should be given similar benefits and burdens.


efficiency :

producing desired output with lowest resource input.

economic equality :

equality of income and wealth, and equality of opportunity.


egalitarian justice :

the belief that every person should be given exactly equal shares of a group's benefits and burdens.


ethic of care :

emphasizes care for the well-being of those close to us.


ethic of virtue :

evaluates the moral character of individuals or groups.


instrumental goods :

goods valued only because they lead to other good things.

intrinsic goods :

things desired independently of any benefits they may produce.


justice :

how benefits and burdens are distributed among people.


justice as fairness :

associated with John Rawls; the belief that the distribution of benefits and burdens in a society is just only if each person has an equal right to the most extensive basic liberties compatible with similar liberties for all, and social and economic inequalities are arranged so that they are both to the greatest benefit of the least advantaged and attached to offices and positions open to all fairly and equally.


legal rights :

entitlements derived from a legal system.


libertarianism :

the belief that freedom from human constraint is necessarily good, and thus that constraints imposed by others are necessarily evil.


maxim :

the reason a person in a certain situation has for doing what she or he plans to do.


moral rights :

rights possessed by all human beings simply by virtue of being human.


moral virtue :

an acquired disposition that is valued as part of the character of a morally good human being and that is exhibited in the person habitual behavior.


negative rights :

duties others have to not interfere in certain activities of the person who holds a given right.


noneconomic goods :

goods such as life, love, and freedom, whose value cannot be equaled by any quantity of any economic good.

original position :

according to Rawls, the situation of a group that would say a principle is morally justified; they must be rational self-interested persons who know they will live in a society governed by the principles they accept but who do not know the race, sex, religion, social position, interests, or abilities that they will have.


political equality :

equal participation in, and treatment by, the means of controlling and directing the political system.


positive rights :

the duty of some other agents to provide the rights-holder with whatever is needed to pursue the rights-holder’s interests.


principle of equal liberty :

each citizen’s liberties must be protected and must equal the liberties of each other citizen’s.


principle of fair equality of opportunity :

everyone deserves equal opportunity to qualify for privileged positions.

productivity :

the better the quality of a person’s contribution, the more the person should receive.


puritan ethic :

each individual is obliged to work hard at his or her calling.


retributive justice :

the belief that agents should be punished or blamed for wrongdoing.


reversibility :

parties choose principles that will apply to themselves.


rights :

rights in general, an individual's entitlement to something; legal rights are those dictated by a system of laws; moral rights are those that permit or allow all humans to do or to have something done for them; negative rights prohibit others from interfering with an individual's actions; positive rights grant others the duty to provide an individual with something she or he needs.

rule-utilitarianism :

rule-utilitarianism the view that an individual action is right when it is required by correct moral rules and if the sum total of utilities produced if everyone were to follow the rule is greater than the sum total utilities produced if everyone did not follow the rule.


socialist justice :

the belief that benefits should be distributed according to need and burdens according to ability.


universalizability :

principles must apply equally to everyone.


utilitarianism :

the view that actions are right when they produce the greatest net benefits or the lowest net costs.


utility :

any net benefits produced by an action.

veil of ignorance :

veil of ignorance in Rawls’ original position, the rational person’s ignorance of his or her own status.


virtue theory :

virtue theory belief that the aim of the moral life is to develop moral virtues, and to use them.


work ethic :

the high value placed on individual effort; belief that hard work leads to success.


absolute advantage :

absolute advantage when one country can produce a good more cheaply than another.


aggregate demand :

aggregate demand according to John Maynard Keynes, the sum of the demand of three sectors of the economy: households, businesses, and government

alienation :

alienation the effect, according to Marx, of capitalist systems which do not allow the working class to develop their productive potential or satisfy their real human needs.


bourgeoisie :

according to Marx, the class that owns the means of production.


command economy :

a system where a single authority makes the decisions about what is produced, and by whom, and to whom it is distributed.


communitarianism :

the belief that government should be authoritative, defining the needs of the community and seeing that those needs are met.


copyright :

a grant that indicates that a particular expression of an idea is the private property of an individual or company.

economic system :

the system a society uses to provide the goods and services it needs to survive and flourish.


economic substructure :

the materials and social controls that society uses to produce its economic goods.


forces of production :

the materials (land, labor, natural resources, machinery, energy, technology) used in production.


free market system :

a system in which individual firms, privately owned, make their own decisions about what they will produce and how they will produce it.


historical materialism :

the Marxist view that history is determined by changes in the economic methods by which humanity produces the materials on which it must live.

ideology :

a system of normative beliefs shared by a group, expressing answers to questions about human nature, the purpose of society, and the values of the group.


immiseration :

the combined effects of increased concentration, cyclic crises, rising unemployment, and declining relative compensation.


individualism :

the belief that government has a limited role, existing primarily to protect the property of the individual and keep the marketplace open.


intellectual property :

the property that consists of an abstract, nonphysical object; such property, unlike physical property, is nonexclusive.


invisible hand :

according to Adam Smith, market competition drives self-interested individuals to act in ways that serve society.

Keynsian economics :

according to John Maynard Keynes, free markets alone are not necessarily the most efficient means for coordinating the use of societies resources.


law of nature :

according to Locke, the moral principle that since all men are free and equal, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions.


Lockean rights :

the right to life, liberty, and property.


markets :

an economic system based primarily on private individuals making decisions about what they will produce and who will get it.


means of production :

the buildings, machinery, land, and raw materials used in the production of goods and services.

mixed economy :

an economy with both free market and central planning attributes.


natural rights :

the rights that nature teaches each man that he has according to the law of nature.


naturalistic fallacy :

the assumption that whatever happens naturally is always for the best.


patent :

new inventions invented by a person that are designed as private property.


post-Keynesian school :

economists who have sought to challenge and modify Keynesian economics.

private property system :

a system that maintains a system of property laws to assign private individuals the right to make decisions about what they own.


proletariat :

according to Marx, the alienated working class.


relations of production :

the social controls used in producing goods (i.e., the social controls by which society organizes and controls its workers).


Says law :

all available resources are used and demand always expands to absorb the supply of commodities made from them.


social Darwinism :

social Darwinism belief that economic competition produces human progress.

social superstructure :

a society’s government and its popular ideologies.


state of nature :

according to Locke, the state where each man is the political equal of all others, perfectly free of any constraints except the law of nature.


surplus value :

the difference between the value of labor and the wage paid for it.


survival of the fittest :

Charles Darwin’s term for the process of natural selection.


tradition based societies :

societies that rely on traditional communal roles and customs to carry out basic economic tasks.

antitrust :

the view that large oligopolistic or monopolistic companies should be broken up into smaller firms to reinstate competitive pressures.


countervailing power :

according to John Kenneth Galbraith, the force that balances and restrains the economic power of any large corporation or other large corporate group (for example, a union, or the government).


demand curve :

a line on a graph indicating the maximum that consumers (or buyers) would be willing to pay for a unit of some product when they buy different quantities of that product.


do-nothing view :

the view that, in the face of monopolies, governments should take no action whatsoever.


equilibrium point :

the point at which the amount of goods buyers want to buy exactly equals the amount of goods sellers want to sell, and at which the highest price buyers are willing to pay exactly equals the lowest price sellers are willing to take.

equilibrium price :

the point at which the supply and demand curves meet (also known as the point of equilibrium); at this point, the price buyers are willing to pay for a certain amount of goods exactly matches the price sellers must take to cover the costs of producing that same amount.


exclusive dealing arrangements :

when a firm sells to a retailer on condition that the retailer will not purchase any products from other companies and/or will not sell outside of a certain geographical area.


extortion :

when the payee demands the payment by threatening injury to the payer's interests; it is not a bribe, and the payer's moral responsibility may be diminished in proportion to the severity of the threat.


highly concentrated markets :

oligopoly markets that are dominated by a few (e.g. three to eight) large firms.


horizontal merger :

the unification of two or more companies that were formerly competing in the same line of business.

imperfectly competitive markets :

markets that lie somewhere on the spectrum between the two extremes of the perfectly competitive market with innumerable sellers and the pure monopoly market with only one seller.


manipulation of supply :

when firms operating in an oligopolistic market agree to limit their production so that prices rise to higher levels than they would in free competition.


monopoly competition :

a market system where one seller has a substantial share of the market (close to 100%) and no other sellers can enter.


oligopolistic competition :

a market system where a small group of sellers has a substantial share of the market and no other sellers can enter; such markets are said to be highly concentrated.


oligopoly :

a market shared by a relatively small number of large firms that together can exercise some influence on prices.

perfect competition :

a market system in which no buyer or seller has the power to significantly affect the prices at which goods are being exchanged.


price discrimination :

when a seller charges different prices to different buyers for identical goods or services.


price fixing :

when firms operating in an oligopolistic market secretly agree to set prices at artificially high levels.


price leadership :

price leadership is related to price setting; when oligopolistic industries recognize one firm as the firm that sets the price, that firm is the price leader.


price setting :

when firms in an oligopolistic market conclude that cooperation, rather than competition, is in their collective best interests, they may reach the independent conclusion that they will all benefit if, when one firm raises its prices, the others will follow.

principle of diminishing marginal utility :

each additional item a person consumes is less satisfying than each of the earlier items the person consumed.


principle of increasing marginal costs :

after a certain point, each additional item a seller produces costs more to produce than earlier items.


pure monopoly :

a market in which a single firm is the only seller in the market and new sellers are barred from entering.


regulation :

the view that large companies should not be broken up to reinstate competitive pressures; instead, regulatory agencies should be set up to restrain and control their activities.


retail price maintenance :

when a manufacturer sells to a retailer only on condition that they agree to charge the same set retail prices for its goods.

supply curve :

a line on a graph indicating the prices producers must charge to cover the average costs of supplying a given amount of a commodity.


trust :

an alliance of previously competitive oligopolists formed to take advantage of monopoly powers.


tying arrangement :

when a firm sells a buyer a certain good only on condition that the buyer also purchase other goods from the firm.


acid rain :

sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are combined with water vapor in clouds to form form nitric acid and sulfuric acid; these acids are then carried down and often fall hundreds of miles away from the original sources of the oxides.


conservation :

saving or rationing natural resources for future use

cost benefit analysis :

a method of determining the relative worth of an action, recognizing that the costs of actions are often inversely related to the benefits derived from completing them.


ecofeminism :

ecofeminism belief that the root of our ecological crisis lies in a pattern of domination of nature that is tightly linked to the social practices and institutions through which women have been subordinated to men.


ecological ethics :

the idea that the environment should be protected for its own sake (also known as deep ecology).


ecological system :

an interrelated and interdependent set of organisms and environments.


environmental injustice :

the bearing of external costs of pollution largely by those who do not enjoy a net benefit from the activity that produces the pollution.

exponential depletion :

the theory that a resource will be used up more and more quickly.


external cost :

the cost that those other than a manufacturer must bear for the production of a product.


free goods :

goods that no one owns.


global warming :

the increase in temperatures around the globe due to rising levels of greenhouse gases.


greenhouse gases :

carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons-gases that absorb and hold heat from the sun, preventing it from escaping back into space, much like a greenhouse absorbs and holds the sun’s heat.

internalization of the costs of pollution :

absorption of costs by the producer, who takes them into account when determining the prices of goods.


to internalize costs :

to move external costs inward, making them part of the private cost of a commodity.


major types of air pollution :

global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, airborne toxics.


multiple access :

when a resource can be used by several separate extractors, their shared access will lead to the resource being depleted more quickly than if only one extractor had access.


organic wastes :

organic wastes are largely untreated human wastes and sewage and industrial processing of various food products, from the pulp and paper industry, and from animal feedlots.

ozone depletion :

the gradual breakdown of ozone gas in the stratosphere above us caused by the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the air.


peaked depletion :

the theory that a resource will be used up quickly at first, and then more slowly as it becomes more difficult to extract.


photochemical smog :

a complex mixture of gases and particles manufactured by sunlight out of raw materials -- nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons -- discharged to the atmosphere chiefly by automobiles.


pollution :

the undesirable and unintended contamination of the environment.


private cost :

the cost a manufacturer bears to produce a product.

resource depletion :

the consumption of finite or scarce resources.


social audit :

a regular measurement and recording of the impacts of a corporation's activities upon society.


social cost :

the cost which society bears to produce a product.


social ecology :

the idea that the environmental crises we face are rooted in the social systems of hierarchy and domination that characterize our society.


toxic substance :

a substance harmful to some form of life.


 

unlimited goods :

goods that seem to be limitless, like the environment.


brand loyalty :

the result of effective advertising campaigns on consumers, which gives large corporations control over a major portion of the market.


caveat emptor :

"let the buyer beware."


caveat vendor :

"let the seller beware."


commercial advertising :

communication between a seller and potential buyers that is publicly addressed to a mass audience and is intended to induce several members of this audience to buy the seller’s products.

contractual theory (of a seller's duties) :

the view that the relationship between a business and its customers is a contractual one; the moral duties to the customer are those created by this contract.


disclaimer :

a statement made by a seller explicitly disclaiming that the product is reliable, serviceable, or safe.


due care theory (of a seller's duties) :

the theory that, since consumers must depend on the greater expertise of the manufacturer, the manufacturer not only has a duty to deliver a product that lives up to the express and implied claims about it, but also has a duty to exercise due care to prevent others from being injured by the product--even if the manufacturer explicitly disclaims such responsibility.


duty not to coerce :

the duty of a seller not to take advantage of gullibility, immaturity, ignorance, or any other factor that might reduce the buyer's ability to make a rational choice.


duty not to misrepresent :

the duty of a seller not to deliberately deceive the buyer into thinking something about a product that the seller knows is false.

duty of disclosure :

the duty of a seller to inform the buyer of any facts about the product that would affect the decision to purchase it.


duty to comply :

according to the contractual theory, the seller has a duty to carry through on any implied claims he knowingly makes about the product.


free riders :

individuals who acquire a benefit paid for by others who desire the same benefit.


implied claim :

a claim about the quality or character of a product that is knowingly,though not explicitly, made by a seller.


implied warranty :

the indirect contractual relationship made between a company and its customers by its advertisements.


maintainability :

the ease with which a product can be repaired and kept in operating condition.


market approach to consumer protection :

consumer safety is seen as a good that is most efficiently provided through the mechanism of the free market whereby sellers must respond to consumer demands.


physical privacy :

privacy with respect to a person’s physical activities.


production costs / selling costs :

with reference to advertising, production costs are the costs of the resources consumed in producing a product; selling costs are the additional costs of resources that do not go into changing the product but rather are invested in persuading people to buy it.


product safety :

implied and express claims that refer to the degree of risk associated with using a product.

psychological privacy :

privacy with respect to a person’s inner life.


rational utility maximizer :

a person who has a well-defined and consistent set of preferences, and who is certain how personal choices will affect those preferences.


reasonable risk :

a risk that is known and judged to be acceptable by the buyer.


reliability :

the probability that a product will function as the consumer is led to expect.


right to privacy :

the right of persons to determine what, to whom, and how much information about themselves will be disclosed to other parties.

selling costs :

the additional costs of resources that do not go into changing the product, but are invested instead in persuading people to buy the product.


service life :

the period of time during which a product will function as effectively as the consumer is led to expect it to function.


social costs theory (of a seller's duties) :

the theory that the duties of the manufacturer extend far beyond those imposed by contractual and due care duties; manufacturers should pay the cost of any injuries sustained through any defects in their products, even when they exercise due care and have taken all reasonable precautions. (Related to the legal doctrine of strict liability.)


strict liability :

a legal doctrine that holds that manufacturers must bear the “external” costs of injuries resulting from unavoidable defects in the design of an artifact constitute part of the costs society must pay for producing and using an artifact.


affirmative action :

positive programs which are aimed at eliminating the effects of past discrimination; as opposed to negative policies which are aimed at preventing further discrimination.

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 :

bars discrimination on the basis of disability and requires that employers make reasonable accommodation for their disabled employees and customers.


comparable pay :

a program that attempts to place higher salaries on positions that most women already hold (as opposed to an affirmative action program that would attempt to place more women into positions paying more).


comparable worth program :

measuring the value of each job to an organization to ensure that jobs of equal value are paid the same salary regardless of whether external labor markets pay the same rates for those jobs.


discrimination :

the wrongful act of distinguishing illicitly among people not on the basis of individual merit, but on the basis of prejudice or some other invidious or morally reprehensible attitude.


discriminatory practice :

an employment practice which has the effect of wrongful discrimination, regardless of whether it is intentional or systematic; the practice may deal with recruitment, screening, promotion, discharge, and/or conditions of employment.

Equal Opportunity Employment Commission :

a federal agency that investigates claims of on the job sexual harassment and discrimination.


glass ceiling :

an invisible, but impenetrable, barrier to further promotion sometimes encountered by women or minorities.


institutionalized discrimination :

wrongful discrimination which is part of the routine behavior of a group or corporation; it may be either intentional or unintentional.


intentional discrimination :

wrongful discrimination which is done knowingly either by an individual or a group.


invidious contempt :

the belief that members of another sexual or racial group are inferior or less worthy of respect.

isolated discrimination :

wrongful discrimination which is part of the isolated behavior of a single individual; it may be either intentional or unintentional.


job discrimination :

the wrongful act of discriminating in employment on the basis of prejudice or some other morally reprehensible attitude; it is discrimination not based on individual merit, derived at least in part from racial or sexual prejudice, and having a negative impact on the interest of the employee.


nonintential discrimination :

wrongful discrimination which is done unthinkingly or unintentionally either by an individual or a group.


principle of equality :

individuals who are equal in all respects relevant to the kind of treatment in question should be treated equally even if they are dissimiliar in other nonrelevant respects.


reverse discrimination :

a term used by opponents of affirmative action; the idea that affirmative action's effects are preferential treatment for minorities and discrimination against white males on the basis of an irrelevant characteristic, race or sex.

sexual harassment :

under certain conditions, unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical contact of a sexual nature.


utilization analysis :

a detailed study of the major job classifications in a firm, designed to determine whether there are fewer minorities or women in any particular job classification than could be expected from their availability; part of an affirmative action program.


actual conflict of interest :

when an employee has an interest that might influence the judgments she makes for the employer when performing a certain task for the employer and has actually been given that task to perform.


apparent conflict of interest :

a situation in which an employee has no actual conflict of interest, but in which other people looking at the situation may come to believe (wrongly) that there is an actual conflict of interest.


bribe :

bribe in business, a consideration (money, goods, preferential treatment, or the like) given to an individual by a person outside the organization on the understanding that when the individual acts on behalf of the organization, the employee will deal favorably with the person or his/her firm.


caring model of the organization :

an organization in which the dominant moral concepts are those that arise from an ethic of care.


commercial extortion :

occurs when an employee demands a consideration from persons outside the firm as a condition for dealing favorably with those persons when the employee transact business for the firm.


conflict of interest (actual and potential) :

in business, conflict of interest can arise when an employee has a private interest in a task he completes for a business that is possibly antagonistic to the best interests of the company and substantial enough that it might affect the employee’s independent judgment. Actual conflicts occur when a person does discharge his or her duties in a way that is prejudicial to the firm out of self-interest; potential conflicts occur when a person is merely motivated or tempted to do so.


due process :

the right to a fair process by which decision makers impose sanctions on their subordinates.


employee at will :

the doctrine that, unless employees are protected by an implicit contract, employers “may dismiss their employees at will … for good cause, for no cause, or even for causes morally wrong without thereby being guilty of legal wrong.”

fair wage :

the moral wage to pay an employee; based on an area's (and industry's) going wage, the capabilities of the firm, minimum wage laws, and other considerations.


formal hierarchies of authority :

the positions and relationships identified in the organizational chart that represents the various official positions and lines of authority in the organization.


horizontal/vertical specialization :

horizontal specialization decreases the range of different tasks and increases the repetition of the narrow range of tasks in a job; vertical specialization restricts the range of control and decision making over the activity in a job.


insider information :

confidential and proprietary information about a company which has a material or significant impact on the price of the company's stock.


insider trading :

the act of buying and selling a company’s stock on the basis of “inside” information about the company.

job satisfaction :

a measure of how workers perceive their own jobs; it is determined by experienced meaningfulness, responsibility, and an employee's knowledge of results.


job specialization :

the restriction of an employee’s job tasks with the aim of achieving the organization’s goals as efficiently as possible.


manufacturing economy :

an economy in which a large portion of employees are engaged in work that is aimed at producing manufactured products, such as the auto or steel industries.


middle managers :

managers who direct the units below them and are in turn directed by those above them in ascending lines of authority.


objective conflicts of interest :

conflicts of interest based on financial relationships.

operating layer :

those employees and their immediate supervisors who directly produce the goods and services that constitute the essential outputs of an organization.


organizational politics :

the processes in which individuals or groups within an organizational use non-formally sanctioned power tactics to advance their own aims.


OSHA :

the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, founded in 1970 by Congress to "assure …every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions."


participative management :

a leadership style that emphasizes inclusion of employees in evaluation and decision-making processes.


political model :

the model of business organizations that emphasizes competing power coalitions and formal and informal lines of influence and communication; generally, this model is a more complex network of relationships than that represented by an organizational chart.

potential conflicts of interest :

occur when an employee has an interest that could influence the judgments made for the employer if the employee were performing a certain task for the employer but has not yet been given the task to perform.


rational model :

the model of business organizations which defines them as structures of formal relationships designed to achieve a technical or economic goal with maximum efficiency; often associated with a firm's organizational chart.


service economy :

an economy in which most employees are engaged in so-called service industries where work consists largely of providing services to others, such as the banking, restaurant, legal, educational, software design, fashion design, and medical industries.


subjective conflicts of interest :

conflicts of interest that are based on emotional ties or on relationships.


sweatshop :

a workplace that has numerous health and safety hazards and poor working conditions, as well as low wages.

top managers :

the board of directors, the chief executive officer, and the CEO’s staff.


whistleblowing :

the act of attempting to disclose wrongdoing in or by an organization; it can be either internal, when the act is reported to the organization, or external, when it is reported to an outside source.

 

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