We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning & don't appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions. Read More>>

Looking For Something at vustudents.ning.com? Click Here to Search

www.bit.ly/vucodes

+ Link For Assignments, GDBs & Online Quizzes Solution

www.bit.ly/papersvu

+ Link For Past Papers, Solved MCQs, Short Notes & More

Current Final Term Papers Spring 2012 Date: 16-July-2012 to 27-July-2012

Current Final Term Papers Spring 2012 Papers, July 2012, Solved Final Term Papers, Solved Papers, Solved Past Papers, Solved MCQs

+ How to Follow the New Added Discussions at Your Mail Address?

+ How to Join Subject Study Groups & Get Helping Material?

+ How to become Top Reputation, Angels, Intellectual, Featured Members & Moderators?

+ VU Students Reserves The Right to Delete Your Profile, If?


See Your Saved Posts Timeline

Views: 3867

.

+ http://bit.ly/vucodes (Link for Assignments, GDBs & Online Quizzes Solution)

+ http://bit.ly/papersvu (Link for Past Papers, Solved MCQs, Short Notes & More)

+ Click Here to Search (Looking For something at vustudents.ning.com?)

+ Click Here To Join (Our facebook study Group)

Replies to This Discussion

what is ethics and what is its ultimate aim? 3 marks

Ethics is the study of moral standards—the process of examining the moral standards of a person or society to determine whether these standards are reasonable or unreasonable in order to apply them to concrete situations and issues.
The ultimate aim of ethics is to develop a body of moral standards that we feel are reasonable to hold—standards that we have thought about carefully and have decided are justified standards for us to accept and apply to the choices that fill our lives.

Define advertisement in your own words

An advertisement is an announcement in a newspaper, on television, or on a poster that tells people about a product, event, or job vacancy

write down the names of self regulatory bodies and also give their acronyms.

The self-regulatory system comprises three bodies: the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), the Advertising Standards Board of Finance (ASBOF) and the Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP).

write down the contractuatory theory business duties

the contractual theory of business’ duties to consumers clams that a business has four main moral duties: the basic duty of
(a) complying with the terms of the sales contract, and the secondary duties of
(b) disclosing the nature of the product,
(c) avoiding misrepresentation, and
(d) avoiding the use of duress and undue influence

1. what is called positive freedom? in what sense galbraith deserves medal for freedom

Only in the sense that a certain conception of freedom does underlie his thinking. This is what is called "positive" freedom. It means a condition whereby people are provided by government, and at the expense of other people, with what they could use to advance their lot. Such provisions would "free" them to move forward.

3. difficulties to utilitarian approach to ethics

The major difficulty with utilitarianism, according to some critics, is that it is unable to deal with two kinds of moral issues: those relating to rights and those relating to justice.


Define the principle of Rowls theory.

Principle 1 is called the principle of equal liberty. Essentially, it says that each citizen's liberties must be protected from invasion by others and must be equal to those of others.
2 is called the difference principle. It assumes that a productive society will incorporate inequalities, but it then asserts that steps must be taken to improve the position of the most needy members of society, such as the sick and the disabled, unless such improvements would so burden society that they make everyone, including the needy, worse off than before.
Part b of Principle 2 is called the principle of fair equality of opportunity. It says that everyone should be given an equal opportunity to qualify for the more privileged positions in society's institutions.

6. eco feminist and social ecology

ecofeminism belief that the root of our ecological crisis lies in a pattern of domination of nature that is tightly linked to the social practices and institutions through which women have been subordinated to men.
social ecology : the idea that the environmental crises we face are rooted in the social systems of hierarchy and domination that characterize our society.

7. distinguish b/w ethics of care and communitarian ethics

According to ethics of care, we have an obligation to
exercise special care toward the people with whom we have valuable, close relationships. Compassion, concern, love, friendship, and kindness
A communitarian ethic is an ethic that sees concrete communities and communal relationships as having a fundamental value that should be preserved and maintained

8. various basis to determine ethical nature of advertisement

To determine the ethical nature of an advertisement, the following points are
relevant: the intended and actual social effects of the advertisement; the informing or
persuasive character of the advertisement, and whether it creates irrational or injurious desires; and the whether the advertisement's content is truthful or tends to mislead.

to determine what the moral thing to do on any particlar occasion might be write consideration?

To determine what the moral thing to do on any particular occasion might be, there are three considerations to follow:
1. You must determine what alternative actions are available.
2. You must estimate the direct and indirect costs and benefits the action would produce for all involved in the foreseeable future.
3. You must choose the alternative that produces the greatest sum total of utility.

difference b/w social and private cost?

private cost : the cost a manufacturer bears to produce a product..
social cost : the cost which society bears to produce a product.

Total questions = 55
Total mcqs = 46

4 questions having 3 marks:

1. What is Affluent Society?

2. What does it means “treating humanity as an end”

3. Define Green marketing and its activities.

4. Differentiate advertising and publicity

5 questions having 5 marks:

1. What is diminishing marginal utility and give an example.

2. Anti-trust views

3. Business claiming that environment responsibility is confined to laws.

4. Positive and negative aspects of advertising

5. Safety and privacy of internet transaction

a.o.a tariq bhai plz solced mcqs mgt610 k b share kren urgent plzzzz

all uploaded todays papers solved by  aysha shoukat

that is ethics and what is its ultimate aim? 3 marks

Ethics is the study of moral standards—the process of examining the moral standards of a person

or society to determine whether these standards are reasonable or unreasonable in order to apply

them to concrete situations and issues. The ultimate aim of ethics is to develop a body of moral

standards that we feel are reasonable to hold—standards that we have thought about carefully and

have decided are justified standards for us to accept and apply to the choices that fill our lives.

Ethics is not the only way to study morality.

 

Define advertisement in your own words. 3 marks

(Business / Marketing) any public notice, as a printed display in a newspaper, short film on television, announcement on radio, etc., designed to sell goods, publicize an event, etc.

 

 

write down the names of self regulatory bodies and also give their acronyms.

The self-regulatory system comprises three bodies: the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA),

the Advertising Standards Board of Finance (ASBOF) and the Committee of Advertising

Practice (CAP).

 

write down the contractuatory theory business duties, kuch esa hi tha question. 5 marks

The contract theory of the business firm’s duties to its customers rests on the view that a

contract is a free agreement that imposes on the parties the basic duty of complying with the

terms of the agreement. We examined this view earlier (chapter 2) and noted the two

justifications Kant provided for the view: A person has a duty to do what he or she contracts to

do because failure to adhere to the terms of a contract is a practice that (a) cannot be

universalized, and (b) treats the other person as a means and not as an end. Rawls’ theory also

provides a justification for the view, but one that is based on the idea that our freedom is

expanded by the recognition of contractual rights and duties; an enforced system of social rules

that requires people to do what they contract to do will provide them with the assurance that

contracts will be kept. Only if they have such assurance will people feel able to trust each

other’s word and, on that basis, to secure the benefits of the institution of contracts.

We also noted in Chapter 2 that traditional moralist have argued that the act of entering into a

contract is subject to several secondary moral constraints:

1. Both of the parties to the contract must have full knowledge of the nature of the

agreement they are entering.

2. Neither party to a contract must intentionally misrepresent the facts of the contractual

situation to the other party.

3. Neither party to

A scenario was given about nuclear waste. 5 marks.

 

Define the principle of Rowls theory.

Principle 1 is called the principle of equal liberty. Essentially, it says that each citizen's

liberties must be protected from invasion by others and must be equal to those of others. These

basic liberties include the right to vote, freedom of speech and conscience and the other civil

liberties, freedom to hold personal property, and freedom from arbitrary arrest. Part of Principle

2 is called the difference principle. It assumes that a productive society will incorporate

inequalities, but it then asserts that steps must be taken to improve the position of the most

needy members of society, such as the sick and the disabled, unless such improvements would

so burden society that they make everyone, including the needy, worse off than before. Part b

of Principle 2 is called the principle of fair equality of opportunity. It says that everyone

should be given an equal opportunity to qualify for the more privileged positions in society's

institution

 

bqi 2 question or the jo muje is wqt yad ni. sorry

 

what is called positive freedom? in what sense galbraith deserves medal for freedom

In what sense does Galbraith deserve a medal of freedom? Only in the sense that a certain

conception of freedom does underlie his thinking. This is what is called "positive" freedom. It

means a condition whereby people are provided by government, and at the expense of other

people, with what they could use to advance their lot. Such provisions would "free" them to move ahead.

3. difficulties to utilitarian approach to ethics

4. what is wrong with businesses claiming that their environmental responsibilites s confined with law

5. economic, social, moral, political and cultural harms of advertising

A) Economic Harms of Advertising

Advertising can betray its role as a source of information by misrepresentation and by

withholding relevant facts. Sometimes, too, the information function of media can be subverted

by advertisers' pressure upon publications or programs not to treat of questions that might prove

embarrassing or inconvenient. More often, though, advertising is used not simply to inform but

to persuade and motivate — to convince people to act in certain ways: buy certain products or

services, patronize certain institutions, and the like. This is where particular abuses can occur.

The practice of "brand"-related advertising can raise serious problems. Often there are only

negligible differences among similar products of different brands, and advertising may attempt

to move people to act on the basis of irrational motives ("brand loyalty," status, fashion, "sex

appeal," etc.) instead of presenting differences in product quality and price as bases for rational

choice.

Advertising also can be, and often is, a tool of the "phenomenon of consumerism," as Pope

John Paul II delineated it when he said: "It is not wrong to want to live better; what is wrong is

a style of life which is presumed to be better when it is directed toward ?having' rather than ?

being', and which wants to have more, not in order to be more but in order to spend life in

enjoyment as an end in itself. "Sometimes advertisers speak of it as part of their task to "create"

needs for products and services — that is, to cause people to feel and act upon cravings for

items and services they do not need. "If ... a direct appeal is made to his instincts — while

ignoring in various ways the reality of the person as intelligent and free — then consumer

attitudes and life-styles can be created which are objectively improper and often damaging to

his physical and spiritual health."

This is a serious abuse, an affront to human dignity and the common good when it occurs in

affluent societies. But the abuse is still more grave when consumerist attitudes and values are

transmitted by communications media and advertising to developing countries, where they

exacerbate socio-economic problems and harm the poor. "It is true that a judicious use of

advertising can stimulate developing countries to improve their standard of living. But serious

harm can be done them if advertising and commercial pressure become so irresponsible that

communities seeking to rise from poverty to a reasonable standard of living are persuaded to

seek this progress by satisfying wants that have been artificially created. The result of this is

that they waste their resources and neglect their real needs, and genuine development falls

behind."

Similarly, the task of countries attempting to develop types of market economies that serve

human needs and interests after decades under centralized, state-controlled systems is made

more difficult by advertising that promotes consumerist attitudes and values offensive to human

dignity and the common good. The problem is particularly acute when, as often happens, the

dignity and welfare of society's poorer and weaker members are at stake. It is necessary always

to bear in mind that there are "goods which by their very nature cannot and must not be bought

or sold" and to avoid "an? Idolatry' of the market" that, aided and abetted by advertising,

ignores this crucial fact.

B) Harms of Political Advertising

Political advertising can support and assist the working of the democratic process, but it also

can obstruct it. This happens when, for example, the costs of advertising limit political

© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan

113

Business Ethics –MGT610 VU

competition to wealthy candidates or groups, or require that office-seekers compromise their

integrity and independence by over-dependence on special interests for funds.

Such obstruction of the democratic process also happens when, instead of being a vehicle for

honest expositions of candidates' views and records, political advertising seeks to distort the

views and records of opponents and unjustly attacks their reputations. It happens when

advertising appeals more to people's emotions and base instincts — to selfishness, bias and

hostility toward others, to racial and ethnic prejudice and the like — rather than to a reasoned

sense of justice and the good of all.

C) Cultural Harms of Advertising

Advertising also can have a corrupting influence upon culture and cultural values. We have

spoken of the economic harm that can be done to developing nations by advertising that fosters

consumerism and destructive patterns of consumption. Consider also the cultural injury done to

these nations and their peoples by advertising whose content and methods, reflecting those

prevalent in the first world, are at war with sound traditional values in indigenous cultures.

Today this kind of "domination and manipulation" via media rightly is "a concern of

developing nations in relation to developed ones," as well as a "concern of minorities within

particular nations."

The indirect but powerful influence exerted by advertising upon the media of social

communications that depend on revenues from this source points to another sort of cultural

concern. In the competition to attract ever larger audiences and deliver them to advertisers,

communicators can find themselves tempted — in fact pressured, subtly or not so subtly — to

set aside high artistic and moral standards and lapse into superficiality, tawdriness and moral

squalor.

Communicators also can find themselves tempted to ignore the educational and social needs of

certain segments of the audience — the very young, the very old, the poor — who do not match

the demographic patterns (age, education, income, habits of buying and consuming, etc.) of the

kinds of audiences advertisers want to reach. In this way the tone and indeed the level of moral

responsibility of the communications media in general are lowered.

All too often, advertising contributes to the invidious stereotyping of particular groups that

places them at a disadvantage in relation to others. This often is true of the way advertising

treats women; and the exploitation of women, both in and by advertising, is a frequent,

deplorable abuse. "How often are they treated not as persons with an inviolable dignity but as

objects whose purpose is to satisfy others' appetite for pleasure or for power? How often the

role of woman as wife and mother is undervalued or even ridiculed? How often is the role of

women in business or professional life depicted as a masculine caricature, a denial of the

specific gifts of feminine insight, compassion, and understanding, which so greatly contribute

to the ?civilization of love'?"

D) Moral and Religious Harms of Advertising

Advertising can be tasteful and in conformity with high moral standards, and occasionally even

morally uplifting, but it also can be vulgar and morally degrading. Frequently it deliberately

appeals to such motives as envy, status seeking and lust. Today, too, some advertisers

consciously seek to shock and titillate by exploiting content of a morbid, perverse,

© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan

114

Business Ethics –MGT610 VU

pornographic nature. What this Pontifical Council said several years ago about pornography

and violence in the media is no less true of certain forms of advertising:

"As reflections of the dark side of human nature marred by sin, pornography and the exaltation

of violence are age-old realities of the human condition. In the past quarter century, however,

they have taken on new dimensions and have become serious social problems. At a time of

widespread and unfortunate confusion about moral norms, the communications media have

made pornography and violence accessible to a vastly expanded audience, including young

people and even children, and a problem which at one time was confined mainly to wealthy

countries has now begun, via the communications media, to corrupt moral values in developing

nations." We note, too, certain special problems relating to advertising that treats of religion or

pertains to specific issues with a moral dimension.

In cases of the first sort, commercial advertisers sometimes include religious themes or use

religious images or personages to sell products. It is possible to do this in tasteful, acceptable

ways, but the practice is obnoxious and offensive when it involves exploiting religion or

treating it flippantly.

In cases of the second sort, advertising sometimes is used to promote products and inculcate

attitudes and forms of behavior contrary to moral norms. That is the case, for instance, with the

advertising of contraceptives, abortifacients and products harmful to health, and with

government-sponsored advertising campaigns for artificial birth control, so-called "safe sex",

and similar practices.

6. eco feminist and social ecology

What literally defines social ecology as "social" is its recognition of the often overlooked fact

that nearly all our present ecological problems arise from deep-seated social problems.

Conversely, present ecological problems cannot be clearly understood, much less resolved,

without resolutely dealing with problems within society. To make this point more concrete:

economic, ethnic, cultural, and gender conflicts, among many others, lie at the core of the most

serious ecological dislocations we face today--apart, to be sure, from those that are produced by

natural catastrophes.

environment. Eco-feminists, a related group of thinkers, sees the

key form of hierarchy connected to the destruction of the environment

If this approach seems a bit

7. distinguish b/w ethics of care and communication ethics

This is central to the point of view known as the ethics of care, an approach to ethics that many

feminist ethicists have recently advanced. According to this method, we have an obligation to

exercise special care toward the people with whom we have valuable, close relationships.

Compassion, concern, love, friendship, and kindness are all sentiments or virtues that normally

manifest this dimension of morality. Thus, an ethic of care emphasizes two moral demands: Effective communication involves expressing oneself clearly, being a good listener, using appropriate body language and ensuring how a message is delivered and received. It is inherently a two-way process. Communication operates through a system of customs and principles that are essentially determined by people’s cultures. When the communicators don’t share these principles, a communication breakdown, or miscommunication, will typically occur. Of course there are various types of communication in the workplace: face-to-face, email, phone, etc., and for each of these, the style of communicating will vary according to culture.

Webster’s Dictionary defines ethical as “conforming to an accepted standard of good behavior,” and the Oxford English Dictionary defines ethics as “a set of moral principles or code.”  Consequently, when we speak of ethical communication in the global workplace we see that cultural customs and principles affect both the communication style and the definition of what is considered ethical.

 

8. various basis to determine ethical nature of advertisement

the informing or

persuasive character of the advertisement, and whether it creates irrational or injurious desires;

and the whether the advertisement's content is truthful or tends to mislead.

what is called positive freedom? in what sense galbraith deserves medal for freedom 5 marks

In what sense does Galbraith deserve a medal of freedom? Only in the sense that a certain

conception of freedom does underlie his thinking. This is what is called "positive" freedom. It

means a condition whereby people are provided by government, and at the expense of other

people, with what they could use to advance their lot. Such provisions would "free" them to

move forward

to determine what the moral thing to do on any particlar occasion might be wright consideration??? 3 marks  (answer on pg # 15 handouts)

To determine what the moral thing to do on any particular occasion might be, there are three

considerations to follow:

1. You must determine what alternative actions are available.

2. You must estimate the direct and indirect costs and benefits the action would produce

for all involved in the foreseeable future.

3. You must choose the alternative that produces the greatest sum total of utility.

what is quality of life in ethics?

 

difference b/w social and private cost?explain with example5

contrectual duties to the cunsumer the duty not to coerce explai with real life example?5

define advertising in own words3

locke claim wih the privte property of justice explain3

how diverge the privte cost to social cost3

affirmative action3

remaining 2question 5marks Iforget it

MGT610_Current_Solved_Final_term_Papers

See the attached file please

Attachments:

harms of advertisement
utilitarian measurement implies that all goods can be traded for equivalents of each other. however, not everything has a monetary equivalent. Girve arguments.
problems of environment
differintiate between puffery and fraud? give real life examples
.Fredrich Hayek book The road to seferdom. what main idea he gave in his book

or yaad nahi a rhay

My Today's Paper
what is ethics and what is its ultimate aim? 3 marks
Define advertisement in your own words. 3 marks
write down the names of self regulatory bodies and also give their acronyms.
write down the contractuatory theory business duties, kuch esa hi tha question. 5 marks
A scenario was given about nuclear waste. 5 marks. 
Define the principle of Rowls theory.
bqi 2 question or the jo muje is wqt yad ni. sorry

wrongful aspects of institutional and intentional discrimination?5 

how far manufacturers and representatives go to make their product safe?5 marks

define ideology, individualistic and communiterian ideology? 3 marks

how internalizing  external costs is related with retributive theory, distributive and compensatory theory.describe in detail?5 marks

various basis to determine ethical nature of advertisement. 3 marks

criticism on lock.

mcqs were from mid term online quizes and from last chapters. usman atari ki mid term ki subjective file aur final term ki ayesha usman wale file ache tra krain tu 65% paper easily solve hojayega obj bhe subjective bhe. GOODLUCK AAND REMEMBER ME IN UR PRAYERS.

Umair Jaferi bhai thanx for lovely comments on my both mid and final term files.... and also i thanx my study partner miss aysha shoukat..... Remeber me in prayers

 Usman Attari hmmm 

assalam o alaikum usman muje mgt610 k finaltem k solved nahi mil rahe .plz aap send kr dyein agr aap k pas files hain mera paper ha

i add all both files in new discussion.... un students k liye jin ko files search krny main problem ho rhi hy....

plz plz plz prayer for me and my group and also UMMAT E MUHAMMADI

RSS

Latest Activity

Profile IconAini MCS and Muskan dia joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
7 minutes ago
mahi ahsan replied to + "Jɨyą's discussion CS501 Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 12-11-2019 in the group CS501 Advance Computer Architecture
21 minutes ago
rehmak liked + M.Tariq Malik's discussion CS619 Final Project Fall 2019 - My Travel Expenses Manager Android App
21 minutes ago
Mani Siddiqui BS VIII posted a status
"عشق وه علمِ ریاضی ھے که جس میں فارس.. دو سے جب ایک نکالیں تو صفر بچتا ھے"
24 minutes ago
+***piya o ry piya***+ replied to + "Jɨyą's discussion What are u gOod at....... :v
27 minutes ago
+***piya o ry piya***+ liked + "Jɨyą's discussion What are u gOod at....... :v
28 minutes ago
Mani Siddiqui BS VIII replied to ayesha's discussion CS614 Assignment NO.1 Fall 2019 Solution&Discussion Due date: 14 Nov 2019 in the group CS614 Data Warehousing
29 minutes ago
Mani Siddiqui BS VIII joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
29 minutes ago
Mani Siddiqui BS VIII joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
30 minutes ago
++Killing Joke++ updated their profile
45 minutes ago
Aakash Ahmed replied to +¢αяєℓєѕѕ gιяℓ's discussion CS408 - Human Computer Interaction Assignment No.1 Semester: Fall 2019 in the group CS408 Human Computer Interaction
1 hour ago
Profile IconAakash Ahmed and Preçîõûš joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
1 hour ago
+ Abb@s replied to + !! SARAH's discussion mne hassan ko mne kbhi nhi manga dua me ,..<3 love love hassan to azal se mera he na..!!
1 hour ago
+ Abb@s replied to + !! SARAH's discussion mne hassan ko mne kbhi nhi manga dua me ,..<3 love love hassan to azal se mera he na..!!
1 hour ago
Maham Rafiq and Muhammad Hussnain Hafeez are now friends
1 hour ago
roshan khetran liked + M.Tariq Malik's group ISL201 Islamic Studies
1 hour ago
Bilal Chaudhary replied to + M.Tariq Malik's discussion CS603 Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 11-11-2019 in the group CS603 Software Architecture and Design
1 hour ago
Bilal Chaudhary joined + M.Tariq Malik's group
1 hour ago
pakeeza fatima liked + M.Tariq Malik's discussion MGT101 Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 13-11-2019
1 hour ago
+ "αяsαℓ " Ќąƶµяɨ •" replied to + M.Tariq Malik's discussion MGT301 Principles of Marketing Assignment No 01 Fall 2019 Solution & Discussion in the group MGT301 Principles of Marketing
2 hours ago

Today Top Members 

© 2019   Created by + M.Tariq Malik.   Powered by

Promote Us  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service