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Final Term Subjective
Byè USMAN ATTARI
How Adam smith or Utilitarian are criticized marks 3
Locke's critics focus on four weaknesses in his argument:
About Galbraith Affluent Society Marks 3
In the Affluent Society Galbraith asserts that classical economic theory was true for the eras before the present, which were times of "poverty"; now, however, we have moved from a state of poverty into an age of "affluence," and for such an age, a completely new economic theory is needed.
How far must manufacturer and their representatives go to make their product and services completely safe?
The “due care” view holds then that, because consumers must depend on the greater expertise of the manufacturer, the manufacturer not only has a duty to deliver a product that lives up to the express and implied claims about it, but also has a duty to exercise due care to prevent others from being injured by the product even if the manufacturer violates this duty and is negligent when there is a failure to exercise the care that a reasonable person could have foreseen would be necessary to prevent others from being harmed by use of the product. Due care must enter into the design of the product, the choice of reliable materials for constructing the product, the manufacturing processes involved in putting the product together, the quality control used to test and monitor production, and the warnings, labels, and instructions attached to the product. In each of these areas, according to the due care view, the manufacturer, in virtue of a greater expertise and knowledge, has a positive duty to take whatever as possible, and the customers has a right to such assurance. Failure to take such steps is a breach of the moral duty to exercise due care and a violation of the injured person’s right to expect such care – a right that rests on the consumer’s need to rely on the manufacturer’s expertise.
Explain ethics of conserving depletable resources marks 5
Conservation refers to the saving or rationing of natural resources for later use. Conservation, therefore, looks primarily to the future: to the need to limit consumption now to have resources available for tomorrow.
In fact, even pollution control can be seen as a form of conservation, since pollution consumes air and water. However, there are basic differences between the problems of pollution and the problems of resource depletion that makes the term conservation more applicable to the latter problems than to the former. With some notable exception (such as nuclear wastes), most forms of pollution affect present generations, and their control will benefit present generations. The depletion of most scarce resources, however, lies far in the depletion of resources is primarily by posterity and not by present generations. Consequently, our concern over the depletion of resources is primarily a concern for future generations and for the benefits that will be available to them.
Social costs view of the manufacturer's duties marks 3
A third theory on the duties of the manufacturer would extend the manufacturer’s duties beyond those imposed by contractual relationships and beyond those imposed by the duty to exercise due care in preventing injury or harm. This third theory holds that a manufacturer should pay the costs of nay injuries sustained through any defects in the product, even when the manufacturer exercised all due care in the design and manufacture of the product and has taken all reasonable precautions to warn users of every foreseen danger. According to this third theory a manufacturer has a duty to assume the risks of even those injuries that arise out of defects in the product that no one could reasonably have foreseen or eliminated. The theory is strong version of the doctrine of caveat vendor: let the seller take care.
What is Affluent Society? 3
The Affluent Society Galbraith asserts that classical economic theory was true for the eras before the present, which were times of "poverty"; now, however, we have moved from a state of poverty into an age of "affluence," and for such an age, a completely new economic theory is needed.
What does it means "treating humanity as an end" 3
What Kant means by "treating humanity as an end" is that everyone should treat each human being as a being whose existence as a free rational person should be promoted. For Kant, this means two things:
Define Green marketing and its activities. 3
Marketing products and services based on environmental factors or awareness. Companies involved in green marketing make decisions relating to the entire process of the company’s products, such as methods of processing, packaging and distribution.
Green marketing activities
Differentiate advertising and publicity 3
Advertising and publicity are two very different communication tools, even though both employ the mass media as a vehicle for reaching large audiences.
This does not mean that advertising should be seen only as a marketing tool and that publicity should be seen only as a public relations tool. Thoughtfully used, both tools are valuable for both functions.
Anti-trust views 5
the antitrust view argues that prices and profits in highly concentrated industries are higher than they should be. By breaking up large corporations into smaller units, they claim, higher levels of competition will emerge in those industries. The result will be a decrease in collusion, greater innovation, and lower prices. Clearly, the antitrust view is based on a number of assumptions. J. Fred Weston has summarized the basic propositions on which this traditional view is based:
Positive and negative aspects of advertising 5
Simply reaching out to the market to let them know you exist is a primary initial objective of advertising. No matter how great your product or service, if no one knows you exist, you cannot sell to them. An effective and often repeated advertisement helps your target audience become more familiar with your brand and ideally recall it when a need arises for which your brand intends to meet.
Advertisements are sometimes intended to induce immediate sales and revenue. Presentation of sales promotions through ads is a way to drive business quickly. Television and radio ads can communicate your message. In print advertisements, such as with magazines and newspapers, you can include sales promotion tools, such as a coupon, right in the ad. New businesses often use promotions to build a customer base, but they are also used to sell excess inventory and create cash flow when needed.
Information and Education
In his January 2011 article "Unappreciated Benefits of Advertising and Commercial Speech" for the website The Technology Liberation Front, Adam There points out that advertisements sometimes serve to inform and educate consumers. This is especially true when new brand or products are introduced to the market or when product complexity means more education is required. Understanding the value of an advertiser's brand relative to the needs they have helps consumers make more informed decisions.
Return on Investment
From a financial standpoint, advertisements should generate a return on investment, indicates Dan Keen of Break Studios in his April 2010 article "10 Benefits Of Advertising." Advertisements cost money to develop and place. Companies consider how much return of investment they get in the form of heightened consumer awareness, improved brand sentiment or direct sales. Evaluating results of advertisements is vital for companies to confirm a return on investment and to avoid wasteful messages that do not accomplish the intended results
Safety and privacy of internet transaction 5
There are several ways to help ensure safe transactions on the Internet, and more are becoming possible all the time. Some of these include:
The most prevalent method for paying for the things you purchase online is still the credit card. The following list provides some tips on how to make sure your transaction is secure. For a more extensive explanation of encryption and Internet security, check out How Encryption Works.
Water Contamination - what can we do to solve this problem?
Here are the things world needs to do in order to solve water pollution issue:
What are discriminatory practices?
Discriminate means to make choices based upon categories. If you like to eat small eggs but not large eggs, you discriminate in your egg consumption. That, of course, is a harmless example. If, however, you like to hire people of European descent and not people of African descent that is a harmful form of discrimination, since it is unfair to qualified applicants who do not meet your ethnic criterion.
Application forms are unlawful and discriminatory when:
What are the effects of deforestation?
THE EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION ON OUR ENVIRONMENT TODAY
Deforestation has been described as the cutting down of trees without planting others in their place.
It is hard to think that there was a time when 90% of the earth was covered by trees, but this was once the case. If so, one asks, naturally, what happened to all these trees? Why do people cut down trees? The following are probable reasons:
a) Demand for land for cultivation.
This has been seen both in Kenya and other parts of the world especially countries that have Agriculture as the backbone of their economy. Trees have been cut down to obtain land for cultivation of both subsistence and cash crops, both by governments and individuals.
b) Need for firewood
People, especially those who live in rural areas where electricity and gas are unavailable, resort to use of firewood as a source of heat. Here, wood is cut down and burnt.
c) Need for land to build industries
Industries require a lot of land and while industrialization is important for every country, it is the bane of large tracts of forest. People need jobs in order to provide for their daily needs.
d) Need for land to build houses
with the worldwide increase in population, land to build houses for people to live in is very much required.
e) Need for wood for furniture, pencils, paper etc
whereas the above needs are important and have to be satisfied, cutting down trees is not the most probable solution to these problems. Why? This is because; most people who cut down trees do not plant others in their place. Also, if all the above needs are to be met by cutting down of trees, even planting two for every tree cut will not prevent desertification. This is because trees take so long to grow and mature, especially so for hard wood trees.
Why business use utilitarian cost-benefit analysis
At the broadest and vaguest level, cost-benefit analysis may be regarded simply as systematic thinking about decision-making the basic principle of utilitarianism is:
Actions are right to the degree that they tend to promote the greatest good for the greatest number.
Utilitarianism is a simple theory and its results are easy to apply. It also allows for degrees of right and wrong, and for every situation the choice between actions is clear-cut: always choose that which has the greatest utility.
Theory of Utility
Bentham’s theory of utility is based on three central features:
1. The greatest happiness principle (or utility principle)
3. Artificial identification of one’s own interests with those of others
Utilitarianism may be employed in any business decision-making process that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but perhaps also financially and so forth) and minimize negative outcomes. As with Bentham's formulation, utilitarianism in business ethics is primarily concerned with outcomes rather than processes. If the outcome leads to the greatest good (or the least harm) for the greatest number of people
With reference to contractual theory, what are moral obligations of business?
Contractual agreement not to exhibit unethical behavior. Releasing products with defects should be informed to the customers. This is a golden practice amongst Muslims from the days of Holy Prophet (PBUH) and it’s heartening to see the same being employed here in the field of International Business the contractual theory of business’ duties to consumer’s clams that a business has four main moral duties: the basic duty of
(a) Complying with the terms of the sales contract, and the secondary duties of
(b) Disclosing the nature of the product,
(c) Avoiding misrepresentation, and
(d) Avoiding the use of duress and undue influence
Business claiming that environment responsibility is confined to laws. 5
On the basis of marginal cost, why an additional unit produced cost a business more? Give examples.
thankx alot usman bahi Allah bless u plz mid term ki file b upload kr dosubjective
What are the effects of deforestation?
Es ka Answer worng deya hai ,
Effects main ya chezaan ati hain ...
Agha.(* thanks for sharing