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Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not an advantage of the self-completion questionnaire over the structured interview?
► It is cheaper to administer.
► It is quicker to administer.
► It is easier to prompt the interviewee.
► It is easier to remove interviewer effects.

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements might assist response rates?
► Please photocopy the questionnaire five times and pass on to your work colleagues.
► Please make sure that the questionnaire is completed with a fountain pen.
► Please read the attached journal article on the ontological foundations of positivism prior to completing the questionnaire.
► Please put the completed questionnaire in the enclosed stamped addressed envelope and place in the mail out tray.

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is NOT an example of a problem with using survey research to investigate behaviour?
► Respondents tend to answer by giving the most socially desirable answer.
► Respondents may inadvertently omit key terms in the question.
► Respondents may not give an honest reply to what they see as a threatening question.
► Respondents may be unwilling to reveal information as they believe they are likely to be identified.

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Personal interviews are generally more _______ than mail, internet and telephone surveys.

► Cheaper
► Expensive
► Easier
► Inexpensive

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is considered a part of a formal evaluation of a research plan?

► A critique by a colleague of the researcher
► A critique by an experienced researcher
► A pilot study and a field test
► Self opinion

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Mr. Ali has conducted an extensive review of the literature and has deductively reasoned a hypothesis about his problem on the basis of this review. Which type of a research plan is Mr. Ali likely proposing?

► Quantitative
► Qualitative
► Ethical
► Both quantitative and qualitative

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The validity of a measure refers to which of the following?
► Consistency of the measurement
► Particular type of construct specification
► Comprehensiveness with which it measures the construct
► Accuracy with which it measures the construct

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements relates to concurrent validity?
► The measure apparently reflects the content of the concept in question.
► A criterion is employed on which cases are known to differ.
► A future criterion is employed on which cases are known to differ.
► A measure is gauged by comparing it to measures of the same concept developed through other methods.

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is a threat to the internal validity of an experimental design?
► Maturation
► Interaction of setting and treatment
► Interaction effects of pre-testing
► Reactive effects of experimental arrangements

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What is the difference between interval/ratio and ordinal variables?

► Ordinal data can be rank ordered, but interval/ratio data cannot.
► The distance between categories is equal across the range of interval/ration data.
► Interval/ratio variables contain only two categories.
► Ordinal variables have a fixed zero point, whereas interval/ratio variables do not.

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is the appropriate way in which to view the reliability of observational data?
► Test-retest
► Parallel forms
► Internal consistency
► Interobserver reliability

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is likely to reduce the validity of a test?
► Unclear test directions
► Ambiguous test items
► Unclear, ambiguous and untaught items
► Untaught items

Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following types of scales is likely measuring students' deeply held beliefs about ideas, people, or objects?
► The Study of Values
► The Attitudes toward School Scale
► The Strong Campbell Interest Inventory
► The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
When embarking upon a research project, which of the following issues should be considered?
► That the data from the study will be treated anonymously and confidentially.
► Coherent research question, pilot work and confidentially.
► Pilot work should be carried out to assess the practical issues and feasibility of the research.
► That the research should be based upon a coherent research question.

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Ethical considerations are a very important part of research. Which of the following statements is false?
► Participants should be protected from physical and mental harm during the research process.
► Informed consent should be sought in all cases. In situations where the participant is unable to give this (young children / adults with impairments), informed consent should be given by parents or by those in loco parentis.
► Debriefing of participants is essential and gives the researcher the opportunity to discuss the participant's experience of the research process and negate any effects of the investigation.
► Deception is inevitable part of research. Misleading participants is acceptable as long as they are never informed of the true nature of the investigation.

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following questions might invade the privacy of a research participant?
► How long have you worked for this organisation?
► What is your home address?
► What do you think about your direct line manager?
► What happened during your last performance appraisal?

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following types of processes, research falls in?
► A process to discover the truth
► A process to invent the machines
► A process to make new medicines
► A process to create theories

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which type of review compares how different theories address an issue?





► Context review
► Integrated review
► Methodological review
► Theoretical review

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is the meaning of the term "To read critically"?
► Skimming through the material because most of it is just padding.
► Evaluating what you read in terms of your own research questions.
► Being willing to criticize what you read.
► Taking an opposing point of view to the ideas and opinions expressed.

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The purpose of a literature review is to:
► Help you find out what is already known about this area.
► Identify any inconsistencies or gaps in the literature.
► Demonstrate an awareness of the theoretical context in which the current study can be located.
► Find what is already known, identify gaps, demonstrate awareness.

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements best describes a hypothesis?
► A tentative prediction of the results of the research.
► The operational definition of the study.
► A qualitative research design.
► A quantitative study.

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Hypothesis test may also be called as:




► Informal test
► Moderating test
► Significance test
► t-test

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
“Downsizing in an organization in future is associated with the level of job security of the present employee in an organization” is an example of which of the following?
► Correlational hypothesis
► Descriptive hypothesis
► Explanatory hypothesis
► Non Descriptive hypothesis

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is the characteristic/s of Hypotheses in qualitative research studies?
► Hypotheses are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
► Hypotheses are never used.
► Hypotheses are often generated as the data are collected, interpreted, and analyzed.
► Hypotheses are always stated after the research study has been completed.

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is TRUE for a hypothesis?
► A dependent variable.
► An independent variable.
► A prediction of a relationship between certain variables.
► An experiment that tests certain predictions.

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The cause variable or the one that identifies forces or conditions that act on something else is known as:
► Moderating variable
► Independent variable
► Categorical variable
► Dependent variable

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which one of the following creates problems of measurements of a concept?
► Vague meanings
► Dictionary meanings
► Clear meanings
► Unambiguous meanings

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not a concept?

► Leadership.
► Total Quality Management.
► Human Resource Management.
► Intelligence Quotient (IQ).

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Research may differ along a series of dimensions. Which of the following may be applied to this statement?
► The level of manipulation used to elicit data collection.
► The data-collection technique.
► The type of data collected.
► Type, technique and manipulation of data collection.

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not the source for getting information for exploratory research?
► Survey
► Case study
► Content analysis
► Pilot study

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Exploratory research addresses which of the following types of question?
► What
► If
► How
► Why

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Qualitative research is often exploratory and has all of the following characteristics, except:
► It is typically used when a great deal is already known about the topic of interest.
► It relies on the collection of non numerical data such as words and pictures.
► It is used to generate hypotheses and develop theory about phenomena in the world.
► It uses the inductive scientific method.

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The action research method is depicted as a strengthening process because;
► Data collection continues throughout data analysis.
► The results are analyzed and used by other researchers to conduct additional investigations of the topic.
► The action researcher continues to study other topics of interest after the initial study is completed.
► The process continues even after the data are collected and analyzed, and actions are taken based on findings.

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The part of the action research spiral that differentiates this research methodology from other kinds of research is;
► Looking at multiple sources of data.
► Taking action based on results.
► Thinking about or analyzing data in more than one way.
► The kinds of data that are collected.

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A teacher conducts an action research study of the problem-solving methods used by students in his ninth-grade Algebra I classes. Which of the following can he assume on the basis of his study?
► Results apply only to students in his ninth-grade Algebra I classes.
► Results apply only to students in Algebra I classes at his school.
► Results apply only to Algebra I students in ninth grade.
► Results apply to all math students.

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is characteristic of action research?
► Variables are tightly controlled.
► Results are generalizable.
► Results demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships.
► Data are usually qualitative.

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What does an empiricist believe?
► Knowledge in the form of ‘facts’ should be gained through sensory experience.
► Research conducted within the British Empire was biased and unreliable.
► Research should not always necessarily rely on the scientific methods.
► All the knowledge that we have of life after death can be used in research.

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Research method is applicable in all of the following fields, Except.

► Health care
► Business
► Government offices
► Religion

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following refers to research supported by measurable evidence?

► Opinion
► Speculation
► Empiricism
► Rationalism

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Who, among the following, is the writer of Business Research Methods?
► Neuman, W.C.
► Zikmund, W.
► Sekaran, U.
► Dessler, G.

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 5 )
Given the following situation, (a) identify the broad problem area, (b) define the problem statement, and (c) identify one dependent and one independent variable and justify your choice by proper explanation.
PROBLEM AT PIONEER
Pioneer’s minivans and pickups take a big share of the truck market in Pakistan, while its cars lag behind those of Suzuki, Toyota, and Honda. Quality problems include such things as water leaks and faulty headlights.

Question No: 42 ( Marks: 5 )
What do you understand by the term “concepts are an abstraction of reality”? Explain with the help of an example.

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