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Motivation: A Definition

“Motivation may be defined as the set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining a goal.”

The 1st part of this definition deals with “arousal” basically arousal of a “need”. Need includes both what a person must have and what he merely wants. It has to do with the drive behind ones’ behavior, the energy behind ones’ actions. E.g. Beside employees being interested in making money, are also interested in making good impression on their supervisor and co-workers. The drive to attain various goals constitutes a major part of the definition.

Motivation is more than just a v drive behind behavior; it also involves the direction behavior takes. People make choices about how to meet their goals. An employee trying to please his or supervisor may select from among various options: doing the supervisor a special favor, working especially hard on an important project, or complementing the supervisor on his or her good work.

The final part of the definition deals with “maintaining” behavior directed toward meeting goals. Employees who don’t maintain their actions toward meeting their goals can’t be called motivated.

Motivation and Job Performance:

It should be made clear that motivation and job performance are not synonymous. Instead motivation is just one of several determinants of job performance. A 2nd key point is that motivation is multifaceted i.e. employees may have several motives working at a time. E.g. when an employee in a manufacturing plant is motivated to please his or her foreman by being very productive, but is also motivated to avoid antagonizing his or her co-workers by being more productive than they are.

Early motivation theories:-

Need theories:

Peoples are the chief resources used by the managers. Organizations hope for success on the assumptions that the individuals (employees) throughout the organization will do the tasks assigned to them. These people have needs, which should be met for the success of organization. These needs vary among individuals but this variation is largely a matter of degree and of different ways of satisfying employees on their jobs.

The best known among them is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:

According to A.H Maslow’s classic analysis, three or five human needs. According to Maslow, needs are around in a specific order such that the lower order need must be satisfied before the next highest order need is achieved. Once a need is met the next highest need in the hierarchy is triggered and so on .these fives needs as described by Maslow are

1-physical need

2-security need

3-social nee

4-esteem need

5-self-expression need

Maslow further grouped these five into a group of two as follows

Deficiency Need

1. Physiological needs

2. Safety needs

3. Social need

Growth Need

4. Esteem need

5. Self-expression need

Let’s have a deep view of each of these five needs

1-physiological needs:

These are the lowest including things such as food, drink, shelter, air, rest and exercise. Until such need is reasonably well satisfied, they are strong driving forces to satisfy their needs organization must provide employees with a salary to meet adequate living condition. Moreover organization should provide good working condition with lighted and office, exercise facilities flexible working hours.

2-safety needs:

These are second level need and stimulated when physiological needs are met. Safety needs refers to the need for a secure environment, free from threats of physical harms. Also every one hopes that no misfortune our path.

Safety needs may further be divided I into economic security and physical security economic security main focus is on steady employment provisions for old age and insurance against catastrophes that might call for large financial outlays. Physical security needs results to a person’s confidence in dealing with the problems that confront him .one’s ability to meet future job requirement , the fairness of present and future supervisions etc all conjure of hopes and fears.

Everyone needs assurance that he will be able to adjust satisfactory to such new conditions.

3-Social needs:

Third-level needs, which refers to the needs to be affiliative, to have friends to be loved and accepted by other people, to help meet social needs organization may encourage participation in social events.

Social needs may be looked at from three different point of views: sociability, belonging and status mp.

Sociability one can fulfill this needs by social relation closely related to sociability is belonging. Everyone wants to feel that he is a recognized member of a group. He will be included in group plans and will share formal information, & that others will help in reasonable and will except him to help them. Status is the third social need in an organization. Status depends on the value of position in the eyes of others.

4-Esteem needs:

These are fourth level needs” these refer to develop self-respect and to given the approved of others “ the desire to achieve success, have prestige, and be recognized by others all fall into category to fulfill such needs, companies may have awards to recognized and distinguished achievement to declaring employee of the month, giving parking spaces

5-Self expression needs:

These are the needs found at the top of Maslow hierarchy self actualization refers to the need for self fulfillment to become all that one is replace of being, developing one potential.

One may ask himself does this job permit me to do what I would like do to be what I want to be. The nucleus of the cluster of needs for self-actual we find self-assertion “power” personal accomplishments and personal growth .let have a close look at each.

Self-assertion refers to be independent to have control over one’s destiny. Even some have desire for power and one may wish to make things or persons respond according to his motive. Some also have desire for self –accomplishment. For them, satisfaction comes from knowing that they have done a worthwhile job well. They enjoy an inner sense of accomplishment. Also people want an opportunity for growth. The five needs identified by Maslow’s need hierarchy theory correspond to the three needs of Alderfer’s “ERG theory”. In contrast with Maslow’s theory, Alderfer specifies that needs may be activated in any order.

Table # 1.1


A Comparison of Maslow and ERG Theory:

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy

Theory

Alderfer’s ERG

Theory

Growth Need

5. Self Actualization Needs

4. Esteem Needs

Growth Need

Deficiency Needs

3. Social Needs

2. Safety Needs

1. Physiological Needs

Relatedness Needs

Existence Needs

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Replies to This Discussion

Alderfer’s ERG Theory:

According to this theory, there are three basic needs instead of five and moreover these can be activated in any order. The three needs specifies by ERG theory are needs for;

1-Existence

2-Relatedness

3-Growth

Existence Needs” correspond to Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. “Relatedness Needs” correspond to Maslow’s social needs, the need for meaning full for social relationship. Finally “Growth Needs” correspond to the esteem needs and self actualization in Maslow’s theory.

Three needs theory

David McClelland and others have responded the three needs theory -- that there are three major motives or needs in work situations i.e. needs for achievement, power and affiliation

Need for achievement (nAch)

Three drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Some persons have compelling drive to succeed but they‘re striving for personal achievement rather than for the trappings and rewards of success. They want to be more and more efficient. This is the drive for achievement. People have drive for achievement seek for situation in which they can take personal responsibilities for finding solution to problems, receive unambiguous feedback, set challenging goals. They dislike succeeding by chance. Another important point is that they avoid what they perceive to be very easy or to be very difficult tasks.

Need for power (nPow)

The need to make other behave in a way that they won’t have behaved other wise. People having need for power, desire to have impact and, to be influential. They enjoy being” in charge” strive for influence over others and prefer to be uncompetitive and status oriented situation.

Need for affiliation (nAff)

“The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship.” This is the desire to be accepted by others. People having need for affiliation strive for friendship prefer cooperative situation rather than competitive one’s and desired relationships involving a high level of mutual understanding. Some reasonably well-sported prediction can be made between the relationship of the achievement and job performance.

1. Individual with the high need to achieve prefers job situation with personal responsibilities, feed back and the intermediate degree of risk.

2. A high need to achieve doesn’t necessarily lead to being a good manager a especially in large organizations.

3. The need for power and affiliation are closely related managerial success.

4. Employee can be trained successfully to stimulate their achievement need.

Other than need theories:

Ø Theory x and theory y

Ø Motivation hygiene theory

Ø Goal setting theory

Ø Reinforcement theory

Ø Equity theory.

Equity theory:

In contrast with focus on individual needs, equity theory views motivation from the perspective of social comparison workers make among themselves. “It proposes that workers are motivated to main fair or “equitable” relationship among themselves and to change those relationships that unfair or “inequitable” equity theory is concerned with people motivation to escape the negative feeling that result from being treated unfairly on their jobs. Such feeling may result when people engage in the process of social comparison i.e. when they compare themselves to others.

Equity theory proposes that people make social comparison between themselves.

And others with respect to two variable “outcome” and “input”. Out comes refer to the things workers believe they and other get out of their jobs, including pay, fringe benefits or prestige. Inputs refer to the contribution employees believes they and other make to their jobs, including the amount of time, the amount of effort expended, the number of unit produced, or the qualification brought to the jobs. It is important to note that equity theory is concerned with out comes and inputs as they are “perceived” by the people involved, not necessarily as they actually are. Therefore, worker may disagree about what constitutes equity and iniquity on the jobs.

“Equity theory states that people compare their outcome, input ratio with those of the relevant other people ratio.” This comparison can result in any of the follow states.


Over payment inequity:

This inequity occurs when someone outcome-input ratio is “greater” than the corresponding ratio of other person of with whom that person compares himself or herself. People who are overpaid theorized as “guilty”.

Underpayment inequity.

This inequity occurs when some one’s outcome-input ratio is “less” than the corresponding ratio of another person with whom that person compares himself or herself. People are underpaid are theorized as “angry”.

Equitable payment

It occur when some one out come-input ratio is “equal” to corresponding ratio of another person with whom that person compares himself or herself .People who are equitably paid theories as “satisfied “.

For example an underpaid person may respond by lowering inputs. He or she may not work as hard, arriving at work late, leaving early, taking long breaks, doing less work, or performing lower quality work. And in an extreme case he or she may quit the job.

He or she may also attempt to rise out comes asking boss for raise, or even taking home company property (such as tools or office equipment). All these may be considered “behavioral reactions” to inequity.

In addition to these behavioral reactions there are also some likely “psychological reactions” for example, and underpaid person may not react as mentioned above. He or she may attempt to renationalize that another’s inputs are really higher than his or her own, there by convincing

Figure: Equity theory (an overview)

herself or himself that other’s higher outcomes are justified. Similarly and analogous set of behavioral and psychological relations can be identified for overpayment equity. Specifically an overpaid person may raise inputs, work, harder, or for longer hours etc.

Recent studies showed that there are other factors creating inequity situation except money. These factors involve rewards, awards, status. Moreover according to expectancy theory overpaid people are more productive than underpaid.

Expectancy theory:

Instead of focusing on human needs or on social comparisons, expectancy theory looks role of motivation in over all work environments. In essence, the theory asserts that people are motivated to work when they expect they will be able to achieve the things they want from their jobs. Expectancy theory characterizes people as rational beings who think about what they have to do to be rewarded and how much they reward means to them before they perform their jobs.

“Expectancy theory specifies that motivation is the result of three type of beliefs that people have”. These are known as:

1. Expectancy: The belief that one effort will result in performance.

2. Instrumentally: The belief that one’s performance will be rewarded.

3. Valence: The perceived value of the reward to the recipient.

According to expectancy theory employees will exert high level of efforts if they think that there will be a job performance as a result of their efforts. For example, a worker won’t effort to work on faulty equipment as it would give no results in term of performance.

Secondly, employees observed what would be the reward of high performance. If there will be no reward the employee won’t be motivated to achieve high performance. Third, and the final thing is that what, if given would be the value of the reward for him or her. For example, even employees receive reward bur t is not of proper use for him, he won’t be motivated, or if reward has a low “valence“employees won’t be motivated.

Multiplicative function:

Expectancy theory claims that motivation is “multiplicative function” of all three components. This means that higher level of the motivation will result when balance instrumentality, and expectancy are all high than when they are low. The multiplicative assumption of this theory also implies that is if any one of the components is zero, then the overall level of motivation will be zero. So, even if an employee believes that his or her efforts will result in performance, which will result in reward motivation may be zero if the valance of the reward he or she expects to the received zero.


SUGGESTIONS

There are some suggestions made by expectancy theory about how to motivate people.

1. Clarify people’s expectancies that there effort lead to performance.

2. Clearly link valued reward and performance. In this regard pay for performance should be implemented to increase instrumentality.

3. Administer rewards to employees. In this regard “cafeteria-style benefits plans” incentive system through which the employees select their fringe benefits form a menu of available alternatives should be used.

FigureExpectancy Theory (An Overview)

Theory x and Theory y

Theory x: Theory x presents a negative view of people. I assume that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.

Theory y: Theory y offers a positive view .It assumes that workers can exercise self direction, accept and actually seek about responsibility, and consider work to be natural activity.

Megregor’s analysis shows that theory y assumed that lower-order needs dominated individuals, & theory y assumed that high order needs dominated this was analysis in is expressed in the framework presented by Maslow.

Herzberg’s Motivation –Hygiene theory;

Fredrick Hertzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory proposes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfactionand motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. Herzberg proposed that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite of each other. He proposed that there is “no satisfaction”against “satisfaction”.

Herzberg found two factors on the basis of his analysis;

Hygiene factors: Factors that increase job dissatisfaction but don’t motivate

Motivators: Factors that increases job satisfaction and motivation.

Tale .# 1.2

Motivators Factors

Hygiene Factors

Achievement

Supervision

Recognition

Company policy

Work itself

Relationship with supervisor

Responsibility

Working conditions

Advancement

Salary

Growth

Relationship with peers

Personal life

Relationship with subordinates

Status

Security

Extremely Satisfied

Natural

Extremely Dissatisfied

Goal-setting theory:

Look at the statement” Do your best” and another statement “You should try hard to get 85 percent marks”. Second one is specifying a goal. It can help person in performing. “The proposition that specific goals increase performance and the difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals.”

Studies on goal setting have demonstrated the superiority of specific and challenging goals as motivating forces. Specific, difficult goals produce a higher level of performance than does the generalized goals “of do your best”. The specificity of the goals itself work as internal stimulus.

There seems to be a contradiction in achievement motivation and goal setting theory. Achievement motivation is stimulated by challenging goals but goals setting theory proposes to set difficult goals .Here explanation is two fold: First, goal setting theory deals with people in general. Second, the conclusion of goal-setting theory applies to those who accept and are committed to the goals. Finally people will do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing towards their goals because feedback helps identify discrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do; that is feedback acts to guide behavior.

Techniques for enhancing Motivation ob

After examining the major theories of origination motivation here comes the techniques for practical use. Main focus here will be on:

1- Goal setting.

2- Job Design.

Both approaches have proved to be effective ways of enhancing motivation on the job.

Motivating by setting performance Goal:

An approach in which workers strive to meet specified performance goal. This gives the idea that employee’s motivation and performance can basis of research it is possible to point out several well-established principles of goal setting.

Principal of Goal setting Approach:

i. Assign specific goals.

People perform at high levels when asked to meet a specifically high performance goal than when simply asked to do employees tend to find specific goals challenging, not only to fulfill managements expectations, but & also convince themselves that they have performed well.

ii) Assign difficult, but acceptable, performance goals:

A goal must be difficult and challenging as well as specific for it to raise performance. People work harder to reach high goals, as long as these are within the limits of their capability .However, as goals become too difficult, performance drops because people reject the goals as unrealistic.

A question arises how to set the goals that enhance employee’s commitment? One way of enhancing goal acceptance is to involve workers in the goal setting process. It not only and ensures that employees understanding and appreciate the goals, but also makes them more committed to attain these goals.

Acceptance of difficult goals can also be enhanced through “supervisory support” When a boss gives workers confidence about their abilities, the workers tend to set high goals, which leads to higher levels of performance.Another way of enhancing goal acceptance is “explaining the logic behind goal setting”. Finally “involvement in goal setting programs should be voluntary and this should be explained to workers.

(iii) Provide feedback concerning goal attainment:

It’s feedback which makes clears to the goal attainers that how well they are doing and have a target goal to shoot for tend to perform very well. However providing incentives improves performance only negligibly. The real incentive seems to be meeting the challenge of performing up to the level of the goal.

Job Design: Creating Motivating Jobs

In addition to motivating by setting goals, another method for enhancing motivations designing jobs so as to make them more appealing to the workers. Several contemporary approaches to task design seek to motivate workers in more humane, and effective, ways. There are two approaches to job design popular in the 1950s and 1960s-job enlargement & job enrichment—as well as an approach introduced and studied in 1970s & 1980s that is still popular today—the job characteristic model.

Job Enlargement & Job Enrichment:

Job Enlargement:

Job enlargement, also known as horizontal loading, expanding the content of a job by increasing the number and variety of tasks performed at the same level. Job enlargement is said to have increased the horizontal job loading of he job. That is, the individual now performs more tasks at the same level of difficulty.

Job Enrichment:

In contrast with job enlargement, job enrichment not only gives employees more jobs to do but gives them more t\asks to perform at higher level. Job enrichment refers to the practice of giving employees the opportunity to have greater responsibilities and to take great control over how to do their jobs. The job enrichment process is said to increase the job’s vertical loading.

Job Characteristic Model :( JCM)

An employee is the worker, an executor who is directly involved in doing the specific duties, so he is concerned about the job characteristic which should be matching to their motivational needs. So an organization’s management must think using job characteristic model as a tool. It provides framework for analyzing and designing jobs; identifies five primary job characteristics; their interrelationships and impact on outcome variables i.e. employee productivity, motivation, and satisfaction.

In this reference, following five dimensions should be concentrated:

Skill variety:

“It is the degree to which job requires a variety of activities so that employee can use a number of different skills and talents.” It is the employee learning need, that he wants to acquire the new skills, knowledge and if he is provided enough opportunities to satisfy those needs, definitely it is the satisfaction of one of his intrinsic need, which would make him motivated.

Task Identity:

“The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.” If an employee is assigned the whole job instead of a part of it, he feels the sense of achievement, which uplifts his motivational level.

Task Significance:

“The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of people.” If employee is assigned a significant job, which is important for organization as well, he will feel sense of contribution and this leads to high motivational level.

Autonomy:

“The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to a person in scheduling and carrying out his or her work”. If a worker is given autonomy while doing the job, he will feel much confidence in taking job related decisions which save a lot of time. Also it meets the motivational need by increasing responsibility.

Feedback:

“The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in a persons’ obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.”

If a person is provided continuously feedback, he will be confidant that the job is being executed in accurate manner and if some rectification steps are required, this could be done at the right time. In this way he feels motivated that his job is going to meet the specifications and set standards and organization will not have to bear the cost of his errors. It increases the sense of contribution and achievement, which effect in motivating positively.

Motivational Potential Score (MPS):

The MPS is summary index of job’s potential for motivating workers. It is computed as follows.

MPS = Skill variety + Task identity + Task significance x Autonomy x Feedback

3

The highest the MOS for any given job, the greater the likelihood of experiencing the beneficial personal and work outcomes specified the job characteristic model.

The job characteristic model specifies several things that can be done to redesign jobs to enhance their motivating potential as described in Table #.

Principle 1: Combine Tasks. Have employees perform an entire job instead of several workers perform various parts of the job.

Principle 2: Form natural work units. Distribute work so that employees are identified with the jobs they’ve done.

Principle 3: Establish client relationships. Set up jobs that person performing a service comes into contact with the recipient of the service.

Table # 1.3

Principle of Job Design

Core Job Dimension Incorporated

1. Combine jobs

Skill Variety

Task Identity

2. Form natural work units

Task Identity

Task Significance

3. Establish client relationships

Skill Variety

Autonomy

Feedback

4. Load jobs vertically

Autonomy

5. Open feedback channels

Feedback

Principle4: Load jobs vertically. Loading job vertically involves giving people greater responsibility and control.

Principle 5: Open feedback channels. There are many different types of feedback employees receive, and jobs should be designed to offer as many as possible.

HISTORY

In the early 30s, under the inspiration of the Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinah, there began to appear signs of economic renaissance of the Muslims of India. Shipping, Airline, Baking and Insurance companies made their debt.

In 1932 in Culcutta, Mr. Ghulam Mohammad, a far sighted man, who later became governor General of Pakistan, established an insurance company was named Eastern Federal Union Insurance Company. It was registered in Calcutta and operated in (Undivided)India and Burma .It's business was both General and life Insurance.

In 1947, on the birth of Pakistan, EFU (as the company was called). found a new country and rapidly established itself as progressive and innovative insurance company. It provided the emerging insurance industry the leadership, the manpower and the drive needed to grow in a situation where at that time foreign companies held three-fourths of insurance business.

By 1961, EFU had become the flag bearer of Pakistan's insurance industry on the world stage and the largest life company in Afro-Asian countries (Excluding Japan)under the leadership of late chairman Mr. Roshen ALi Bhhimee (August 13, 1917-December 10,1998)

NATIONALIZATION

It remained so until 1972 when life insurance industry in Pakistan was nationalized. Form this time onwards EFU operated solely as a General insurance company, and was subsequently renamed EFU General Insurance Company Limited.

PRIVATIZATION

In 1992 the Life Insurance was reopened to the private sector and on 8th November 1992, EFU Life was first insurance company to be granted a license. It started operations in a 1993 with Group Life products and in March, 1994 launched its Individual Life Insurance products. EFU entered the filed of life insurance with the focus on the changing needs of the population. The company is committed to provide its policyholders with solutions to the problems of today's complex and rapidly changing financial environment by introducing innovation and modern products.

Traditionally, the EFU name has become synonymous with progressiveness and prompt claim settlement. Now the EFU Group provides a full range of insurance services through innovative covers against all kinds of life-events, perils, risks and disasters.


NTRODUCTION TO SLIC

BRIEF HISTORY

In Pakistan, Life Insurance business was nationalized under Presidential order on 19th March, 1972 when Government of Pakistan had taken the administration of 32 Companies.

On November 1, 1972, a single corporation have three units Came into existence by the name of State Life Insurance Corporation of Pakistan (SLIC).

On September 30,1975, three units of SLIC were merged and split into five Zones.

v Karachi

v Hyderabad

v Lahore

v Peshawar

v Rawalpindi

SLIC NOW

Now SLIC has become the largest insurance company with dynamic sale force of above 42000 highly skilled professionals. At the moment, SLIC has a large set up of 27 Zonal Offices (Including Multan) and 5 Regional Offices spread throughout Pakistan.

OBJECTIVES OF SLIC

Some of objectives of SLIC are:

v To run life insurance business on sound lines

v To provide more efficient services to policy holders.

v To widen the area of operations of life insurance &making it available to large section of population.

EXPERIENCE

SLIC is the most experienced insurance company of Pakistan ,having experience of about 31 years.

COMPETITORS

Competitors of SLIC include:

v Eastern Federal Union (EFU) (Established in 1992)

v Metropolitan Insurance Corporation (MIC)

v American Life Insurance Company (ALICO)

MARKET SHARE

SLIC has near about 90% market share in life insurance business in Pakistan.

CULTURE

Culture of SLIC reflects devotion motivation and cooperation which is a valuable asset of Company.

SALE FORCE

SLIC has the largest sale force of about 42000 Professionals in Pakistan

GOOD WILL

SLIC, has very good repute with life insurance business in Pakistan.

SLIC MULTAN

In Multan, Zonal office of SLIC is situated in State life Building, Abadali Road , Multan

POLICIES

SLIC is proudly offering above 30 different polices to their valuable customers.

Motivation Strategies in State Life Insurance Corporation &

EFU Assurance Corporation:

During the field survey of state life and EFU we came to know about the strategies being implemented to motivate the employees in these organizations. We can summarize those findings as follows:

Ø There is some sort of formal planning to motivate the employees. They alter this plan according to the environmental changes.

Ø Moreover, employees aren’t motivated by their transfer. However about rotation, different situations result in different results.

Ø No additional tasks are added to the existing tasks. Moreover additional tasks de-motivate the employees.

Ø Jobs demanding high skills really motivate the employees to give high performance.

Ø There are flexible work methods. Flexible methods really improve the performance through motivation.

Ø There is no increase in autonomy of employees. Rarely does it happen in the culture of this organization.

Ø Employees here are invited to share their ideas about setting goals and objectives, which motivates employees through satisfaction about goals that are to be achieved. Even business level objectives are decided jointly by department managers and the top management.

Ø Promotion is thought to be the most important factor which may enhance level of motivation and hence performance. Promotions are made purely on merit. There is formal plane for evaluating performance. Performance appraisals are prepared on regular basis by the supervisor of each employee. For example, a sale officer prepares performance appraisal of his junior sales representative; sales manager of sales officers and so on.

Ø Employees are provided with equal opportunities for career development.

Ø After evaluating the performance of employees rewards are also given. These rewards are in the form of bonuses, dinners etc.

Ø To motivate employees are being provided with benefits and services like medical scheme, house rent, petroleum expenses etc. employees get satisfied by using these facilities an other recreational activities like tours and dinners.

Ø Advance payments are also available for employees which they can get when required. These are to be returned in installments.

Ø On the job and before the job training help employees to perform with high aims.

Ø In case of mistakes, employees are tried to make understand. But in severe conditions employees may be laid off.

Ø Recreational and social plans are carried out to motivate the employees. For example employees performing high are taken to a visit of Bhorban.

CONCLUSION

After detailed analysis of the extent of practical application of motivational concepts at STATE LIFE and EFU, we have observed that there Human Resource Management policies are being formulated and implemented by the highly educated, trained and experienced managers. Both employees and management are satisfied with the appropriate use of motivational tools.

Though they have implemented motivational policies in very effectedmanner, they are not static, 'they are always seeking for new dimension of

creating motivation in reference with the change in environment and employee behaviors. In the following lines we have some suggestions in the Sacking:

Intradepartmental communication takes place formally at manager's level but not on employee/worker's level. Employee should he allowed to make contacts with labor or other departments without management involvement. Information will disseminate more easily in tills way and they will be more comfortable to talk the person at their level and almost with same type of background.

operational level to set targets and periodic goals.

Currently there is no system of stress counseling. We suggest that they should realize its importance and adopt this technique when, workers are in stressed mental and psychological situations. There are two main sources of job stress; environmental and personal. These include work schedule, pace of work, job security, and route to and from work and the number and nature of customer or clients. Even noise, including people talking and telephone ringing , contributes to stress.

STRESS COUNSELING

Will help workers in taking them out form desperate situations. Job-related factors such as overwork, relocation, and problems with customers eventually put the person under such stress that a pathological reaction occurs. There is tow main source of job stress; environmental and personal. These include work schedule, pace of work, job security, route to and form work and the number and nature of customers or clients. Even noise, including people talking and telephones ringing, contributes to stress.


HOW TO REDUCE JOB STRESS

The organization and the supervision can also play a role in identifying and reducing job stress. For the supervisor, this includes monitoring each subordinate’s performance to identify symptoms of stress and then informing the person of the organizational remedies that may be available such as job transfer or counseling.

Following techniques should be used in reducing job stress:

Ø Allow employees to talk with one another and to consult with colleagues about work issues.

Ø Reduce personal conflicts on the job.

Ø Give employees adequate control over how they do their work.

Ø Provide competitive personal leave and vacation benefits.

Ø Maintain current levels of employee benefits, since benefits reductions lead to stress.

Ø Recognize and reward employees for their accomplishments and contributions.

Ø Ensure effective job fit, since stress overload can result when workers are mismatched with jobs.

Ø Being students of IMS, we recommend that there should be computerized human resource information system at PACKAGES.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) The process of Management (6th)

By New man,arren, Schnee.

2) Behavior in organizations (3rd)

By Robert A. Baron, Jerald Greenberg.

3) Management (7th)

By Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter.

4) www.findarticles.com

5) www.emeraldinsght.com

6) www.google.com

7) www.efulife.com

QUESTIONNAIRE
  1. Have you the complete authority for making motivational programs or is it a collective decision?

  1. What experiences/education you have regarding employees’ behavior?

  1. What are the general social characteristics(family background, life-style, social status etc) of the employees?

  1. Which factors you consider motivators and de-motivators for employees( To be selected from the list) ?

  1. How You relate them with performance and productivity?

  1. Is there any formal plan for employee motivation? If not, how do you motivate them?

  1. What is the main idea behind the motivation plan?

  1. How this plan is implemented?

  1. How you alter plan regarding changes in environment, work procedures, technology and employee behaviors?

  1. Do you rotate/transfer employees in the organization?

  1. Do you find it beneficial to rotate employees in the organization for motivation purpose?

□ Most of the times

□ Sometimes

□ Rarely

  1. When you modify employees’ duties?

□ As per need of the time

□ On regular basis

  1. Decision about modification in duties are taken by

□ Supervisor/Immediate boss only

□ Group of experts

  1. Do you add same sort of tasks to already existing tasks in employees’ job?
  2. What is the response of the employee when they have to perform additional number of similar tasks?

□ Positive response

□ Neutral response

□ Negative response

□ Different in different situation

16. What is the response of employees when they have to perform a job demanding
more skill variety than that of the existing ones?

□ Positive response

□ Neutral response

□ Negative response

□ Different in different situation

17. Are the work methods standardized or flexible?

18. Up to what extent, employees enjoy the autonomy while performing their jobs?

□ Complete autonomy

□ Partial autonomy

□ No autonomy

19. Do you see any effect to added autonomy on the performance?

□ Most of the times

□ Sometimes

□ Rarely

20. What you perceive that effect of added autonomy is

□ Positive

□ Negative

21. Do you Invite opinions from subordinates before setting goals?

□ Yes

□ No

22. Business level objectives are

□ Defined by department managers independently

□ Imposed by top management

□ Decided jointly by department managers & top management

  1. Operational level objectives are defined by

□ Managers

□ Workers

□ Jointly

  1. You take promotion decision on the basis of

□ Performance

□ Experience

□ Seniority level

□ Social contacts/ Relationships

  1. Do you have any formal system for evaluation of the performance?

□ Yes

□ No

  1. You monitor the current progress towards achievement of objectives

□ Continuously

□ On regular intervals

□ No system Exist for monitoring

  1. Does your organization care for EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity)?
  2. How do you check the performance of the employees?
  3. Are you satisfied with the way of checking performance? Why or Why not?
  4. What plans your organization in order to give rewards?
  5. What is the frequency of giving these rewards?
  6. To whom employees express their needs? Are their needs fulfilled in time?
  7. In case of mistake made by any employee, how your organization treats that person?
  8. What are the social & recreational plans carried out by the organization?
  9. Do you agree or disagree that the motivational plans are 100% implemented in your organization?

Set of Potential

Motivators

Set of Potential

De-motivators

□ Feedback

□ Style &level of supervision

□ Involvement in target setting

□ Lack of consultancy

□ Company car

□ Additional responsibilities

□ Training Opportunities

□ Size of targets

□ Share options

□ One-to-one meetings

□ Bonus of incentives

□ Hours work

□ Prizes awards

□ Pension/Health scheme

□ Pension/Private health scheme

Our first obligation is to thank the ALMIGHTY ALLAH who has enabled us to complete this report.

We are highly grateful to our respectable teacher Mr. Nouman Saadulah for providing us such a vital chance to explore the role of motivation of employees in “STATE LIFE” and “EFU”. His guidance enabled us to complete this report. HE motivated us by appreciating any good effort from us.

In the completion of our report some people have contributed to the heights of their knowledge and experience. We are grateful to Mr.Iqbal Ch. and Mr.Massood Ahmad in the State life andSh.Hamid in EFU who provided us the useful information about the Motivation of employees in the “State life” and the “EFU”. We are also obliged to the employees of “State life” and “EFU” for their cooperative behavior to complete this report.

MANAGEMENT SUMMARY

Competent employees are the engines of an organization. An organization needs to motivate and maintain its high potential workforce to achieve its strategic goals. This critical significance of motivation makes it an integral part of human resource management. As a learning step of Management our group was assigned to portray the thorough picture of motivation in State life and Efu. For the purpose designed two questionnaires to get the views of management and employees. We conducted in depth interviews with both managers and employees. The report comprises of live chapters. In chapter one we have presented the history and introduction of organization. Chapter no two gives us some highlights of motivation theories presented so far. After dial, we have described how we have designed (he theoretical base and framework of our study. On this basis we have identified factors influencing the motivation. We have argued and explained in detail how these factors relate to the motivation, the questionnaires were prepared keeping in view the identified factors. Chapter four comprises the finding and analysis i.e. management and employees viewpoints. On the basis of these viewpoints, we have analyzed the facts in comparison with theoretical concepts. In the last chapter we leave given conclusions and suggestions on the basis of analysis we made in previous chapter. The last portion of our report consist of the reference, we used in our report at various stages.

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