MTH251 Set Topology Graded Discussion Board (GDB) No. 1 Solution and Discussion Spring 2014 Comsats Virtual Campus Due Date April 11, 2014
Topic for Discussion :
Define metric space and state some uses of metric spaces?
Posted On Date : Thursday 27 March, 2014 Opening Date : Friday 28 March, 2014
Closing Date : Friday 11 April, 2014 Total Marks : 10
In mathematics, a metric space is a set where a notion of distance (called a metric) between elements of the set is defined.
The metric space which most closely corresponds to our intuitive understanding of space is the 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In fact, the notion of "metric" is a generalization of the Euclidean metric arising from the four long-known properties of the Euclidean distance. The Euclidean metric defines the distance between two points as the length of the straight line segment connecting them. Other metric spaces occur for example in elliptic geometry and hyperbolic geometry, where distance on a sphere measured by angle is a metric, and the hyperboloid model of hyperbolic geometry is used by special relativity as a metric space of velocities.
In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M or, alternatively, if every Cauchy sequence in M converges in M.
Intuitively, a space is complete if there are no "points missing" from it (inside or at the boundary). For instance, the set of rational numbers is not complete, because e.g. √2 is "missing" from it, even though one can construct a Cauchy sequence of rational numbers that converges to it
some uses of metric spaces?
For any metric space M, one can construct a complete metric space M′ (which is also denoted as M), which contains M as a dense subspace. It has the following universal property: if N is any complete metric space and f is any uniformly continuous function from M to N, then there exists a unique uniformly continuous function f′ from M′ to N, which extends f. The space M' is determined up to is ome try by this property, and is called the completion of M.
The completion of M can be constructed as a set of equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences in M. For any two Cauchy sequences (xn)n and (yn)n in M, we may define their distance as
(This limit exists because the real numbers are complete.) This is only a pseudometric, not yet a metric, since two different Cauchy sequences may have the distance 0. But "having distance 0" is an equivalence relation on the set of all Cauchy sequences, and the set of equivalence classes is a metric space, the completion of M. The original space is embedded in this space via the identification of an element x of M with the equivalence class of sequences converging to x (i.e., the equivalence class containing the sequence with constant value x). This defines an isometry onto a dense subspace, as required. Notice, however, that this construction makes explicit use of the completeness of the real numbers, so completion of the rational numbers needs a slightly different treatment.
Cantor’s construction of the real numbers is similar to the above construction; the real numbers are the completion of the rational numbers using the ordinary absolute value to measure distances. The additional subtlety to contend with is that it is not logically permissible to use the completeness of the real numbers in their own construction. Nevertheless, equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences are defined as above, and the set of equivalence classes is easily shown to be a field that has the rational numbers as a subfield. This field is complete, admits a natural total ordering, and is the unique totally ordered complete field (up to isomorphism). It isdefined as the field of real numbers (see also Construction of the real numbers for more details). One way to visualize this identification with the real numbers as usually viewed is that the equivalence class consisting of those Cauchy sequences of rational numbers that "ought" to have a given real limit is identified with that real number. The truncations of the decimal expansion give just one choice of Cauchy sequence in the relevant equivalence class.
For a prime p, the p-adic numbers arise by completing the rational numbers with respect to a different metric.
If the earlier completion procedure is applied to a normed vector space, the result is a Banach space containing the original space as a dense subspace, and if it is applied to an inner product space, the result is a Hilbert space containing the original space as a dense subspace
In topology one considers completely metrizable spaces, spaces for which there exists at least one complete metric inducing the given topology. Completely metrizable spaces can be characterized as those spaces that can be written as an intersection of countably many open subsets of some complete metric space. Since the conclusion of the Baire category theorem is purely topological, it applies to these spaces as well.
Completely metrizable spaces are often called topologically complete. However, the latter term is somewhat arbitrary since metric is not the most general structure on a topological space for which one can talk about completeness (see the section Alternatives and generalizations). Indeed, some authors use the term topologically complete for a wider class of topological spaces, the completely uniformizable spaces.