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Spring 2013

 

Assignment # 1  

                                                                

Due Date: May, 03, 2013                                          Total Marks: 10      

                

 

Objectives:

To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject.

 

Instructions

 

  1. Late assignments will not be accepted.
  2. If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.
  3. Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and to express it in your own words will be encouraged.
  4. If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action.
  5. No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
  6. The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman.

 

Guideline:

Try to be genuine and impressive in your approach.

Assignment:

How do you see the Khilafat Movement? Why violence increased during this religio-political Movement? 

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Contest

Khilafat Movement was a religio-political Movement launched by the Muslims of the British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate or khilafat-e-usmania and for not letting for the Muslim holy places go under the control of the Non-Muslims. During the 1st World War Turkey sided with Germany and as Germany started to loose Turkey also started loosing its territory. By the time 1st World War came to an end in 1918 Turkey had lost most of its territory. Therefore the issue at that time was how the allied powers would treat Turkey, the Ottoman Empire or the Khilafat-e-usmania and most of its territory had been occupied and this Movement was on its peak from 1919 to 1922, although it went on during the later years.

Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.

Goals:

What were the goals of this Movement?

  • Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.
  • Territorial solidarity of Turkey should be preserved.
  • Control of holy places of the Muslims should not be given to non-Muslims that were Non-Muslim powers.

Effects

This was the first major political Movement in India which involved the common man. Since the inception of the ML in 1906, the Muslims had started demanding certain safeguards from the British. They were also interacting with the other communities and the Congress party. However politics during that time from 1906 to 1919 was the elitist politics. That is politics of educated people and also people who are well off who could spare time who could spare money were involved in politics.

Khilafat Movement was the 1st movement where ordinary people were involved, or the ordinary Muslims were involved, people in the streets were involved and therefore politics at that time came down to the ordinary masses.

Mobilization capacity of Islam

Another important aspect of this Movement was that it showed the mobilization capacity of Islam amongst the Muslims. It showed the extent to which the Muslims of the British India held Islam and how much Islamic institutions are dear to them. So it clearly showed that Islam had a lot of mobilizational capacity and appeal for the ordinary people.

Extra-territorial attachments

Another aspect emphasizes the extra-territorial attachments of the Muslims of India based on Islam. Extra-territorial means that people feel attached to certain institutions and ideological framework that may be beyond the territorial boundaries of their own countries that is extra-territorial attachment. Amongst the Muslims extra-territorial attachments are always been very strong and these extra-territorial attachments are based on Islam. Two concepts of Islam are very strong force for the Muslims of British India.

Concept of Ummah

The concept of Ummah and this concept of Ummah that the Muslims living all over the World weither in any country belong to an ideological brotherhood of Islam. It’s a community or sense of community based on principles and teachings of Islam, therefore the concept of ummah had a lot of pull for the Muslims and that could be seen during the period of the Khilafat Movement.

The institution of Khilafat

The second aspect which created extra-territorial sentiments amongst the Muslims of this region was the institution of Khilafat.The Khilafat-e-Usmania whose primary seat was in Turkey and Khilafat-e-Usmania was seen by the Muslims of the British India as a kind of continuity from the original institution of Khilafat in Islam. Therefore they always paid much attention to the institution of Khilafat.You can go to the earlier periods and you will see that the sentiment of attachment is based on Islam was very strong.

Protests in India:

All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919 and this gradually shaped up of the Muslims point of activity regarding Khilafat and in this Khilafat committee session they were discussing the issues of Khilafat which held the 1st Khilafat Conference in Delhi in November 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. Congress also started to support the Khilafat Movement for the reason that I will discuss later on. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:

No participation in victory celebrations was the 1st important step taken by the participants of this Conference. The British and the Allies had won the war and they were celebrating even in India because India being a part of the British Empire was on the side of the British therefore these people decided to boycott the victory celebration to show displeasure on the state of affairs and to express their point of view in an affective manner.

Rowlett Act, 1919:

Rowlett Act was a black law introduced in India. To the law, the government got authority to persecute any Indian and the arrested had no facility of legal assistance and right to appeal just as the ‘Lettres de Cachet’ in France before the French Revolution. Jinnah resigned from the central legislature as a protest. This was a law which the British govt passed for arresting, detaining people who would be involved in what they would describe as the criminal activities but actually those were political activities. Those people could be punished swearly and without trial, so this Bill which was ultimately made into a law was protested both by the Muslims as well as the Hindus. When this issue developed.Quaid-e-Azam was very critical to this Act. He delivered critical speeches in the legislative council and outside and ultimately he resigned from his seat of the assembly in protest against this law, because he thought that this Act is a humiliating Act, violates basic cannons of justice and fairplay

Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April 1919:

The second issue which was agitating was agitating the person across the divide was the incident related to the Jallianwala Bagh.Jallianwala Bagh was situated in the city of Amritsar and against the backdrop of the Rowlett Act a big meeting was held in that Bagh.There were so many kinds of people and the British govt was so agitated that they dispatched a unit of the Army that went into the garden blocked all the entrance points and began shooting directly on the people and several hundred people were killed and seriously wounded which created a major uproar throughout India. General Dyer opened fire to disperse the throng that cast huge human casualties (379). It is considered one of the great tragedies in India. It is during this period that the British imposed martial law in Amritsar and certain other cities of the province of Punjab including Lahore, Gujranwala and a couple of other cities martial law was imposed. So in a way that became the 1st martial law in this region in the 20th century. So this Jallianwala Bagh incident also mobilized congress and other groups to move ahead and to pull their resources and to challenge the authority of the British govt.

Khilafat Conference, Karachi, July 1921:

A Khilafat Conference was held in Karachi in July 1921 and in this session the participants were predominantly Muslims expressed their loyalty to Khilafat and the Turkish Sultan which by that time had been disposed by its territory by the allied powers the British and the others and they had also decided to keep the movement going on. They welcomed Ataturk’s efforts to dislodge foreign forces from mainland. By that time Ataturk was emerging as a leader and he was taking steps to expel the foreign forces from Turkey and it was very early stage but nevertheless they welcomed the. That and they thought that it is something new that needs to be encouraged and needs to be endorsed.

End of the Movement:

The Khilafat Movement that was started by the Muslims of the British India for the retention of the institution of the Ottoman Empire and for retaining the control of the Muslims holy places, that movement gradually fizzled out. How that did happened a number of developments from 1921 to onward contributed to that. The first important development that adversely affected the movement was the Mopla Revolt on the Malabar area in the Kalicut.

Conclusions:

It can be concluded as under;

  1. It was re-affirmation of the reality that religion is a mobilizing force and especially Islam has mobilization capacity to organize masses.
  2. It was the movement launched on the basis of extra-territorialism. Later, no such movement but Pan-Islamic sentiments continued.
  3. It resulted in the sufferings of the Muslims
  4. Hindu-Muslim unity proved short-lived.
  5. Reactivation of the Muslim League and other Muslims organizations to restart their activities as a separate nation.

Solution Pak301 Assignment no 1

How do you see the Khilafat Movement?
AnsweR:
The Khilafat Movement
Epilogue:
The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims
of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing
over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the war, concerns were expressed in India about the future of Turkey. It was a peak period from 1919 to 1922 casting demonstrations, boycott, and other pressure by the two major communities, the Hindus and the Muslims. Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.

Aims and Objectives of the Khilafat Movement:
The Khilafat Movement aimed at presenting the Ottoman Empire and the continuity of the temporal power of Khalifa to protect Muslim lands without any mandate. Mohammad Ali put forward the demands of the Khilafat Movement in a speech delivered at Paris on March 21, 1920 by declaring:
“The Khilafat shall not be dismembered but that the Khalifa shall have sufficient temporal power for the defense of the Faith, that in the Island of Arabia there shall be exclusive, Muslim control without mandate or protection and that the Khalifa shall remain as heretofore the warden of the Holy places.”

Demands of the Khilafat Movement:
The demands of the Khilafat committee were as under:
i) The Turkish Empire should not be dismembered.
ii) The Holy place should remain in the custody of Turkish Government.
iii) The institution of Caliphate must be retained.

IN THE BIGNNING:
Gandhi also joined Muslims in their Khilafat Movement. In fact, he wants to
protect the British government and needed autonomy of India through this
movement. Therefore, he joined the Khilafat Movement for achieving his coveted
plan. Apparently, he was showing that he was sincere to the Muslim cause.
Quaid-e-Azam admonished the Muslims that this movement should not be started
but Muslims were not listening to him. Non-cooperation movement, Hijrat movement, Moplah revolt and the Chauri Chaura tragedy did a great loss to Muslim properties, wealth and lives after the tragedy of Chauri Chaura, Gandhi left the Khilafat
movement saying that he did not like violence.After Hijrat Movement, the Muslims had to come back to the Sub-continent but now they had lost their hearth and home. They had to face the severe circumstances in the Khilafat movement.
In 1924, Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk assumed power in Turkey and abolished the
institution of Khilafat himself lf. This act of him really disappointed Muslims.
Thus ,the Khilafat Movement came to an end without achieving its goals
The Khilafat Movement made Muslims realise that they had political power. They
come to belive that they don't need to depend on the British or the Hindus for
their rights. Thus the Khilafat Movement can be seen as a fore runner to the
Pakistan movement.Many children had left their studies as a result of non-cooperation. Many people had left their jobs and thus it affected them badly. The Muslims who migrated to afghanistan after India being called dar-ul-harb sufferd badly as they could not buy their property back after being rejected by the afghanis.Many died on the way back to india.
The khilafat movement divided Hindus & muslims futher apart. . Communal rioting
occurred and both the communities lost trust in the other..The outcomes of
Khilafat Movement were huge. It left both good and bad effects. It results in
protest and rallies on streets of subcontinent. There was an increase in violence
day by day. It results in collapse of Hindu Muslims alliance. A huge number of
peoples were involved in this Movement, may be this was also a reason of civil
disobedience.Because of some violent incidents in the country which resulted in
the deaths of many Hindus, Muslims and British people.

CONCLUSION:
Every movement against the British rule left its good as well as bad effects on the people. After Khilafat Movement Muslims of the Sub-continent become united, strong and conscious about their separate identity which led them towards final destination. This was the real credit which Muslims derived from Khilafat Movement.

IS RIGHT
Question 2:
Why violence increased during this religio-political Movement?
Answer:
Contest
Khilafat Movement was a religio-political Movement launched by the Muslims of the British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate or khilafat-e-usmania and for not letting for the Muslim holy places go under the control of the Non-Muslims. During the 1st World War Turkey sided with Germany and as Germany started to loose Turkey also started loosing its territory. By the time 1st World War came to an end in 1918 Turkey had lost most of its territory. Therefore the issue at that time was how the allied powers would treat Turkey, the Ottoman Empire or the Khilafat-e-usmania and most of its territory had been occupied and this Movement was on its peak from 1919 to 1922, although it went on during the later years.
Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.
Goals:
What were the goals of this Movement?
Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.
Territorial solidarity of Turkey should be preserved.
Control of holy places of the Muslims should not be given to non-Muslims that were Non-Muslim powers.
Effects
This was the first major political Movement in India which involved the common man. Since the inception of the ML in 1906, the Muslims had started demanding certain safeguards from the British. They were also interacting with the other communities and the Congress party. However politics during that time from 1906 to 1919 was the elitist politics. That is politics of educated people and also people who are well off who could spare time who could spare money were involved in politics.
Khilafat Movement was the 1st movement where ordinary people were involved, or the ordinary Muslims were involved, people in the streets were involved and therefore politics at that time came down to the ordinary masses.
Mobilization capacity of Islam
Another important aspect of this Movement was that it showed the mobilization capacity of Islam amongst the Muslims. It showed the extent to which the Muslims of the British India held Islam and how much Islamic institutions are dear to them. So it clearly showed that Islam had a lot of mobilizational capacity and appeal for the ordinary people.
Extra-territorial attachments
Another aspect emphasizes the extra-territorial attachments of the Muslims of India based on Islam. Extra-territorial means that people feel attached to certain institutions and ideological framework that may be beyond the territorial boundaries of their own countries that is extra-territorial attachment. Amongst the Muslims extra-territorial attachments are always been very strong and these extra-territorial attachments are based on Islam. Two concepts of Islam are very strong force for the Muslims of British India.
Concept of Ummah
The concept of Ummah and this concept of Ummah that the Muslims living all over the World weither in any country belong to an ideological brotherhood of Islam. It’s a community or sense of community based on principles and teachings of Islam, therefore the concept of ummah had a lot of pull for the Muslims and that could be seen during the period of the Khilafat Movement.
The institution of Khilafat
The second aspect which created extra-territorial sentiments amongst the Muslims of this region was the institution of Khilafat.The Khilafat-e-Usmania whose primary seat was in Turkey and Khilafat-e-Usmania was seen by the Muslims of the British India as a kind of continuity from the original institution of Khilafat in Islam. Therefore they always paid much attention to the institution of Khilafat.You can go to the earlier periods and you will see that the sentiment of attachment is based on Islam was very strong.
Protests in India:
All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919 and this gradually shaped up of the Muslims point of activity regarding Khilafat and in this Khilafat committee session they were discussing the issues of Khilafat which held the 1st Khilafat Conference in Delhi in November 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. Congress also started to support the Khilafat Movement for the reason that I will discuss later on. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:
No participation in victory celebrations was the 1st important step taken by the participants of this Conference. The British and the Allies had won the war and they were celebrating even in India because India being a part of the British Empire was on the side of the British therefore these people decided to boycott the victory celebration to show displeasure on the state of affairs and to express their point of view in an affective manner.
Rowlett Act, 1919:
Rowlett Act was a black law introduced in India. To the law, the government got authority to persecute any Indian and the arrested had no facility of legal assistance and right to appeal just as the ‘Lettres de Cachet’ in France before the French Revolution. Jinnah resigned from the central legislature as a protest. This was a law which the British govt passed for arresting, detaining people who would be involved in what they would describe as the criminal activities but actually those were political activities. Those people could be punished swearly and without trial, so this Bill which was ultimately made into a law was protested both by the Muslims as well as the Hindus. When this issue developed.Quaid-e-Azam was very critical to this Act. He delivered critical speeches in the legislative council and outside and ultimately he resigned from his seat of the assembly in protest against this law, because he thought that this Act is a humiliating Act, violates basic cannons of justice and fairplay
Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April 1919:
The second issue which was agitating was agitating the person across the divide was the incident related to the Jallianwala Bagh.Jallianwala Bagh was situated in the city of Amritsar and against the backdrop of the Rowlett Act a big meeting was held in that Bagh.There were so many kinds of people and the British govt was so agitated that they dispatched a unit of the Army that went into the garden blocked all the entrance points and began shooting directly on the people and several hundred people were killed and seriously wounded which created a major uproar throughout India. General Dyer opened fire to disperse the throng that cast huge human casualties (379). It is considered one of the great tragedies in India. It is during this period that the British imposed martial law in Amritsar and certain other cities of the province of Punjab including Lahore, Gujranwala and a couple of other cities martial law was imposed. So in a way that became the 1st martial law in this region in the 20th century. So this Jallianwala Bagh incident also mobilized congress and other groups to move ahead and to pull their resources and to challenge the authority of the British govt.
Khilafat Conference, Karachi, July 1921:
A Khilafat Conference was held in Karachi in July 1921 and in this session the participants were predominantly Muslims expressed their loyalty to Khilafat and the Turkish Sultan which by that time had been disposed by its territory by the allied powers the British and the others and they had also decided to keep the movement going on. They welcomed Ataturk’s efforts to dislodge foreign forces from mainland. By that time Ataturk was emerging as a leader and he was taking steps to expel the foreign forces from Turkey and it was very early stage but nevertheless they welcomed the. That and they thought that it is something new that needs to be encouraged and needs to be endorsed.
End of the Movement:
The Khilafat Movement that was started by the Muslims of the British India for the retention of the institution of the Ottoman Empire and for retaining the control of the Muslims holy places, that movement gradually fizzled out. How that did happened a number of developments from 1921 to onward contributed to that. The first important development that adversely affected the movement was the Mopla Revolt on the Malabar area in the Kalicut.
Conclusions:
It can be concluded as under;
It was re-affirmation of the reality that religion is a mobilizing force and especially Islam has mobilization capacity to organize masses.
It was the movement launched on the basis of extra-territorialism. Later, no such movement but Pan-Islamic sentiments continued.
It resulted in the sufferings of the Muslims
Hindu-Muslim unity proved short-lived.
Reactivation of the Muslim League and other Muslims organizations to restart their activities as a separate nation.

Khilafat Movement

 

The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims. Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the war, concerns were expressed in India about the future of Turkey. It was a peak period from 1919 to 1922 casting demonstrations, boycott, and other pressure by the two major communities, the Hindus and the Muslims. Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.

Aims and Objectives of the Khilafat Movement

 

          The Khilafat Movement aimed at presenting the Ottoman Empire and the continuity of the temporal power of Khalifa to protect Muslim lands without any mandate. Mohammad Ali put forward the demands of the Khilafat Movement in a speech delivered at Paris on March 21, 1920 by declaring:

 

            “The Khilafat shall not be dismembered but that the Khalifa shall have sufficient temporal power for the defense of the Faith, that in the Island of Arabia there shall be exclusive, Muslim control without mandate or protection and that the Khalifa shall remain as heretofore the warden of the Holy places.”

 

Demands of the Khilafat Movement

 

The demands of the Khilafat committee were as under

i) The Turkish Empire should not be dismembered.

ii) The Holy place should remain in the custody of Turkish Government.

iii) The institution of Caliphate must be retained.

 

 

In The Beginning

 

Gandhi also joined Muslims in their Khilafat Movement. In fact, he wants to protect the British government and needed autonomy of India through this movement. Therefore, He joined the Khilafat Movement for achieving his coveted plan. Apparently, he was showing that he was sincere to the Muslim cause. Quaid-e-Azam admonished the Muslims that this movement should not be started but Muslims were not listening to him. Non-cooperation movement, Hijrat movement, Moplah revolt and the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy did a great loss to Muslim properties, wealth and lives after the tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh, Gandhi left the Khilafat movement saying that he did not like violence. After Hijrat Movement, the Muslims had to come back to the Sub-continent but now they had lost their hearth and home. They had to face the severe circumstances in the Khilafat movement.

In 1924, Mustafa Kamal Ata Turk assumed power in Turkey and abolished the institution of Khilafat himself lf. This act of him really disappointed Muslims. Thus, the Khilafat Movement came to an end without achieving its goals The Khilafat Movement made Muslims realize that they had political power. They come to believe that they don't need to depend on the British or the Hindus for their rights. Thus the Khilafat Movement can be seen as a fore runner to the Pakistan movement. Many children had left their studies as a result of non-cooperation. Many people had left their jobs and thus it affected them badly. The Muslims who migrated to Afghanistan after India being called dar-ul-harb (A place where Muslims are not allowed to perform their religious practices) suffered badly as they could not buy their property back after being rejected by the Afghanis. Many died on the way back to India. The Khilafat movement divided Hindus & Muslims further apart. . Communal rioting occurred and both the communities lost trust in the other. The outcomes of Khilafat Movement were huge. It left both good and bad effects. It results in protest and rallies on streets of subcontinent. There was an increase in violence day by day. It results in collapse of Hindu Muslims alliance. A huge number of peoples were involved in this Movement, may be this was also a reason of civil disobedience. Because of some violent incidents in the country which resulted in the deaths of many Hindus, Muslims and British people.

 

CONCLUSION

 

          Every movement against the British rule left its good as well as bad effects on the people. After Khilafat Movement Muslims of the Sub-continent become united, strong and conscious about their separate identity which led them towards final destination. This was the real credit which Muslims derived from Khilafat Movement

What is Khilafat movement ?

The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles (1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which imposed the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and gave Greece a powerful position in Anatolia, to the distress of the Turks. They called for help and the movement was the result. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favorable diplomatic position; by 1924 it simply abolished the roles of sultan and Calif.
In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movement became a part of the wider Indian independence movement. The movement was a topic in Conference of London (February 1920)

Ali brothers- Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali

The Khilafat Movement was organized by the Ali brothers- Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali in protest against the injustices done to Turkey (which had fought against Britain) after the First World War. Turkey was important to the Indian Muslims as the Sultan of Turkey was also the ‘Caliph’ (or Khalifa) and was the head of the Muslims throughout the world. The Khilafat leaders put pressure upon the British government to give better treatment to Turkey. Through this demand, Muslims were drawn into the national movement in large numbers. The movement become a part of the national movement. The Congress leaders joined in the agitation and helped in organizing it throughout the country.

Khilafat movement:

The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which imposed the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and gave Greece a powerful position in Anatolia, to the distress of the Turks. They called for help and the movement was the result. 

During the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1924) led by one of the Turkish revolutionaries, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, abolished the Treaty of Sèvres with the Treaty of Lausanne (1923). Meanwhile in British India, Mohammad Ali and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali joined with other Muslim leaders such as Sheikh Shaukat Ali Siddiqui, Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Raees-Ul-Muhajireen Barrister Jan Muhammad Junejo, Hasrat Mohani, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Dr. Hakim Ajmal Khan to form the All India Khilafat Committee. The organization was based in Lucknow, India at Hathe Shaukat Ali, the compound of Landlord Shaukat Ali Siddiqui. They aimed to build political unity amongst Muslims and use their influence to protect the caliphate. In 1920, they published the Khilafat Manifesto, which called upon the British to protect the caliphate and for Indian Muslims to unite and hold the British accountable for this purpoe.

Initially, the National Assembly seemed willing to allow a place for the Caliphate in the new regime, agreeing to the appointment of Mehmed’s cousin Abdul Mejid II as Caliph upon Mehmed’s departure. Still, for all the power he had already wielded in Turkey, Kemal did not abolish the Caliphate outright.

Then an event happened which was to deal a fatal blow to the Caliphate. Leaders of the Khilafat Movement distributed pamphlets calling upon the Turkish people to preserve the Ottoman Caliphate for the sake of Islam. Under Turkey’s new nationalist government, however, this was construed as foreign intervention, and any form of foreign intervention was labeled an insult to Turkish sovereignty, and worse, a threat to State security. Kemal promptly seized his chance. On his initiative, the National Assembly abolished the Caliphate on March 3, 1924.

It seems that the Khilafat movement was responsible for the abolishment of Caliphate because the reformists were not ready to abolish the Caliphate before the distribution of pamphlets against new Turkish government and in favour of Caliphate on full scale by Indian Khilafat Movement. This movement which was against new Turkish government and in favour of Caliph was considered a foriegn interference in state’s politics and threat to the state security and as a result Caliphate was abolished.

What was the importance of Khilafat Movement? 

In spite of collapse of the Caliphate, Khilafat Movement was an important step towards the Muslim political development. Muslims learnt the importance of leadership and political organization. The movement did a great job in uniting the Muslims of India against Britain in support of the Caliph of Turkey. It aroused the feelings of Indian Muslims for their brothers in the world. Muslims got the idea and desire of a separate homeland for themselves.


Once again, the Muslims became aware that they could no longer trust on Hindus and British. Both betrayed them on various occasions. Congress suddenly quit the movement when it had reached its climax. If Muslims have to survive, they will have to do it on their own. No dependence on other nations.

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