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Spring 2013

 

Assignment # 1  

                                                                

Due Date: May, 03, 2013                                          Total Marks: 10      

                

 

Objectives:

To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject.

 

Instructions

 

  1. Late assignments will not be accepted.
  2. If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.
  3. Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and to express it in your own words will be encouraged.
  4. If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action.
  5. No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
  6. The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman.

 

Guideline:

Try to be genuine and impressive in your approach.

Assignment:

How do you see the Khilafat Movement? Why violence increased during this religio-political Movement? 

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Replies to This Discussion

the khilafat movement

Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a significant Islamic movement in India during the British rule. This was an attempt by the Indian Muslim community to unite together in support of the Turkish Empire ruled by the Khalifa, which was attacked by European powers. The Muslims considered the Khalifa as the custodian of Islam. They simply could not digest his dethronement. Under the leadership of prominent Muslim leaders, notable one being Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, they launched the Khilafat Movement in most parts of North India.
The Khilafat Movement, aimed against the British government, received the support of Mahatma Gandhi, who related hisNon Cooperation Movement with it. The main objective behind this move was to enlist the support of the Muslim community into his movement, which addressed the issue of 'Swaraj' (Self-Government). By mid-1920 the Khilafat leaders assured full support to the non-violent methods of Gandhi, which facilitated the establishment of a united front of Hindus and Muslims against the British government. This combined force formed a major threat to the British rule.
The Khilafat Movement however did not last long. Owing to some violent incidents in the country which resulted in the deaths of many Indian and British people, Mahatma Gandhi called off his Non Cooperation Movement. This was a major jolt to the Khilafat Movement. The movement received its final blow in March 1924, when the original Khilafat movement in Turkey was abolished following the Islamic country's conversion from a Sultanate empire to a Republic

Assignment No.1 pak 301

STUDENT I.D:-

 

Q:     How do you see the Khilafat Movement? Why violence increased during this religio-political Movement?

 Answer:

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

The Hindu Muslim unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-cooperation Movements. The Muslims of soothsayer, under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, launched the historic Khilafat Movement after the First World War to protect the Ottoman Empire from dismemberment. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869-1948) linked the issue of Swaraj (self-government) with the Khilafat issue to associate the Hindus with the Movement. The ensuing Movement was the first countrywide popular movement.

What were the goals of this Movement?

Goals:

  1. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.
  2. Territorial solidarity of Turkey should be preserved.
  3. Control of  holy places of the Muslims should not be given to non-Muslims that were Non-Muslim powers.
  4. The khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslim of British India of the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.

 

Turkey sided with Germany in the World War 1. As it began to lose the war, concerns were expressed in India about the future of Turkey. It was a peak period from 1919 to 1922 casting demonstration, boycott, and other the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah.The concept of Ummah that the Muslims living all over the World weither in any country belong to an ideological brotherhood of Islam. It’s a community or sense of community based on principles and teachings of Islam, therefore the concept of ummah had a lot of pull for the Muslims and that could be seen during the period of the Khilafat Movement.
This was the first major political Movement in India which involved the common man. Since the inception of the ML in 1906, the Muslims had started demanding certain safeguards from the British. They were also interacting with the other communities and the Congress party. However politics during that time from 1906 to 1919 was the elitist politics. That is politics of educated people and also people who are well off who could spare time who could spare money were involved in politics.Khilafat Movement was the 1st movement where ordinary people were involved, or the ordinary Muslims were involved, people in the streets were involved and therefore politics at that time came down to the ordinary masses.

The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English-educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements. 
The Muslims of India had a strong feeling of identity with the world community of Islam. They had seen the decline in the political fortunes of Islam as the European powers conquered the Muslim lands one after the other. The Anglo-Russian convention of 1908 had reduced their next-door neighbor Iran to a mere dependency. Afghanistan also suffered as it was a bone of contention between Russia and Britain, and was now under the latter's sphere of influence. 
The general impression among the Muslims of India was that the western powers were waging a war against Islam throughout the world in order to rob it of all its power and influence. The Ottoman Empire was the only Muslim power that had maintained a semblance of authority and the Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction. 
As an institution, the Khilafat had a checkered past. It had originally migrated from Medina to Damascus and from Damascus to Baghdad. For some time it was located in Egypt, then it fell to the lot of Turkey, very much as a prize. 
The Turkish Sultans had claimed to be the caliphs of the Muslim world. As long as the Mughal Empire had been in existence, the Muslims of India had not recognized their claim. At this critical juncture, when the Muslims of the Sub-continent had no sovereign ruler of their own, they began to see the necessity of recognizing the Sultan of Turkey as their caliph. Tipu Sultan was the first Indian Muslim who, having been frustrated in his attempts to gain recognition from the Mughals, had turned to the Sultan of Turkey to establish a legal right to his throne. 
The European powers had played a leading role in reducing the might of Turkey in Europe to Eastern Thrace, Constantinople and the straits in the Balkan Wars (1912-13). To seek revenge, the Turks decided to side with the Germans against the Allied Forces. The Indian Muslims supported this decision. 
Muhammad Ali argued that for Muslims to accept mandates over Iraq, Syria and Palestine would amount to a total disregard of the wishes of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). Thus the Muslims of India launched the Tehrik-i-Khilafat. The objectives were as follows: 
1. To maintain the Turkish Caliphate. 
2. To protect the holy places of the Muslims. 
3. To maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire. 
There was absolute unanimity among the Indian Muslims. Though separated from Turkey by thousands of miles, they were determined to fight Turkey's battle from India.  
After a long time, they took united action on a purely Islamic issue which momentarily forged solidarity among them. It also produced a class of Muslim leaders experienced in organizing and mobilizing the public. This experience was of immense value to the Muslims later during the Pakistan Movement The collapse of the Khilafat Movement was followed by a period of bitter Hindu Muslim antagonism. The Hindus organized two highly anti Muslim movements, the Shudhi and the Sangathan. The former movement was designed to convert Muslims to Hinduism and the latter was meant to create solidarity among the Hindus in the event of communal conflict. In retaliation, the Muslims sponsored the Tabligh and Tanzim organizations to counter the impact of the Shudhi and the Sangathan. In the 1920s, the frequency of communal riots was unprecedented. Several Hindu-Muslim unity conferences were held to remove the causes of conflict, but, it seemed nothing could mitigate the intensity of communalism. Muslim Demand Safeguards In the light of this situation, the Muslims revised their constitutional demands. They now wanted preservation of their numerical majorities in the Punjab and Bengal, separation of Sindh from Bombay, constitution of  Baluchistan as a separate province and introduction of constitutional reforms in the North-West Frontier Province. It was partly to press these demands that one section of the All-India Muslim League cooperated with the Statutory commission sent by the British Government under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon in 1927. 

End of the Movement:

The Khilafat Movement that was started by the Muslims of the British India for the retention of the institution of the Ottoman Empire and for retaining the control of the Muslims holy places, that movement gradually fizzled out. How that did happened a number of developments from 1921 to onward contributed to that. The first important development that adversely affected the movement was the Mopla Revolt on the Malabar area in the Kalicut.

Increase in Violence 1921:

The 2nd incident that affected this Movement was the increase in violence when in 1920 Non Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhi it was argued that this would be a peaceful Movement, this would be a non violent movement but the Indians would demonstrate against the British in a peaceful manner even the British will use force on them they will not respond. However with the passage of time violence entered this non cooperation there was an increase in violence day by day and the Chorachori Incident (UP) in February 1922 worsened the situation.Chora Chori is a small place in Utter Pradesh (UP) and here what happened was the Congress activist attacked a police station as a part of agitation against the British. The Congress volunteers set a police station on fire and as a result about 21 policemen were burnt alive. There were other violence and due to this increase in violence Gandhi suddenly decided to call off the Non Cooperation movement.

Gandhi, s decision did affect this movement firstly, it was a sudden and individual decision not consulting the Khilafat Movement people because they were working together and suddenly the Non Cooperation Movement was called off which adversely affected the Movement and created distrust between the two groups that were operative at that time. So this was an incident that weakened the movement and they began to diverge or move in different directions.

 

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

DEFINITION

The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I.

BACKGROUND

During World War I, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the war in favor of Germany. But Turkey and Germany lost the war and a   pact commonly known as Istanbul Accord was concluded between the Allied Forces on 3rd November 1918. According to this Pact the territories of Turkey were to be divided among France, Greece and Britain. These Allied forces snatched many provinces of Turkey. And their hostile behavior causes the Indian Muslims to worry about the Ottoman Empire and Turkish people.

SEVERE PEACE TREATY

During the war the Indian Muslims were in a very awkward position, because they had a deep-rooted devotion to the caliphate. They had profound respect for this holy institution. Therefore, their support to the British Government was subject to the safeguard and protection of the holy places of Turkey and on the condition that Turkey will not to be deprived of its territories. But the British Government could not fulfill both of these promises. The Treaty of Savers 1920 was imposed on Turkey and its territories like Samarna, Thrace and Anatolia were wrested from it and distributed among European countries.

FORMATION OF KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

A wave of anger swept across the Muslin World and the Indian Muslims rose against the British Government. Muslim leaders like Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Moulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Moulana Shoukat Ali and others reacted against the British Government policy and were put behind the bars. Thus, Muslims organized a mass movement, which came to be known as Khilafat Movement.

AIMS OF KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

The aims of this movement were

(a)   To protect the Holy place of Turkey.

(b)   To restore the Ottoman Empire.

(c)   To restore the Territories of Turkey.

 

KHILAFAT DELEGATION

In December 1919 both the Khilafat Committee and Congress held their meetings simultaneously at Amritsar and a delegation was prepared which was sent to England under the leadership of Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar to see the British Prime Minister, Cabinet Member and Members of Parliament and to explain the Indian point of view regarding the Khilafat. The delegation visited England in 1920. The leaders of the delegation addressed the House of Commons and saw the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George who paid no heed to the delegations demand. The delegation stayed at London for eight months and won many hearts and sympathies of people in Britain delivering speeches. However, the delegation returned to India unsuccessful in October 1920.

 

 

 

NON CO-OPERATION MOVEMENT

After the unsuccessful visit to England the leaders of Khilafat Movement realized the fact that British were not in the mood to help them. Therefore, they realized that a new strategy needed to be adopted in order to reinvigorate the zest and zeal for freedom among a general populace. With this aim they decided to launch a movement of Non Co-operation. When the leaders of Khilafat movement announced the Non Co-operation Movement, the Congress extended its full support to the Khilafat Movement. The leaders of the two met at Amritsar and resolved to launch a country wide agitation under the leadership of Mr. Gandhi. The agitation was against the British government. The Jamiat-ul-Ulama Hind issued a Fatwa of Tark-e-Mawalat. The following points were included in it:

  1. 1.        Renunciation of all Government titles.
  2. 2.         Boycott of legislature and court.
  3. 3.        Withdrawal of student’s from educational institutions.
  4. 4.        Resignation from government posts.
  5. 5.        General civil disobedience.

As a result of this proclamation of fatwa, hundreds of thousands people returned the titles and stopped sending their children to government schools and colleges. All those highly educated young men who could have rose to high government positions bade farewell to their bright future and accepted ordinary jobs in the private sector. The vacuum created in government offices was joyfully filled in by Hindus, while the Muslim government employees willingly accepted starvation for the sake of the Muslim cause.

 

HIJRAT MOVEMENT

Under the hypnotism of Mr. Gandhi, Muslim ulama had issued a fatwa and declared India as Dar-ul-Harab and the Muslims therefore needed to migrate to some other country or Dar-ul-Salam. Thousands of families sold out their properties for a tenth of their value and hastily left for Afghanistan, in August 1920. As many as eighteen thousand people marched towards Afghanistan, which was unable to bear the influx of the people. Thus, the Afghan authorities closed their frontiers. Eventually the Muhajarins had to return to their homes. A great number of old man, women and children died on their way during returning to homes and those who luckily reach alive their former places. They found themselves homeless and penniless. In fact they faced great difficulties. Even the preachers of Khilafat Movement realized the fact.

 

INCREASE IN VIOLENCE

On 5th February 1922 the people how are in favor of this they become so violent and burn the police station in Chora chori a city of attar pardesh after this Gandhi said that it is the group and violence so finish it. Another point is that Mopla Violence started a rebellion against the British raj that they treated as enemies of Islam. In 1925 they rebel and many moplahs are died in it. Also the Hindus and Muslims have no unity in each other they are unit only for the hates of British but in sangtee and Shadhi there unity became disappear.

END OF THE MOVEMENT

The Khilafat Movement came to an end when thousands of Indians were put behind the bar. The leaders in spite of their best efforts could not maintain the Hindu-Muslim Unity. One of the main reasons which caused a death blow to Khilafat Movement was the indirect announcement of Gandhi to discontinue the Non Co-operation Movement.

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF WAR

1. The abolition of Khilafat by Kamal Ataturk was a serious blow on Khilafat movement in the sub-continent and he exiled Sultan Abdul Majeed, a helpless Caliph and abolished Khilafat as an institution, due to this all agitation activities came to an end in the Sub-continent.

2. The Hijrat Movement made the Muslims disillusioned with the Khilafat Movement due to the declaration of India as Darul-Harab. A large number of Muslims migrated from Sindh and N.W.F.P to Afghanistan. The Afghan authorities did not allow them to cross the border. After this tragic event those who had advocated the Hijrat movement come to realize their mistake which resulted in failure of movement.

3. When Khilafat movement became mature and was reaching its climax. A tragic incident took place in the village of Chora Churi in which the police opened fire on the procession of local resident. The agitated mob in counteraction set the police station on fires which in result twenty one police constables were burnt alive. Due to this incident the Ali brother and other Muslim leader were arrested and Mr. Gandhi put off the movement. As a consequence the movement lost its intensity.

4. Withdrawal of Mahatma Gandhi becomes one of its failures.

CONCLUSION

The Khilafat movement was started to safeguard the Khilafat in Turkey, an issue which essentially belonged to the Muslims. The British Government was the common enemy of the Muslims and Hindus. That is why, both the nations continued united efforts against it. But the difference between the Hindus and Muslims became even more pronounced and many other events showed that the opposition of Hindus to British Government was not lasting. The Khilafat movement proved that Hindus and Muslims were two different nations as they could not continue the unity and could not live together. The Khilafat Movement created political consciousness among the Indian Muslims, which inspired them to constitute another movement for then Independence. Thus, they started Pakistan Movement.

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

DEFINITION

The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I.

BACKGROUND

During World War I, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) joined the war in favor of Germany. But Turkey and Germany lost the war and a   pact commonly known as Istanbul Accord was concluded between the Allied Forces on 3rd November 1918. According to this Pact the territories of Turkey were to be divided among France, Greece and Britain. These Allied forces snatched many provinces of Turkey. And their hostile behavior causes the Indian Muslims to worry about the Ottoman Empire and Turkish people.

SEVERE PEACE TREATY

During the war the Indian Muslims were in a very awkward position, because they had a deep-rooted devotion to the caliphate. They had profound respect for this holy institution. Therefore, their support to the British Government was subject to the safeguard and protection of the holy places of Turkey and on the condition that Turkey will not to be deprived of its territories. But the British Government could not fulfill both of these promises. The Treaty of Savers 1920 was imposed on Turkey and its territories like Samarna, Thrace and Anatolia were wrested from it and distributed among European countries.

FORMATION OF KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

A wave of anger swept across the Muslin World and the Indian Muslims rose against the British Government. Muslim leaders like Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Moulana Muhammad Ali Johar, Moulana Shoukat Ali and others reacted against the British Government policy and were put behind the bars. Thus, Muslims organized a mass movement, which came to be known as Khilafat Movement.

AIMS OF KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

The aims of this movement were

(a)   To protect the Holy place of Turkey.

(b)   To restore the Ottoman Empire.

(c)   To restore the Territories of Turkey.

 

KHILAFAT DELEGATION

In December 1919 both the Khilafat Committee and Congress held their meetings simultaneously at Amritsar and a delegation was prepared which was sent to England under the leadership of Maulana Mohammad Ali Johar to see the British Prime Minister, Cabinet Member and Members of Parliament and to explain the Indian point of view regarding the Khilafat. The delegation visited England in 1920. The leaders of the delegation addressed the House of Commons and saw the British Prime Minister, Lloyd George who paid no heed to the delegations demand. The delegation stayed at London for eight months and won many hearts and sympathies of people in Britain delivering speeches. However, the delegation returned to India unsuccessful in October 1920.

 

 

 

NON CO-OPERATION MOVEMENT

After the unsuccessful visit to England the leaders of Khilafat Movement realized the fact that British were not in the mood to help them. Therefore, they realized that a new strategy needed to be adopted in order to reinvigorate the zest and zeal for freedom among a general populace. With this aim they decided to launch a movement of Non Co-operation. When the leaders of Khilafat movement announced the Non Co-operation Movement, the Congress extended its full support to the Khilafat Movement. The leaders of the two met at Amritsar and resolved to launch a country wide agitation under the leadership of Mr. Gandhi. The agitation was against the British government. The Jamiat-ul-Ulama Hind issued a Fatwa of Tark-e-Mawalat. The following points were included in it:

  1. 1.        Renunciation of all Government titles.
  2. 2.         Boycott of legislature and court.
  3. 3.        Withdrawal of student’s from educational institutions.
  4. 4.        Resignation from government posts.
  5. 5.        General civil disobedience.

As a result of this proclamation of fatwa, hundreds of thousands people returned the titles and stopped sending their children to government schools and colleges. All those highly educated young men who could have rose to high government positions bade farewell to their bright future and accepted ordinary jobs in the private sector. The vacuum created in government offices was joyfully filled in by Hindus, while the Muslim government employees willingly accepted starvation for the sake of the Muslim cause.

 

HIJRAT MOVEMENT

Under the hypnotism of Mr. Gandhi, Muslim ulama had issued a fatwa and declared India as Dar-ul-Harab and the Muslims therefore needed to migrate to some other country or Dar-ul-Salam. Thousands of families sold out their properties for a tenth of their value and hastily left for Afghanistan, in August 1920. As many as eighteen thousand people marched towards Afghanistan, which was unable to bear the influx of the people. Thus, the Afghan authorities closed their frontiers. Eventually the Muhajarins had to return to their homes. A great number of old man, women and children died on their way during returning to homes and those who luckily reach alive their former places. They found themselves homeless and penniless. In fact they faced great difficulties. Even the preachers of Khilafat Movement realized the fact.

 

INCREASE IN VIOLENCE

On 5th February 1922 the people how are in favor of this they become so violent and burn the police station in Chora chori a city of attar pardesh after this Gandhi said that it is the group and violence so finish it. Another point is that Mopla Violence started a rebellion against the British raj that they treated as enemies of Islam. In 1925 they rebel and many moplahs are died in it. Also the Hindus and Muslims have no unity in each other they are unit only for the hates of British but in sangtee and Shadhi there unity became disappear.

END OF THE MOVEMENT

The Khilafat Movement came to an end when thousands of Indians were put behind the bar. The leaders in spite of their best efforts could not maintain the Hindu-Muslim Unity. One of the main reasons which caused a death blow to Khilafat Movement was the indirect announcement of Gandhi to discontinue the Non Co-operation Movement.

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF WAR

1. The abolition of Khilafat by Kamal Ataturk was a serious blow on Khilafat movement in the sub-continent and he exiled Sultan Abdul Majeed, a helpless Caliph and abolished Khilafat as an institution, due to this all agitation activities came to an end in the Sub-continent.

2. The Hijrat Movement made the Muslims disillusioned with the Khilafat Movement due to the declaration of India as Darul-Harab. A large number of Muslims migrated from Sindh and N.W.F.P to Afghanistan. The Afghan authorities did not allow them to cross the border. After this tragic event those who had advocated the Hijrat movement come to realize their mistake which resulted in failure of movement.

3. When Khilafat movement became mature and was reaching its climax. A tragic incident took place in the village of Chora Churi in which the police opened fire on the procession of local resident. The agitated mob in counteraction set the police station on fires which in result twenty one police constables were burnt alive. Due to this incident the Ali brother and other Muslim leader were arrested and Mr. Gandhi put off the movement. As a consequence the movement lost its intensity.

4. Withdrawal of Mahatma Gandhi becomes one of its failures.

CONCLUSION

The Khilafat movement was started to safeguard the Khilafat in Turkey, an issue which essentially belonged to the Muslims. The British Government was the common enemy of the Muslims and Hindus. That is why, both the nations continued united efforts against it. But the difference between the Hindus and Muslims became even more pronounced and many other events showed that the opposition of Hindus to British Government was not lasting. The Khilafat movement proved that Hindus and Muslims were two different nations as they could not continue the unity and could not live together. The Khilafat Movement created political consciousness among the Indian Muslims, which inspired them to constitute another movement for then Independence. Thus, they started Pakistan Movement.

 

How do you see the Khilafat Movement?

After World War I, the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the Muslims of South Asia launched the historic Khilafat Movement to try and save it. Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi linked the issue of Swaraj with the Khilafat issue to associate Hindus with the movement. The ensuing movement was the first countrywide popular movement.

The Muslims of India had a strong feeling of identity with the world community of Islam. They had seen the decline in the political fortunes of Islam as the European powers conquered the Muslim lands one after the other. The Anglo-Russian convention of 1908 had reduced their next-door neighbor Iran to a mere dependency. Afghanistan also suffered as it was a bone of contention between Russia and Britain, and was now under the latter’s sphere of influence.

The general impression among the Muslims of India was that the western powers were waging a war against Islam throughout the world in order to rob it of all its power and influence. The Ottoman Empire was the only Muslim power that had maintained a semblance of authority and the Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction.

As an institution, the Khilafat had a checkered past. It had originally migrated from Medina to Damascus and from Damascus to Baghdad. For sometime it was located in Egypt, then it fell to the lot of Turkey, very much as a prize.

The Turkish Sultans had claimed to be the caliphs of the Muslim world. As long as the Mughal Empire had been in existence, the Muslims of India had not recognized their claim. At this critical juncture, when the Muslims of the Sub-continent had no sovereign ruler of their own, they began to see the necessity of recognizing the Sultan of Turkey as their caliph. Tipu Sultan was the first Indian Muslim who, having been frustrated in his attempts to gain recognition from the Mughals, had turned to the Sultan of Turkey to establish a legal right to his throne.

The European powers had played a leading role in reducing the might of Turkey in Europe to Eastern Thrace, Constantinople and the straits in the Balkan Wars (1912-13). To seek revenge, the Turks decided to side with the Germans against the Allied Forces. The Indian Muslims supported this decision.

Muhammad Ali argued that for Muslims to accept mandates over Iraq, Syria and Palestine would amount to a total disregard of the wishes of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). Thus the Muslims of India launched the Tehrik-i-Khilafat. The objectives were as follows:

  • To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.
  • To protect the holy places of the Muslims.
  • To maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire.

There was absolute unanimity among the Indian Muslims. Though separated from Turkey by thousands of miles, they were determined to fight Turkey’s battle from India

 Why violence increased during this religio-politicalMovement? 

Increase in Violence 1921:

The 2nd incident that affected this Movement was the increase in violence when in 1920 Non Cooperation Movement was launched by Gandhi it was argued that this would be a peaceful Movement, this would be a non violent movement but the Indians would demonstrate against the British in a peaceful manner even the British will use force on them they will not respond. However with the passage of time violence entered this non cooperation there was an increase in violence day by day and the Chorachori Incident (UP) in February 1922 worsened the situation.Chora Chori is a small place in Uter Pradesh (UP) and here what happened was the Congress activist attacked a police station as a part of agitation against the British. The Congress volunteers set a police station on fire and as a result about 21 policemen were burnt alive. There were other violence and due to this increase in violence Gandhi suddenly decided to call off the Non Cooperation movement.

Gandhi, s decision did affect this movement firstly, it was a sudden and individual decision not consulting the Khilafat Movement people because they were working together and suddenly the Non Cooperation Movement was called off which adversely affected the Movement and created distrust between the two groups that were operative at that time. So this was an incident that weakened the movement and they began to diverge or move in different directions.

Violence ka real mening kya hy?

Violence means   تشدد

The Khilafat movement (1919–1924) was a pan-Islamic, political protest campaign launched by Muslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles (1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which imposed the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and gave Greece a powerful position in Anatolia, to the distress of the Turks. They called for help and the movement was the result. The movement collapsed by late 1922 when Turkey gained a more favorable diplomatic position; by 1924 it simply abolished the roles of sultan and Calif. However, if you need some information about assignment writing you can visit those sites on source box.

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