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PAK301 Assignment No. 01 Solution and Discussion Due Date: 20 May 2015

PAK301 - Pakistan Studies Assignment No. 01 Solution and Discussion Due Date: 20 May 2015

Assignment No. 1

 

Pak301

 

 

 

Spring 2015

Assignment # 01                                                                 Total Marks: 10

Due Date: 22 May, 2015 

                

 

Objectives:

To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject.

 

Instructions

  • Late assignments will not be accepted.
  • If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.
  • Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and to express it in your own words will be encouraged.
  • If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action.
  • No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
  • The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman.

 

Guideline:

Try to be genuine and impressive in your approach.

Assignment

 

  • Give five major points explaining Sir Syed’s endeavors in renovating the Muslim community competing with the Hindu emerging modernization.  (300 words) 5 Marks                      
  • How do you link Khilafat Movement with the Pakistan movement? Justify your answer with at least five points.   (300 words) 5 Marks         

 

 

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Replies to This Discussion

Solution :

During these times Sir Syed wrote many articles and books to elevate the spirit of Muslim of the subcontinent. These books proved to quite influential and wake up some Muslims. After the war of independence, the Muslims were blamed for starting this revolt. The Hindus were not implicated at all. The Hindus and Sikhs were given all the opportunities while none were given to the Muslims. To solve this problem Sir Syed Ahmed Khan wrote the books that change the odds for the Muslims. These books were titled “The Causes of Indian Revolt” & “Causes of Indian Rebellion 1857”. Maulana Altaf Husain Hail wrote in this biography of Sir Syed reached Moradabad, he began to write the pamphlet entitled The Causes of the Indian Revolt (asbab-e-baghawat-e-hind), in which he did his best to clear the people of India, and especially the Muslims, of the charge of Mutiny. In the spite of obvious danger, he made a courageous and thorough report of the accusations people were making against the Government and refused the theory which the British had invented to explain the causes of the Mutiny.”

He also wrote “Life of Muhammad” in which he made the illiterate Muslims aware how their Prophet (PBUH) lived his life.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who opened the initiative of “Two Nation Theory”. The onset of Urdu-Hindi controversy of 1857, who raised the voice of the Muslims against Hindi as the second official language of India. He promoted Urdu through his writings and his schools and colleges. His work started to become more centered and more in favor of the Muslims. He worked hard and wrote many articles some of which were even against the British. He was put in jail many times for these types of articles but he still worked at his writings. He knew from the start that the Muslims and Hindus could never live together. Due to this reason he is known as the “Pioneer of Two Nation Theory”. Due to these visions of his AIML (All India Muslim League) after some time he started working on a separate homeland.                  

 

 

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Two Nation Theory:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Indian Muslim political leader who used the word “Nation” for the Muslims of the sub-continent in 1867. During the Urdu Hindi Controversy he came forward with two nation concept and declared that the Muslims were a separate nation, having their own culture and civilization. He talked to Mr. Shakespeare, Governor of Banaras and explained the two nation theory as:

“Hindi Urdu conflict is the starting of the space of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and a day will come when both the nations will separate from each other after division”. 

e Khilafat Movement

The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.

Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the ...

Goals:

1. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.
2. To preserved the Territorial solidarity.
3. Control of holy the places should not be given to non-Muslims.

Dimensions:

The writings of the Muslim intellectuals provoked the sentiments for the preservation of Khilafat and retention of the Muslims control of the holy places. The Muslims journalism played a vital role to steer the direction of the struggle. Zamindar of Zafar Ali Khan, Comrade and Hamdard of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, and Al-Hilal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad etc. were the prominent newspapers and magazines which performed their duties to express their resentment. The Allies imposed humiliating terms on vanquished Turkey.

Protests in India:

All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:

· No participation in victory celebrations.
· Boycott of British goods
· Non Cooperation with the Government

The second Khilafat Conference (Amritsar) was held in Dec. 1919. Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined the session after being released from prison. In Jan. 1920, M. A. Ansari led a delegation to Viceroy while Maulana M. A. Jauhar to Europe. The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920.

Effects on the Muslims of Subcontinent:


1. The movement gave a general awareness and created self-confidence among the Muslims.
2. It awakened their sense of political understanding.


3. They started taking parts in the nation politics and also learnt methods of protesting, arranging and holding mass meetings and fighting for their rights.


4. Educated Muslims, students and Ulemas started taking interest in politics.


5. This movement created a number of political workers who later started taking interest in politics and played an important and active role in the Pakistan movement.


6. These workers had direct contact with the masses. Now, they were able to boldly present their demands to the British Government.

Solution :

During these times Sir Syed wrote many articles and books to elevate the spirit of Muslim of the subcontinent. These books proved to quite influential and wake up some Muslims. After the war of independence, the Muslims were blamed for starting this revolt. The Hindus were not implicated at all. The Hindus and Sikhs were given all the opportunities while none were given to the Muslims. To solve this problem Sir Syed Ahmed Khan wrote the books that change the odds for the Muslims. These books were titled “The Causes of Indian Revolt” & “Causes of Indian Rebellion 1857”. Maulana Altaf Husain Hail wrote in this biography of Sir Syed reached Moradabad, he began to write the pamphlet entitled The Causes of the Indian Revolt (asbab-e-baghawat-e-hind), in which he did his best to clear the people of India, and especially the Muslims, of the charge of Mutiny. In the spite of obvious danger, he made a courageous and thorough report of the accusations people were making against the Government and refused the theory which the British had invented to explain the causes of the Mutiny.”

He also wrote “Life of Muhammad” in which he made the illiterate Muslims aware how their Prophet (PBUH) lived his life.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who opened the initiative of “Two Nation Theory”. The onset of Urdu-Hindi controversy of 1857, who raised the voice of the Muslims against Hindi as the second official language of India. He promoted Urdu through his writings and his schools and colleges. His work started to become more centered and more in favor of the Muslims. He worked hard and wrote many articles some of which were even against the British. He was put in jail many times for these types of articles but he still worked at his writings. He knew from the start that the Muslims and Hindus could never live together. Due to this reason he is known as the “Pioneer of Two Nation Theory”. Due to these visions of his AIML (All India Muslim League) after some time he started working on a separate homeland.                  

 

 

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Two Nation Theory:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Indian Muslim political leader who used the word “Nation” for the Muslims of the sub-continent in 1867. During the Urdu Hindi Controversy he came forward with two nation concept and declared that the Muslims were a separate nation, having their own culture and civilization. He talked to Mr. Shakespeare, Governor of Banaras and explained the two nation theory as:

“Hindi Urdu conflict is the starting of the space of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and a day will come when both the nations will separate from each other after division”. 

full assignment post kro

Any update about the quiz

q2 ans

The Khilafat movement was started to safeguard the Khilafat in Turkey, an issue which essentially belonged to the Muslims. By the involvement of Hindus the Movement grew forceful and there was possibility of meeting the movement with success. The British Government was the common enemy of the Muslims and Hindus. That is why, both the nations continued united efforts against it. But the difference between the Hindus and Muslims became even more pronounced and many other events showed that the opposition of Hindus to British Government was not lasting. When Khilafat Movement reached at its success, the Hindus especially Mr. Gandhi gave up from movement and leaved the Muslims alone and caused the failure of Movement.

 

The Khilafat movement proved that Hindus and Muslims were two different nations as they could not continue the unity and could not live together. The Khilafat Movement created political consciousness among the Indian Muslims, which inspired them to constitute another movement for then Independence. Thus, they started Pakistan Movement.

another answer 



Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who opened the initiative of ‘Two Nation Theory’; he was the pioneer of the ‘Two Nation Theory’. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan first used the word ‘Two Nations’ for Hindus and Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was certain by the hatred of Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims that both nations cannot live unite in the single country and the future of the Muslims will safe only if they have their own separate nation state.

The Hindus and Muslims, regardless of living together for centuries could not put out of their mind their own individual cultures and civilizations and keep a distance from each other. They could not integrate in each other’s way of life to be converted into one nation. The foremost reason for this dissimilarity between standard of living, cultures, and civilizations of Muslims and Hindus was the religion of Islam that cannot be amalgamated in any other system.

In Islam there is no one who could share the power of the Almighty ...

Ideology does play a crucial or fundamental role in any nation’s em...

The Khilafat Movement

The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims.

Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the ...

Goals:

1. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact.
2. To preserved the Territorial solidarity.
3. Control of holy the places should not be given to non-Muslims.

Dimensions:

The writings of the Muslim intellectuals provoked the sentiments for the preservation of Khilafat and retention of the Muslims control of the holy places. The Muslims journalism played a vital role to steer the direction of the struggle. Zamindar of Zafar Ali Khan, Comrade and Hamdard of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, and Al-Hilal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad etc. were the prominent newspapers and magazines which performed their duties to express their resentment. The Allies imposed humiliating terms on vanquished Turkey.

Protests in India:

All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced:

· No participation in victory celebrations.
· Boycott of British goods
· Non Cooperation with the Government

The second Khilafat Conference (Amritsar) was held in Dec. 1919. Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined the session after being released from prison. In Jan. 1920, M. A. Ansari led a delegation to Viceroy while Maulana M. A. Jauhar to Europe. The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920.

Effects on the Muslims of Subcontinent:

1. The movement gave a general awareness and created self-confidence among the Muslims.
2. It awakened their sense of political understanding.

3. They started taking parts in the nation politics and also learnt methods of protesting, arranging and holding mass meetings and fighting for their rights.

4. Educated Muslims, students and Ulemas started taking interest in politics.

5. This movement created a number of political workers who later started taking interest in politics and played an important and active role in the Pakistan movement.

6. These workers had direct contact with the masses. Now, they were able to boldly present their demands to the British Government.

Background

The War of Independence 1857 ended in a disaster for the Muslims. The British believed that the Muslims were responsible for the war of 1857 and therefore, they were subjected to ruthless punishment and merciless revenge. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their enemies because they had ousted them from power. With the war of 1857 this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Thus the Mughal rule came to an end and the sub-continent went directly under the British crown.

Education Achievements of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Syed Ahmad launched his educational movement by setting up Gulshan School at Muradabad - 1859; Victoria School at Gazipur in 1863; Scientific Society for the translation of English works in the native language, Urdu, at Aligarh in 1864; Aligarh Institute Gazette imparting information on history - ancient and modern, science of agriculture, natural sciences, physical sciences and Advanced Mathematics in 1866; Committee Striving for the Educational Progress of Muslims - 1870; Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental School (MAO) at Aligarh in 1875 at the pattern of English public schools and later raised to the level of college in 1877 and university in 1920; Mohammedan Educational Conference (1886), which met every year to take stock of the educational problems of the Muslims and to persuade them to get modern education and abstain from politics; it later became a political mouthpiece of the Indian Muslims and the forerunner of the All India Muslim league.

Hindi-Urdu Controversy & Emergence of 'Two Nation Theory'

 

During the last days of the Muslim rule, Urdu emerged as the most common language of the northwestern provinces of India. It was declared the official language, and all official records were written in this language. In 1867, some prominent Hindus started a movement in Banaras in which they demanded the replacement of Urdu with Hindi, and the Persian script with the Deva Nagri script, as the court language in the northwestern provinces. The reason for opposing Urdu was that the language was written in Persian script which was similar to the Arabic script, and Arabic was the language of the Quran, the Holy Book of the Muslims. The movement grew quickly and within a few months spread throughout the Hindu population of the northwestern provinces of India. The headquarters of this movement were in Allahabad.

During these times Sir Syed wrote many articles and books to elevate the spirit of Muslim of the subcontinent. These books proved to quite influential and wake up some Muslims. After the war of independence, the Muslims were blamed for starting this revolt. The Hindus were not implicated at all. The Hindus and Sikhs were given all the opportunities while none were given to the Muslims. To solve this problem Sir Syed Ahmed Khan wrote the books that change the odds for the Muslims. These books were titled “The Causes of Indian Revolt” & “Causes of Indian Rebellion 1857”. Maulana Altaf Husain Hail wrote in this biography of Sir Syed reached Moradabad, he began to write the pamphlet entitled The Causes of the Indian Revolt (asbab-e-baghawat-e-hind), in which he did his best to clear the people of India, and especially the Muslims, of the charge of Mutiny. In the spite of obvious danger, he made a courageous and thorough report of the accusations people were making against the Government and refused the theory which the British had invented to explain the causes of the Mutiny.”

He also wrote “Life of Muhammad” in which he made the illiterate Muslims aware how their Prophet (PBUH) lived his life.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who opened the initiative of “Two Nation Theory”. The onset of Urdu-Hindi controversy of 1857, who raised the voice of the Muslims against Hindi as the second official language of India. He promoted Urdu through his writings and his schools and colleges. His work started to become more centered and more in favor of the Muslims. He worked hard and wrote many articles some of which were even against the British. He was put in jail many times for these types of articles but he still worked at his writings. He knew from the start that the Muslims and Hindus could never live together. Due to this reason he is known as the “Pioneer of Two Nation Theory”. Due to these visions of his AIML (All India Muslim League) after some time he started working on a separate homeland.                  

 

 

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Two Nation Theory:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Indian Muslim political leader who used the word “Nation” for the Muslims of the sub-continent in 1867. During the Urdu Hindi Controversy he came forward with two nation concept and declared that the Muslims were a separate nation, having their own culture and civilization. He talked to Mr. Shakespeare, Governor of Banaras and explained the two nation theory as:

“Hindi Urdu conflict is the starting of the space of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and a day will come when both the nations will separate from each other after division”.

Sir Syed promoted the adoption of Urdu as the lingua franca of all Indian Muslims, and mentored a rising generation of Muslim politicians and entrepreneurs. Prior to the Hindi–Urdu controversy, he was interested in the education of both Muslims and Hindus, and visualised India as a "beautiful bride, whose one eye was Hindu and, the other, Muslim". As a result of this view, he was regarded as a reformer and nationalist leader.

There was a sudden change in Sir Syed's views after the Hindi–Urdu controversy: his education and reformist policies became Muslim-specific and he fought for the status of Urdu. His biographer, Hali, wrote: "One day as Sir Syed was discussing educational affairs of Muslims with Mr. Shakespeare – the then Commissioner of Banaras – Mr. Shakespeare looked surprised and asked him, "This is the first time when I have heard you talking specifically aboutMuslims. Before this you used to talk about the welfare of the common Indians. Sir Syed then told him, "Now I am convinced that the two communities [Muslims and Hindus] will not put their hearts in any venture together. This is nothing [it is just the beginning] , in the coming times an ever increasing hatred and animosity appears on the horizon simply because of those who are regarded as educated. Those who will be around will witness it.", (Hali, 1993).[6]Overall, Sir Syed is hailed as the father of the Two Nation Theory and one of the founding fathers of Pakistan, along with Allama Iqbal and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.[7]

solution of assignment

Attachments:

Assignment No. 1

 

Pak301

 

 

 

Spring 2015

Assignment # 01                                                                 Total Marks: 10

Due Date: 22 May, 2015 

                

 

 

  • Give five major points explaining Sir Syed’s endeavors in renovating the Muslim community competing with the Hindu emerging modernization.  5 Marks   

   Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born at Delhi in 1817.Sir Syed proven a separate nation for the Muslims. "Two Nation Theory" Sir Syed first used the term. He said that the distinct culture, customs and religion and in every respect a nation possesses. Sir Syed, a huge movement in the subcontinent began. Aligarh movement of Sir Syed and his colleagues made a comprehensive and inclusive movement. He devoted his entire life for this purpose to bring the Muslims close to the British. He died on March 27, 1898 and was buried in Aligarh.  

 

EDUCATIONAL SERVICES:

Sir Syed scientific, literature and social sciences attracted by the Muslims. Sir Syed stairs to the success of  English education as the Hindu equivalent of the socio-economic status can get. Sir Syed launched his educational movement by setting up Gulshan School at Muradabad - 1859; Victoria School at Gazipur in 1863. Sir Syed launched Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental School (MAO) at Aligarh in 1875 at the pattern of English public schools and later raised to the level of college in 1877 and after his death it became a university in 1920.

 

LITERATURE SERVICES:

Sir Syed source of national development literature make written notes on various topics. Asbab-i-Baghawat-i-Hind in 1858  Tabyin-ul-Kalam and Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya by writing books such as improving relations between Muslims and the British government and campaign to stop the ongoing repression against Muslims won.

 

POLITICAL SERVICES:

Sir Syed tried to bring the two nations Hindus and Muslims closer. Hindi teachers recruited in their institutions. Hindu Hindi, Urdu language than government offices have started to try. In 1867, Urdu, Hindi turned to Sir conflict and to protect the rights of Muslims began working through his movement.

 

  • How do you link Khilafat Movement with the Pakistan movement? Justify your answer with at least five points.   5 Marks

INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND:

World War I began in 1914. Britain, France, the United States and Russia were allies. Meanwhile, Germany, Austria and Turkey had shared. Turkey was considered the center of the Muslims of the world, however. These days Turkey was decaying. The possibility exists that Turkey will be defeated. Hjazmqds territory was under the control of the Turks. Given these circumstances, the Muslims of the subcontinent became a movement launched in 1919. Protection of the Khilafat, Khilafat movement, the movement is named.

 

OBJECTIVES:

  • In case of defeat its geographical borders remain unchanged.
  • Khalifa and the institution of the Khilafat in Turkey remain.
  • Hjazmqds not diminish the sanctity addressed at last. Do not enter non-Muslim forces in these two cities.

 

MOVEMENT ACTIVITIES:

The Muslim masses multi-currency, gold and silver deposit in the form of financial aid for Turkey.

The press also played a big role. Mulanazfraly Khan 'landowner' Maulana Azad 'Hilal' and Maulana Mohammad Ali juhr the 'comrades and sympathizers of the newspaper through the storm created in the minds of the public.

 

GANDHI'S ROLE:

Gandhi's non-cooperation movement during World War I, the cooperation and civil disobedience movement was started. He supported the Khilafat movement of Muslims was able to include in their movements. Gandhi, the leader of the conspiracy could not understand his words and actions, such as that in the economy, education and social condition was very bad effect.   

 

 

 

 

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