PAK301 Assignment No. 01 Solution and Discussion- Fall 2014, Due Date: 24-Nov-14
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Pakistan Studies 301,
Assignment 1 is uploaded and same is attached !
Due Date: November 24, 2014
Total Marks: 10
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SOLUTION FOR ASSIGNMENT NO. I (FALL 2014)
“Define Ideology: Does it, indeed, contribute in any nation’s emergence? Highlights Pakistan’s case (“Two Nation Theory”)”.
The phrase ideology “means science of ideas”. It includes those thoughts which any nation struggles to achieve with the intention of bring stability to its nationhood. The ideology grows amongst the frustrated group of society as a challenge to the prevailing social set up
An overview of the concept of ideology, which refers to a system of mutually dependent ideas, principles, traditions, gatherings, and even folklore that functions as a routine frame of reference. These routine ideas are taken for granted and used to interpret, understand, and guide values in a certain direction against those of other ideologies, affecting the patterns of belief and thus the behavior of a social group.
In so far as meaning and definition of Pakistan ideology is concerned, it essentially means that Pakistan should be a state, where the Muslims should have a prospect to live according to their belief and doctrine based on ideology of Islam.
So the creation of Pakistan was exceptional in a sense that it was based on the ideological commitments in the light of the religion Islam. Pakistani ideology is based on the ideals of Islamic structure and it was a result to the Hindu and British mistreatment of the Muslims. It was a revolution against the established system of India where the Hindu culture was powerfully forced on the Muslims of the sub-continent and their culture.
Pakistani ideology is based on the reality that the Muslims are a separate nation, comprising, their own customs, their own culture, their own religion, their own civilization and an absolutely diverse way of life from Hindus. Muslims cannot be combined with any other nation because their philosophy of life is based on the principles of Islam. So, Muslims of India found it enormously hard to spend their lives according to the principles of Islam in the United India. They were forced to demand a separate homeland to keep their religious with national identity.
Pakistan ideology was based on the ‘Two Nation Theory’, which meant that Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations and both nations are to a certain extent different from each other.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who opened the initiative of ‘Two Nation Theory’; he was the pioneer of the ‘Two Nation Theory’. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan first used the word ‘Two Nations’ for Hindus and Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was certain by the hatred of Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims that both nations cannot live unite in the single country and the future of the Muslims will safe only if they have their own separate nation state.
The Hindus and Muslims, regardless of living together for centuries could not put out of their mind their own individual cultures and civilizations and keep a distance from each other. They could not integrate in each other’s way of life to be converted into one nation. The foremost reason for this dissimilarity between standard of living, cultures, and civilizations of Muslims and Hindus was the religion of Islam that cannot be amalgamated in any other system.
In Islam there is no one who could share the power of the Almighty God and to regard as any one equivalent to God is the biggest sin. While, in contrast Hinduism is based on the concept of multiple Gods. This is the main difference between Hindus and Muslims, how a nation who believes in oneness of God lives mutually with a nation who believes in multiplicity of God. There was an infinite gulf of ideas between Hindus and Muslims, which could not be bridged.
Ideology does play a crucial or fundamental role in any nation’s emerging. Pakistan is the best demonstration of it. History shows us another example in the form of Israel state. She also came into being on the Jewish ideology. There are other instances which confirm that ideology has the strength to be proved itself, whether it based on religious, economic, political, social or ethnical ideas. Such as the root cause of the major ideology of Communism/Marxism (USSR/Russia nowadays) was economic one. And at the present the ideology of Capitalism (USA) is ruling over the world. Ideology is power enough that it can transform any common group of people in to the nation. It is the former that can lead or show the way to the latter to its destination. For the fulfillment of its goals nation has to be focused on its ideology.
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How do you see the different dimensions of Khilafat movement and its affects on the Muslims of Subcontinent?
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Effects on the Muslims of Subcontinent:
1. The movement gave a general awareness and created self-confidence among the Muslims.
2. It awakened their sense of political understanding.
3. They started taking parts in the nation politics and also learnt methods of protesting, arranging and holding mass meetings and fighting for their rights.
4. Educated Muslims, students and Ulemas started taking interest in politics.
5. This movement created a number of political workers who later started taking interest in politics and played an important and active role in the Pakistan movement.
6. These workers had direct contact with the masses. Now, they were able to boldly present their demands to the British Government.
The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart. Even the language they speak and the dresses they wear are entirely different.
The phenomenon of two nation theory originated with the advent of Islam in the sub-continent.
According to Quaid.e.Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah:
“The concept of two nation theory originated the day, the first Hindu converted to Muslim.”
The Muslims of South Asia believe that they are a nation in the modern sense of the word. The basis of their nationhood is neither territorial, racial, linguistic nor ethnic; rather they are a nation because they belong to the same faith, Islam. On this basis they consider it their fundamental right to be entitled to self-determination. They demanded that areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they would be enabled to order their lives in individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). They further want their state to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries.
World War II resulted in the defeat of Germany and her allies, Turkey being one of them. Sultan of Turkey was a vestige of the Ottoman Caliphs. He was a symbol of the sacred institution of khilafat which had started with Hazrat Abu Bakr as successor to the Prophet (S.A.S).
The Ottoman Empire began to dwindle since the advent of the eighteenth century. About the middle of the nineteenth century this Empire came to be called “the sick man of Europe”. Now with her total defeat in 1918, things took a horrible turn. Allies looked bent upon dismembering her to the extent of extinction. It agitated the soul of the Muslim Ummah, in particular the Muslims of the Sub-continent. They, although themselves, were the British Slaves yet determined to do all they could for the preservation of Turkish Sovereignty which meant saving the symbol of khilafat-i-Islam. Khilafat, though, had lost its effect as a political force yet it served as a spiritual rallying point for the Ummah, at least for the majority of the Sunnis. The Muslim leaders of the Sub-continent who almost all of them belonged to the Muslim League, brought about an organization in 1919, for the protection of Ottoman Caliphate which later on came to be known as the “Khilafat Committee”. Main purpose of this organization was to launch a forceful mass movement to pressurize the British Rulers so as to soften their attitude in respect of their dealings with the Khalifa. Thus Maulana Muhammad All and his elder brother Maulana Shaukat Ali helped by Hakim Ajmal Khan, Dr. Ansari, Maulana Zafar All Khan, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, and other began to deliver speeches in favor of the Turkish Sultan. There speeches and they stirred the soul of Muslims in all parts of the country.
The Jamiat-ul-Ulama Hind issued a Fatwa of Tark-e-Mawalat. The following points were included in it:
1. Renunciation of all Government titles.
2. Boycott of legislature and court.
3. Withdrawal of student’s from educational institutions.
4. Resignation from government posts.
5. General civil disobedience.
As a result of this proclamation of fatwa, hundreds of thousands people returned the titles and stopped sending their children to government schools and colleges. All those highly educated young men who could have rose to high government positions bade farewell to their bright future and accepted ordinary jobs in the private sector. The vacuum created in government offices was joyfully filled in by Hindus, while the Muslim government employees willingly accepted starvation for the sake of the Muslim cause.