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Assignment

Fall 2014

Assignment # 02 Total Marks: (10+5)

Due Date: 17-02-2015

Objectives:

To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject.

Instructions

Late assignments will not be accepted.
If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.
Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and to express it in your own words will be encouraged.
If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action.
No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman.

Guideline:

Try to be genuine and impressive in your approach.

Assignment:

Critically evaluate the various political priorities adopted by General Pervaiz Musharraf and his different policy measures adopted for the restoration of democracy in the country. (500 words) Marks 10

Compare and contrast the powers of the president under 1962 & 1973 constitutions. (300 words) Marks 5
Please discuss Your point here

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Assignment

Fall 2014

Assignment # 02 Total Marks: (10+5)

Due Date: 17-02-2015

Objectives:

To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject.

Instructions

Late assignments will not be accepted.
If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.
Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and to express it in your own words will be encouraged.
If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action.
No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman.

Guideline:

Try to be genuine and impressive in your approach.

Assignment:

Critically evaluate the various political priorities adopted by General Pervaiz Musharraf and his different policy measures adopted for the restoration of democracy in the country. (500 words) Marks 10

Compare and contrast the powers of the president under 1962 & 1973 constitutions. (300 words) Marks 5
Please discuss Your point here

Please Discuss here about this assignment.Thanks

Our main purpose here discussion not just Solution

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Question no.2:

Compare and contrast the powers of the president under 1962 & 1973 constitutions.

Solution:

Power of President under 1962 constitution.

Power of President Under1973 constitution.

President was the head of the government.

President was the focal point of all the executive, legislative, and judicial power.

All key appointments were to be made by president.

He could issue ordinances.

The president exercised the veto power in the legislative affairs and could even veto a bill passed by the National Assembly with a two-third majority. He had the power to issue ordinances when the assembly was not in session. The ordinance needed the approval of the National Assembly within 48 days of its first meeting or 108 days after its promulgation. However, if the president informed emergency in the country, which according to the constitution was within his jurisdiction, then the ordinance needed no approval from the legislative body.

The president had the power to dissolve the national assembly.

President was the head of country.

President must act on the advice of PM.

All his orders were to be countersigned by PM.

The PM shall keep the president informed on all matters of internal and foreign policy and on all legislative proposals the federal Government intends to bring before Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament).

In 1985, powers of the President were increased. He enjoyed some discretion in appointments of PM.

He had power to dissolve the NA.

He had the powers of appointment of caretaker PM.

He gives his assent to bills passed by the parliament or returns these.

 

To conclude I can say that both of the constitution were different in nature. However there were some similarities between these constitutions too.

• Critically evaluate the various political priorities adopted by General Pervaiz Musharraf and his different policy measures adopted for the restoration of democracy in the country. (500 words) 

Political Priorities:
• Reconstruct nationwide self-assurance and self-esteem;
• Reinforcement confederation;
• Eliminate bury regional dissonance;
• Bring back countrywide consistency;
• Revitalization of the financial system and restitution of investor’s poise;
• Getting better commandment and charge state of affairs and indulgence of impartiality;
• Depoliticise the circumstances institutions and decentralization of authority;
• Speedy and transversely the slat responsibility.
General Musharraf planned the subsequent policies to accomplish these goals:
• responsibility and homecoming of looted assets of the country;
• restoration of the financial system all the way through escalating overseas replace raw materials and plummeting intercontinental arrears lumber during rearrangement;
• Poverty Reduction and social uplift.
General Musharraf introduced innovative narrow Bodies structure, handing over of supremacy to the District Government.
In the process of homecoming to self-governing association he imaginary:
1. Referendum, April 2002.
2. Introduced Legal Framework Order (LFO).
3. Alleged General Elections of nationalized and unsophisticated Assemblies on 10th Oct 2002.
4. Revitalization of the instrument of government.
5. Inhabitant Governments twisted in the provinces and the core.


• The 1st political precedence of the armed was rebuilt nationwide buoyancy and drive.

• Intensification of alliance in Pakistan.
• Elimination of inter-provincial dissonance or abandon that is to transport provinces more rapidly to every one other.

• Re-establishment of general consistency.

• Revitalization of cost-cutting measure and reinstallation of investor’s self-reliance.

• NO 1 humanizing of commandment and organize state of affairs and indulgence of righteousness.

• Depoliticisation of state institutions and decentralization of power.

• Preamble of a classification of responsibility which is speedy and crosswise board.

Custody in sight these main beliefs the government of General Musharraf perused dissimilar policies and adopted poles apart events, some of the policies included a variety of ladder to deal with the crisis of deficiency and beneath expansion. In adding in concert to this subsequent to Sep, 11, 2001 Pakistan government also played a significant role in containing in Pakistan and exterior of Pakistan. It became part of the comprehensive endeavor to control violence and then this role won positive reception at the international level

Achievements of President Musharraf:

Ø Monetary Achievements
Ø General:
For the duration of his years in authority, Pakistan pursued steady and constructive policies of liberalization, deregulation and privatization.

Financial upturn, institutional reforms and high-quality governance were our affirmed priorities.
For financially viable recuperation, the Government pursues a bilateral tactic of ensuring macro-economic steadiness and introducing structural reforms for self-sustainable enlargement.

As a consequence, the financial system had long-drawn-out at a standard rate of 7% per annum during the preceding four years. Its increase touched a evidence height of 9% in 2004-05.

Augmentation of bulky weighing machine developed which was 3.6% during 1999-00, registered a regular boost of 11.31 % per annum for the duration of the phase from 2000-07. Growth of this zone was maximum in 2004-05 i.e. 19.9%.

Exchange rate remained unwavering regardless of widening of do business and in progress explanation deficits, obviously representative physically powerful inflows of outside possessions.

Distant trade coffers have crossed US$ 16 billion scratch and the amplified treasury cans now investment more than 31 weeks of imports aligned with only 10 weeks in 1998-99.
Per capita profits had greater than before from $ 526 (1999-00) to $925 (2006-07)

• Compare and contrast the powers of the president under 1962 & 1973 constitutions. 

Ø Highest legal committee:
Constitutions of 1962 introduced a new organization highest official commission.
There was no such establishment in the constitution of 1956.
Ø
Supervisory Powers:
Most of the decision-making powers vested in the president beneath the 1962 constitution.
The majority of the administrative powers were exercised by the prime minister under the constitution of 1962.
Ø Presidential Powers:
underneath the constitution of 1962 president had enormous influence.
In the constitution of 1956 the powers were realistic.
Ø Conclusion:
To terminate I can declare that in cooperation of the structure were dissimilar in natural world. The constitution of 1956 introduced parliamentary from of Govt. while constitution of 1962 introduced presidential form of Govt. However there were some similarities among these constitutions too.

Ø Features of 1962:
Presidential Form of Government: 
The constitution of 1962 provides presidential form of Government in the country.
Principles of Policy:
The principles of policy were integrated it constitution 1962.

Ø
(xvii) National Language:
Urdu and Bangle were affirmed two countrywide languages of Pakistan.

Ø
(xviii) Elimination of non-Islamic practice:
All those practices which were contrary to Islamic teaching such as betting, prostitution, pressure and falseness would be eliminated from the civilization.


Ø
4. Conclusion:
To conclusion I can say that; the constitution of 1962 introduced a very significant change in the governmental system of Pakistan. it had provide presidential form Govt. the method of election was circumlocutory. It adopted principles of policy but this constitution was botched because it was against the requirements of the people.

Ø Features of Constitution 1973:
Constitution of Pakistan 1973 is a written constitution. It comprises of 280 Articles. It also contains 6 schedules, which has been alienated into 12 parts.

Ø Rigid Constitution
The constitution of Pakistan 1973 is unbending because alteration method is not easy. This constitution provides that 2/3 majority of votes of members National Assembly and Senate, and assent of President of Pakistan are necessary for its amendment.

Ø State Religion
The constitution of Pakistan 1973 announces that Islam would be state religion.

Ø National Language and Official Language
In accordance with Article 251 of the present constitution Urdu has been declared as National Language of Pakistan but the official language is English.

Ø Federal Form of Government
Constitution of Pakistan 1973 provide federal form of government consisting of four provinces of the central government of Pakistan.
Ø Parliamentary form of Government
Parliamentary form of government has been provided for the government in the constitution.

Ø Direct Elections
Constitution of Pakistan 1973 has provided method of direct elections to elect members of National Assembly and Provincial Assembly.

Ø Bi-Cameral Legislature
The Federal Legislature is bi-cameral consisting two houses. Senate (upper house) and National Assembly (lower House).

Ø Preamble
Preamble means an introductory part of statue; it is not the part of the constitution. It is stated in it than sovereignty over entire universe belongs to Almighty Allah.

Ø Holding of Referendum
the president of Pakistan is official to organize for investment a referendum on any problem of national meaning.

Ø Single citizenship
the constitution of Pakistan 1973 provides single citizenship.

Ø Independence of Judiciary
an Independent Judiciary has been provided in 1973 constitution. Judiciary safeguards the fundamental rights of the people of Pakistan.


Ø Rights of Minorities
Rights of Minorities have been protected in the 1973 constitution.

Ø High Treason
The abrogation of the constitution through unauthorized means is high sedition. It cannot be abrogated by the use of force.

Ø Final Analysis
To conclude that the 1973 constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan is an elected state, parliamentary with bicameral legislature in its nature. It is the constitution of elected people. All major political parties of Pakistan unanimously accepted it. Minorities also have safeguard and fundamental rights in such constitution.
The 1973 constitution of Pakistan was adopted on April 12, 1973. This constitution fully represents the philosophy and independent objective of the people of Pakistan and formation is the supreme law of the land and it is considered as an instrument by which a Government can be run. It replaces the basic laws of the state. It decide the attributes of the government and unfashionable Govt. in constitution is federal cum parliamentary in its characteristics. The constitution of Pakistan is based on principle of tracheotomy of power. It is a social contract which binds people, society and a state to act within the framework of the constitution.

Qno 2:Idea

Supreme judicial council:

Constitutions of 1962 introduced a new institution supreme judicial council.
There was no such institution in the constitution of 1956.


Executive Powers:
Most of the executive powers vested in the president under the 1962 constitution.
Most of the executive powers were exercised by the prime minister under the constitution of 1962.

Presidential Powers:
Under the constitution of 19622 president had great power.
In the constitution of 1956 the powers were reasonable.

Conclusion:
To conclude I can say that both of the constitution were different in nature. the constitution of 1956 introduced parliamentary from of Govt. while constitution of 1962 introduced presidential form of Govt. However there were some similarities between these constitutions too.

Features of 1962:

Presidential Form of Government:
The constitution of 1962 provide presidential form of Government in the country.

Principles of Policy:
The principles of policy were incorporated int constitution 1962.


(xvii) National Language:
Urdu and Bangle were declared two national languages of Pakistan.


(xviii) Elimination of non-Islamic practice:
All those practices which were contrary to Islamic teaching such as gambling, prostitution, intimidation and adultery would be eliminated from the society.


4. Conclusion:

To conclude I can say that; the constitution of 1962 introduced a very important change in the governmental system of Pakistan. it had provide presidential form Govt. the method of election was indirect. it adopted principles of policy but this constitution was failed because it was against the wishes of the people.

Features of Constitution 1973:

Constitution of Pakistan 1973 is a written constitution. It comprises of 280 Articles. It also contains 6 schedules, which has been divided into 12 parts.

Rigid Constitution
The constitution of Pakistan 1973 is rigid because amendment procedure is not easy. This constitution provides that 2/3 majority of votes of members National Assembly and Senate, and assent of President of Pakistan are necessary for its amendment.

State Religion
The constitution of Pakistan 1973 announces that Islam would be state religion.

National Language and Official Language
In accordance with Article 251 of the present constitution Urdu has been declared as National Language of Pakistan but the official language is English.

Federal Form of Government
Constitution of Pakistan 1973 provide federal form of government consisting of four provinces of the central government of Pakistan.

Parliamentary form of Government
Parliamentary form of government has been provided for the government in the constitution.

Direct Elections
Constitution of Pakistan 1973 has provided method of direct elections to elect members of National Assembly and Provincial Assembly.

Bi-Cameral Legislature
The Federal Legislature is bi-cameral consisting two houses. Senate (upper house) and National Assembly (lower House).

Preamble
Preamble means an introductory part of statue; it is not the part of the constitution. It is stated in it than sovereignty over entire universe belongs to Almighty Allah.

Holding of Referendum
The president of Pakistan is authorized to order for holding a referendum on any issue of national importance.

Single citizenship
The constitution of Pakistan 1973 provides single citizenship.

Independence of Judiciary
An Independent Judiciary has been provided in 1973 constitution. Judiciary safeguards the fundamental rights of the people of Pakistan.

Rights of Minorities
Rights of Minorities have been protected in the 1973 constitution.

High Treason
The abrogation of the constitution through unconstitutional means is high treason. It cannot be abrogated by the use of force.

Final Analysis
To conclude that the 1973 constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a democratic state, parliamentary with bicameral legislature in its nature. It is the constitution of elected people. All major political parties of Pakistan unanimously accepted it. Minorities also have safeguard and fundamental rights in such constitution.

The 1973 constitution of Pakistan was adopted on April 12, 1973. This constitution fully represents the ideology and democratic aspiration of the people of Pakistan and constitution is the supreme law of the land and it is considered as an instrument by which a Government can be run. It replaces the basic laws of the state. it decides the attributes of the government and provincial Govt. in constitution is federal cum parliamentary in its characteristics. The constitution of Pakistan is based on principle of tracheotomy of power. It is a social contract which binds people, society and a state to act within the framework of the constitution.

achievements of President Musharraf :

Economic Achievements

General:

During his years in power, Pakistan pursued consistent and favourable policies of liberalization, deregulation and privatization.


Economic recovery, institutional reforms and good governance were our declared priorities.
For economic recovery, the Government pursued a two-pronged strategy of ensuring macro-economic stability and introducing structural reforms for self-sustainable growth.


As a result, the economy had expanded at an average rate of 7% per annum during the last four years. Its growth touched a record level of 9% in 2004-05.


Growth of large scale manufacturing which was 3.6% during 1999-00, registered an average increase of 11.31 % per annum during the period from 2000-07. Growth of this sector was highest in 2004-05 i.e. 19.9%.


Exchange rate remained stable despite widening of trade and current account deficits, clearly indicating strong inflows of external resources.


Foreign Exchange reserves have crossed US$ 16 billion mark and the increased reserves can now finance more than 31 weeks of imports against only 10 weeks in 1998-99.
Per capita income had increased from $ 526 (1999-00) to $925 (2006-07)

UESTION 2: Compare and contrast the powers of the president under 1962 & 1973 constitutions. (300 words) Marks 5 ANSWER:

Constitution 1962

The powers of the president:

President was the focal point of all the executive, legislative and judicial powers. Cabinet was responsible to him. All key appointment was to be made by president. He could issue ordinances. He could also declare state emergency in the country.

Constitution 1973

The powers of the president:

Mast be at least 45 year of age, Muslim, qualified to become member of the NA. He is elected by the parliament and the provincial assemblies for 5 year.

Question 2. Comparison of the powers of the President under 1962 & 1973 constitutions.

Supreme Judicial Council:

Executive Powers:

Presidential Powers:

Conclusion:

Features of Constitution 1962:

Principles of Policy:

National Language: 
Elimination of non-Islamic practice: .

Features of Constitution 1973:

Rigid Constitution

State Religion .

National Language & Official Language

Federal Form of Government

Parliamentary form of Government

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