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PAK301 - GDB No. 01 Discussion 2014 Open Date: January 27, 2014 & Close Date: January 28, 2014

Dear students,

 

All the students are informed that they will post their comments on GDB link. Comments for GDB sent via email or posted on regular MDB will not be accepted. 

 

Graded MDB for Pak301 will be opened on January 27, 2014 and will remain open till January, 28, 2014. The topic of this GDB will be,

 

"What are the various causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan”? 

 

Post your comments after inferring the above topic. Your comments should NOT exceed from 100 to 120 words.

 

 Read the instructions carefully before sending your comments:

 

1. Graded MDB carries 5% weightage.

 

2. Your comments should be relevant to the topic i.e. clear and concise.

 

3. Post your comments on the GDB, not on the Regular MDB. Both will run in parallel during the time specified above.

 

4. Do not copy the comments of other Students, as no marks will be awarded for Plagiarism.

5. Do not copy from internet or any other website, and try to create in your own words.

 

6. Comments sent via e-mail or posted on regular MDB will not be graded.

 

7. Don’t send your comments twice.

Views: 1111

Replies to This Discussion

Please Discuss here about this GDB.Thanks

Our main purpose here discussion not just Solution

We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning and do not appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions.

ap ny soklution tu diya nahiiii

Dear Students Don’t wait for solution post your problems here and discuss ... after discussion a perfect solution will come in a result. So, Start it now, replies here give your comments according to your knowledge and understandings....

Pakistan came into being before 60 year almost but still endeavoring to develop the institution of politics in its society. The founding father of this country, Mr. Jinnah, achieved this country democratically and constitutionally. Unfortunately destiny did not give enough time to him to draw the socio – economic, religious and political map of newly born state. During early 21 years of its life - 1947 to 1969 - Pakistan was governed by civil – military bureucracy under oligarchic and authoritarian traditions.This was first chapter of dictatorship.Second and third one were during 1979 to 1988 and 1999 to 2007 under military dictators.First democratic election held in 1970 and a uninanimous constitution was passed by parliament in 1973 in which, democratic parliamentary government system was introduced.So here started first democratic phase (1970 – 1979) under the inspiring leadership of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. Second and third phases of democracy were between 1988 to 1999 and 2007 to the present date. So
democratic era in Pakistan is almost 24 years. During this time, elected leaders proved themselves as a comprehensive failure and they were and they are failed to deliver to the public. Why democratic traditions are not developed in Pakistan up till now? What were and what are the major causes behind failure of democracy here? Now I will explain it. Causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan lies in our socio - political system. Feudalism, illiterate and apathetic people, self – imposed leaders and inherited politics are a few salient features of this system. It's a feudal state where we are living and most of our political leaders are just feudal lords and they and have assumed and established their identity as political leaders. Feudalism has been leading towards the traditions of inherited politics as well in this country. In this feudal culture, millions of people are landless and illiterate peasants and their social status is not more than a slave. In addition to this, such landless peasants community is living in acute poverty. Auctoritas of this community is not even accordance with the minimum standards of human rights. How can such impoverished, deprived and economically marginalized peasants community can express their will freely in a democratic process? The essence of democracy lies in the general will of the public. So during election, such community is supposed to express the will of the feudal lords. May be due to their lack of knowledge or the fear of the landlord, landless peasants do so.In such circumstances, can we expect from landless rural peasants that they are able to evaluate the credibility of their so – called leaders and the manifesto of political parties before voting? I don't think so they are able to do this. Almost 70% population of Pakistan leading life in such feudal and rural traditions. Consequently, general election becomes a selection of a few based upon the will of a few who are powerful and leading a privileged life. In this way, democracy has been reduced to oligarchy and aristocracy in our country. In our democratic set up, our elected leaders even visit their constituencies for a for a few times as they have no any concern with the welfare of the deprived communities. As a result, firstly they don't want to know about community problems at grass root level and secondly, they are unable to find out solutions of them. So far as illiteracy is concerned, it is also a major root cause behind the failure of democracy in Pakistan. Literacy is the very first and the most important pre – requisite for democracy. Accordingly the Census of 1998, literacy rate of Pakistan was 43.92%.and literacy rate among rural community of Pakistan was 33.64% in 1998. But these are official and manipulated statistics which are unable to paint the real picture of our population. Actual literacy rate is even below than these figures particularly in rural areas. So maximum part of our population is still suffering in the vicious cycle of illiteracy and they are unable to contribute anything towards the development of Pakistan. Illiteracy also leads to poverty. An illiterate and economically impoverished community has only concern with bread and butter and they cannot comprehend and follow the true spirit of democracy. As a result, such community gives guns in the hands of monkeys by electing irrelevant persons who are not competent enough to cope with the contemporary national and international challenges. On the other hand, our leaders are always busy in pillaging the national resources and throwing dust into eyes of ignorant and slave people. Another beautiful manifestation of illiteracy is that most of our politicians contest election on the base of fake degrees. In such morally corrupt and illiterate nation, how democracy can flourish and become functional here? I discussed two major causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan. So far as current democratic government is concerned, it has been failed comprehensively to deliver as well. Democracy is here now but in a failed and a flopped form. It has become just a slogan of exploitation in Pakistan and nothing else. A democratic government is required to do provide justice, social welfare and security to the public. But in the present setupgovernment has not perceived or made any such integrated package for the nation. On the other hand, corruption and embezzlement are in full swing now. There is no security for the citizens and people are being killed like rats on the name of target killing.Suicide due to poverty and unemployment has become so common now. Now in 2011, in Pakistan, maximum population comprising youth. But there is no jobs and employment for them and they are being underutilized. The sovereignty of our country and land has been simply auctioned to the Uncle Sam and Pakistan has been reduced to a colony of Ammerica. In such a way, all the state departments and institutions have been failed from bottom to top. When Pakistani public is fed up with the governance of corrupt democratic government, then sometimes they propagate that there was enough prosperity during previous military regimes and there is no doubt, military coups of the past were the consequence of failed democratic governments.But issue is that our democratic rulers are not divine and we as a nation elect them. How we can challenge their aunthticity? Yes we cannot and they are our representatives. When general public will be socially impoverished, deprived and illiterate, it will produce incompetent, opportunist and corrupt leadership. Such leaders just exploit people and they secure their vote bank on the name of democracy. Our leaders assert that they are for the people but actually, they entertain their vested interest only. Provision of social welfare, education and justice is not their priorities. The priorities of our gluttonous leadership are to secure Swiss Bank Accounts, flats in London and Saray Mahal only. Unfortunately such attitude has become modus operandi of our politicians. At the end, I want to give some recommendations and accoutrements which are inevitable to make democracy a successful saga in Pakistan and to strengthen the fraternity of the nation in general. Sweatshops of feudalism should be closed and traditions of inherited politics must be abolished. Education and social liberty should be given to the all nation in general and to the rural community in particular. There should be social equality, justice and rule of law across the country.

Irrespective of their social status and level of wealth, all the citizens should be considered equally accountable of their deeds. Youth must be promoted and young, energetic and educated people should be encouraged in every sphere of life. When our nation will be literate and social freedom will be there, then genuine and competent leadership will emerge from bottom of our society and it will focus on the social welfare and security of general public and sovereignty of our land. A successful execution of all these pragmatic measures may can lead towards a strong democratic Pakistan in true sense and this task is not insurmountable. Otherwise game of Chess between politicians and Military will continue as it was in the past.

mashallah yeah apkay 100 sy 120 words hain???

apkay sadkay na jaoun main ?

Executive Summary – Pakistan has been in quest for stable democratic system from its very inception.The process of its democratization has been slow and passive. Its nature has remained fragile. It has been showing high vulnerability towards non democratic interventions. Besides, it has been easily falling prey to non civilian forces. As a result, Pakistan has been continuously failing to offer what a democracy promises. Such pathetic scenario has various reasons behind it at all three levels: State, government and society.

This Essay attempts to pin point and analyze the reasons behind such fragile and weak nature of democracy in Pakistan and extends recommendations along with identifying various means and players especially youth for strengthening democratic process in Pakistan to make it promising and delivering.

Introduction. – From very its start, Pakistan has choiced democratic form of government for itself. Its founders had ardently supported and emphasized for democratic system that could ideally permeate the governance structure and body politic of Pakistan; Quaid Azam Muhammd Ali Jinnah’s speech at the Staff College on June 14, 1948 is the witness of his staunch support for democracy as corresponding structure for the polity of Pakistan to make it people friendly and welfare state. However, it is an other fact that Quaid Azam Muhammd Ali Jinnah himself laid the foundation of non-democratic trends through centralizing structure of Muslim Leauge, dissolving non democratically Sindh Assembly and Ministry of Khan Sahab in NWFP in 1948 . Despite all this, what he choiced and dreamt for Pakistan about system is undoubtedly democracy. But unfortunately being constitutionally a democratic country, Pakistan entirely fails to offer what constitutional democracies offer viz, sovereign parliament, free, fair and regular elections, supremacy of constitution, independent Judiciary, rule of law, civilian control over the armed forces, political life free from military involvement, safety to minority rights, provision of basic human needs and guarantee of freedoms of movement, expression, association and assembly.

Contrary to dreams ,hopes and promises ,What Pakistan offers is the chequered history of democracy and unstable democratic process.Ironically, the country’s constitution has been abrogated twice (1958 and 1969) and suspended thrice (1977, 1999 and 2007) .More than half of its political life has been encroached by military generals. Five elected governments have been removed by army.Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the founder of political vibrancy, mass based politics and giver of Atomic power to Pakistan was ruthlessly executed through judicial murder.Ex-prime ministers, and Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto were exiled.

Causes: Nothing exists without any reason in universe; creation of everything carries reason with itself. More ever, According to principle of “Cause and Effect” unless the root causes of any problem are not accurately identified and thoroughly diagnosed, problem can’t be solved on sustainable basis. Therefore, let’s find and discuss the causes behind such weak, vulnerable and dented face and status of democracy in Pakistan and try to reach at workable solutions.

Colonial Inheritances and Institutional Imbalance.

From time of its very creation, Pakistan has been experiencing institutional imbalance. Its roots go back to British period. Pakistan inherited administrative, political and legal legacies of British period .From political and adminstrative legacies point of view, Pakistan inherited high institutional imbalance characterized with strong and organized civil and military bureaucracies, weak1 Political institutions and non-democratic political parties. As a result, it lacked strong, dynamic and sustainable political institutions which could hold regular elections based on universal franchise, could build trust of masses into democracy, could protect democratic process against constitutional transgression and could provide a conducive environment for democracy to flourish and could correspond to desires and aspirations of masses.

Muslim Leauge which is credited to creation of Pakistan was a movement not a well-structured and deeply rooted political entity2 that could offer post partition program, could counter the power of army and bureaucracy and could offer corresponding structure to desires and needs of masses after the partition. Besides, League was non democratic in its nature led by elitists3.Consequently, It could not produce first line aswell second line leadership embedded with love for democratic norms and values in particular and overall democratic culture in general .

In this backdrop, administrative supremacy coupled with absence of elections based on universal franchise4 in particular and lack of democratic culture and process in general facilitated bureaucrats to rein the country from 1947 to 1958. Their periods is characterized with dummy and rubber stamped parliaments, abrupt and non democratic dissolutions of assemblies, political intrigues, bickering and quarrelling, inefficiency, abrupt and fast changes of regimes.

Frequent intervention of Non civilian forces into political domain.

Failure of bureaucratic regimes created space for army which was more organized than even civilian bureaucracies to intervene into political domain of country .formal involvement of army into civilian matters begun from marshalaw in Lahore in 1953 to control the riots between Ahmedis and Sunnies. Thereafter from 1958 army has ruled the country with short sighs, as short as of new born baby, of so called democratic regimes. Field Marshal law Ayoub Khan ruled the country from 1958 to 1969, General Yahya Khan from 1969 to 1971, General Ziaul Haq from 1977 to 1989, General Pervez Musharraf from 1999 to 20085.

All four military regimes have remained characterized with impositions of Marshallaw, ban on political parties, censorship on media, dissolution of assemblies and abrogation or suspension of constitutions. Thus, they destroyed political institutions and frustrated the forces viz media, political parties that support and channelize consolidation of democracy.

Weak Party System.

One among the major forces which counter the military interventions into political domain and extra constitutional steps are genuine political parties with mass based support. But unfortunately Pakistan has been lacking strong and efficient party system which is very vital ingredient of Democracy. Democracy can neither exist nor can consolidate its process without strong, vibrant, vigilant and efficient political parties.

Political parties play indispensible role in strengthening democracy in various ways. Parties translate various values and aspects of democracy into reality; they work to institutionalize the diversity of opinions, the beauty of democracy; translate ideological strength of masses into organizational shape; work as channel to elect representatives; serve as mean whereby power is peacefully transformed; serve as platform to mobilize, sensitize and educate public and stand as bridge between public and government. In order to do all these tasks in letter and spirit, Political parties need to be systematically networked, deeply rooted into masses and internally democratic and operationally efficient, immune to internal divisions, sustaining worst times and outliving the death of its founder(s).

But, unfortunately Party system in Pakistan has remained very weak. Resultantly, it has created space for nonpolitical forces to emerge into political arena. It is proven fact that, apart from other reasons behind the overt and covert rule of dictators in Pakistan, absence of strong party system has remained one of the potent causes. Such non democratic orientation of political parties has weakened the culture of competition, bred nepotism and created incompetency which has obstructed the democratic process of parties’ aswell country.

Non Democratic Social structure

The nature and structure of society translates itself into nature and structure of political institutions. Political institutions don’t emerge in vaccum; they are expression of social institutions. Political and societal compositions interplay and influence each an other. That is why; it is said that democracy is not external but internal Phenomenon6. You cannot plant it like an artificial tree but can set up it through a particular process of democratization. Social structure of Pakistan is by and large feudal. From very its pre partition time , Two forces viz British rulers and Muslim Leuage,ironically who claimed and still claims champion of democracy ,have supported consolidation of feudal structure in the regions which constitute present Pakistan7.

Feudalism and democracy are two quite controversial norms: Feuldlism is driven by principles of one person show, oppression, bondage, slavery. Whereas democracy is driven by principles of participation, peace, equality, pluralism and freedom. Owing to this, the nature of parliaments and political parties has remained non democratic in Pakistan. Pakistan has been remaining at the mercy of either these feudal politicians or military generals.

One among the reasons which has made India to emerge as democratic polity is that it has abolished feudalism from very its inception. But Muslim Leauge perpetuated and consolidated this system because it was party of feudal itself where as Congress owing to its class question orientation has been anti feudalism.

Post partition history of Pakistan is marked with some initiatives taken for land reforms to loose the grip of feudalism.Ayoub then President and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto then prime introduced the reforms. But the reforms introduced by both were ineffective, secondary in their nature and devoid of genuine intent8.

Such feudal structure of society of Pakistan has been obstructing democratic process into various ways. It has translated non democratic trends into political culture. Secondly, it has impeded development of participatory culture. Thirdly, it has formed elitist orientations of politics. Fourthly, it has impeded Bourgeoisie middle class which is support mechanism to democracy .Lastly; it has been obstructing free and independent choice of public in elections which is basic and indispensable component of free elections.

Manipulation of election process.

Free and fair elections are major component of representative democracy. For democracy is, in one way, name of popular government which is not possible without free and fair process of election that guarantees genuine representation of masses in Parliament. Besides, Elections are the source of peaceful regime change. People resort to violent means of change if elections can’t represent their aspirations, needs, and fails to offer them due and fair space. In this regard, Pakistan has dismal image to show. All the general elections except of 1971 and 2006 to some extent, have been manipulated in one or other way either at pre, during or post phase of the elections.

The manipulation has been worstly demonstrated into form of political victimization, gerrymandering, stuffed ballot boxes, intimidation of polling staff ,pressurizing masses, use of state assets and violating rule of Election commission set for the election.Consequently, elections could not have been instrumental to determine the will of the people and have eroded trust of masses in democracy. If election could have proven to be instrumental in representing genuine will of people, the elected representatives must have elevated dignity of parliament, worked for strengthening of democracy and for welfare of masses whereby developing their trust in democracy.

Solutions/Recommendations.

The problem of democracy is solvable in Pakistan, if genuine steps are taken with cohesive and integrated approach. Let me extend few suggestions for strengthening democratic system, process and culture in Pakistan.

For state: • Feudalism should be immediately abolished to enable elections genuine instrumental of people’s wishes; to create participatory culture; to develop democratic values and to transform social stagnancies into dynamism which all together help consolidation of democratic process.

• Judiciary should be made Independent so as to enable it to ensure implementation of rule of law; to undo and stop all legal and constitutional transgressions.

• Parliament should be made sovereign. A specific channel should be launched in parliament that air proceedings to make masses aware of what is going into it. It will make legislatures serious and responsible in their conduct and will push them to chalk out people friendly policies which in turn will make governance efficient and will build trust of masses in democracy. In this way, space and need of call to army to intervene in political domain will dwindle largely.

• Supremacy of constitution should be ensured. Article six9 should be practiced in letter and spirit to check all constitutional abrogation which has been by and large affecting democratic process in Pakistan.

• Free and fair election should be ensured through independent Election Commission inorder to prevent the rigging.

• Democracy education should be incorporated in the syllabus at all levels of education to promote and create democratic values, norms and practices in youth in particular and in masses in general.

• Political party rules 2002 should be strictly implemented in order to help democratic structure and conduct of political parties.

• Funds should be allocated on the basis of membership to political parties inorder to strengthen them to work effectively for democracy.

For Political parties:

• Political Parties should develop well defined people friendly ideology, expand their organizational network, perform structurally and operationally democratic, develop strong coordination between their lower and higher tires , train their staff and impart democratic education to masse to give outlook of political entities which could generate the atmosphere of democracy within and outside of them,counter the supremacy of non political institutions ,Counter the constitutional transgression through public support mustered by restoring their trust in political parties.

For civil Society organizations.

Civil society organization should

• Impart democracy education to general maseess, youth, political workers media persons and writers ;

• enhance capacity of political parties and other stake holders inorder to make them vigilant, vibrant and responsive towards question and issue of democracy;

• impart liberal ,progressive and political education to masses inorder to create political society to create conducive atmosphere for democracy;

• lobby with the lawmakers to pursue them to take concrete initiatives for consolidation of democracy such as incorporation of democracy education in syllabus, allocation of funds for political parties etc;

• launch advocacy programs to highlight non democratic trends and actions;

• launch capacity building programs for youth to inculcate love for politics and democracy into them

For youth.

Youth is the most significant part of any human society. They have played indispensible role in emancipation of human being .With fresh and hot blood, youth is always inclined towards activism, dynamism, change, and novelty. Populations of Pakistan constitute almost 35 percent of youth. Therefore, they also share the onus of enhancing democracy in Pakistan. Their indifferent attitude towards democracy in particular and towards politics in general will counter product rather produce constructively for consolidation of democracy. Therefore, youth of Pakistan should

• join political parties after academic education because what execute plans for democracy most effectively are political parties ;

• should raise the issue and question of democracy in print and electronic media;

• impart democracy education into their constituencies;

• register their votes and take active part in election process;

• join national and international youth organizations which work for democracy.

Conclusion.

Short analysis reveals that Pakistan has been badly experiencing chequered history of democracy. Weak political institutions, frequent military interventions, frequent dissolution of civilian governments, Engineered and flawed election process, weak party system, lack of constitutionalism and lack of rule of laws has been obstructing way for promotion of genuine democracy in Pakistan which would be characterized with sovereign parliament, free, fair and regular elections, supremacy of constitution, independent Judiciary, rule of law, civilian control over the armed forces, political life free from military involvement, safety to minority rights, provision of basic human needs and guarantee of freedom of movement, expression, association and assembly. In this backdrop,Onus lies on State institutions, political parties, civil society organizations and youth to play part of their role as enumerated in recommendations given above to create space for democracy to entrench itself firmly in Pakistan as it could be delivering and substantial.

References and Notes

.Von Bettina Robotka writes in “The Dilemma of Democracy in Pakistan “that “The weakness of the political institutions in Pakistan is – together with the pre-modern, feudal and tribal socio-economic structures – one of the major reasons for the weakness of Pakistani democracy”

2. Nasim Yousif writes in “Why democracy failed in Pakistan” That From the very beginning, the Muslim League lacked some Of the most fundamental tenets of a well-structured political organization: (i) a genuine Program for the welfare of the masses, (ii) members from the public, who elect local and National leaders at regularly held intra-party elections, and (iii) a grassroots following”

3. Nasim Yousif quotes in same article that “Barrister Aftab Iqbal (son of Allama Iqbal) would write, the League was controlled by “a few half educated, selfish and ambitious Nawabs and Muslim capitalists from Muslim minority provinces under the leadership of Mr.Jinnah… [who exploited] the ignorance and poverty of the Muslim masses” (The Tribune, Lahore, July 25, 1946)” “According to The Tribune of September 11, 1941, “Huq stated…[that the] principles of democracy and autonomy in the All-India Muslim League were being subordinated ‘to the arbitrary wishes of a single individual [Quaid-e-Azam].”

4. First general election based on Universal franchise was held in 1971in Pakistan.

5. Source: Time line of Pakistan History

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of...ni_history

6. Feudal Ramos in an interview with News Week has beautifully said “To establish democratic institutions, democratically oriented people and overall culture of democracy and rule of law is very difficult if efforts are coming from outside. It is more enduringly established if it is coming from among the people.”

7.Ishtiaq Ahmed writes in Daily Times on 30 June 2002 that After the British had ruthlessly crushed the 1857 uprising, they established a more stable structure of landlordism by conferring property rights on those who remained loyal to them

8. Zulfiqar Shah writes in his article “Question of land reforms in Pakistan”published in Daily Dawn on 2 February 2008 That In January 1959, General Ayoub Khan’s government issued land reform regulations that aimed ‘to boost agricultural output, promote social justice, and ensure security of tenure.’ A ceiling of about 200 hectares of irrigated land and 400 hectares of non-irrigated land was placed on individual ownership; compensation was paid to owners for land surrendered. Numerous exemptions, including title transfers to family members, dampened the impact of the ceilings. Slightly fewer than one million hectares of land were surrendered, of which a little more than 250,000 hectares were sold to about 50,000 tenants. The land reforms failed to lessen the power or privileges ofthelandedelite.

In March 1972, the Z. A. Bhutto government announced further land reform measures, which went into effect in 1973. The landownership ceiling was lowered to about five hectares of irrigated land and about twelve hectares of non-irrigated land; exceptions were limited to an additional 20 per cent of land for owners having tractors and tube wells. The ceiling could also be extended for poor-quality land. The owners of confiscated land received no compensation, and beneficiaries were not charged for land distributed.

9.Article six of constitution of Pakistan reads as:

(1) Any person who abrogates or attempts or conspires to abrogate, subverts or attempts or conspires to subvert the Constitution by use of force or show of force or by other unconstitutional means shall be guilty of high treason.

(2) Any person aiding or abetting the acts mentioned in clause (1) shall likewise be guilty of high treason.

(3) [5] [Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)] shall by law provide for the punishment of persons found guilty of high treason

100 to 120 words 

Pakistan came into being before 60
year almost but still endeavoring to
develop the institution of politics in its
society. The founding father of this
country, Mr. Jinnah, achieved this
country democratically and
constitutionally. Unfortunately destiny
did not give enough time to him to
draw the socio – economic, religious
and political map of newly born state.
During early 21 years of its life - 1947
to 1969 - Pakistan was governed by
civil – military bureucracy under
oligarchic and authoritarian traditions.
This was first chapter of dictatorship.
Second and third one were during
1979 to 1988 and 1999 to 2007
under military dictators.
First democratic election held in 1970
and a uninanimous constitution was
passed by parliament in 1973 in
which, democratic parliamentary
government system was introduced.
So here started first democratic phase
(1970 – 1979) under the inspiring
leadership of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
Second and third phases of democracy
were between 1988 to 1999 and
2007 to the present date. So
democratic era in Pakistan is almost
24 years. During this time, elected
leaders proved themselves as a
comprehensive failure and they were
and they are failed to deliver to the
public. Why democratic traditions are
not developed in Pakistan up till now?
What were and what are the major
causes behind failure of democracy
here? Now I will explain it.
Causes of failure of democracy in
Pakistan lies in our socio - political
system. Feudalism, illiterate and
apathetic people, self – imposed
leaders and inherited politics are a few
salient features of this system. It's a
feudal state where we are living and
most of our political leaders are just
feudal lords and they and have
assumed and established their identity
as political leaders. Feudalism has
been leading towards the traditions of
inherited politics as well in this
country. In this feudal culture, millions
of people are landless and illiterate
peasants and their social status is not
more than a slave. In addition to this,
such landless peasants community is
living in acute poverty. Auctoritas of
this community is not even accordance
with the minimum standards of human
rights. How can such impoverished,
deprived and economically
marginalized peasants community can
express their will freely in a
democratic process? The essence of
democracy lies in the general will of
the public. So during election, such
community is supposed to express the
will of the feudal lords. May be due to
their lack of knowledge or the fear of
the landlord, landless peasants do so.
In such circumstances, can we expect
from landless rural peasants that they
are able to evaluate the credibility of
their so – called leaders and the
manifesto of political parties before
voting? I don't think so they are able
to do this. Almost 70% population of
Pakistan leading life in such feudal and
rural traditions. Consequently, general
election becomes a selection of a few
based upon the will of a few who are
powerful and leading a privileged life.
In this way, democracy has been
reduced to oligarchy and aristocracy in
our country.
In our democratic set up, our elected
leaders even visit their constituencies
for a for a few times as they have no
any concern with the welfare of the
deprived communities. As a result,
firstly they don't want to know about
community problems at grass root
level and secondly, they are unable to
find out solutions of them.
So far as illiteracy is concerned, it is
also a major root cause behind the
failure of democracy in Pakistan.
Literacy is the very first and the most
important pre – requisite for
democracy. Accordingly the Census of
1998, literacy rate of Pakistan was
43.92%.and literacy rate among rural
community of Pakistan was 33.64% in
1998. But these are official and
manipulated statistics which are
unable to paint the real picture of our
population. Actual literacy rate is even
below than these figures particularly in
rural areas. So maximum part of our
population is still suffering in the
vicious cycle of illiteracy and they are
unable to contribute anything towards
the development of Pakistan. Illiteracy
also leads to poverty. An illiterate and
economically impoverished community
has only concern with bread and butter
and they cannot comprehend and
follow the true spirit of democracy. As
a result, such community gives guns in
the hands of monkeys by electing
irrelevant persons who are not
competent enough to cope with the
contemporary national and
international challenges. On the other
hand, our leaders are always busy in
pillaging the national resources and
throwing dust into eyes of ignorant
and slave people. Another beautiful
manifestation of illiteracy is that most
of our politicians contest election on
the base of fake degrees. In such
morally corrupt and illiterate nation,
how democracy can flourish and
become functional here?
I discussed two major causes of failure
of democracy in Pakistan. So far as
current democratic government is
concerned, it has been failed
comprehensively to deliver as well.
Democracy is here now but in a failed
and a flopped form. It has become just
a slogan of exploitation in Pakistan and
nothing else. A democratic
government is required to do provide
justice, social welfare and security to
the public. But in the present setup,
government has not perceived or
made any such integrated package for
the nation. On the other hand,
corruption and embezzlement are in
full swing now. There is no security for
the citizens and people are being killed
like rats on the name of target killing.
Suicide due to poverty and
unemployment has become so
common now. Now in 2011, in
Pakistan, maximum population
comprising youth. But there is no jobs
and employment for them and they
are being underutilized. The
sovereignty of our country and land
has been simply auctioned to the Uncle
Sam and Pakistan has been reduced to
a colony of Ammerica. In such a way,
all the state departments and
institutions have been failed from
bottom to top. When Pakistani public
is fed up with the governance of
corrupt democratic government, then
sometimes they propagate that there
was enough prosperity during previous
military regimes and there is no doubt,
military coups of the past were the
consequence of failed democratic
governments.
But issue is that our democratic rulers
are not divine and we as a nation elect
them. How we can challenge their
aunthticity? Yes we cannot and they
are our representatives. When general
public will be socially impoverished,
deprived and illiterate, it will produce
incompetent, opportunist and corrupt
leadership. Such leaders just exploit
people and they secure their vote bank
on the name of democracy. Our
leaders assert that they are for the
people but actually, they entertain
their vested interest only. Provision of
social welfare, education and justice is
not their priorities. The priorities of our
gluttonous leadership are to secure
Swiss Bank Accounts, flats in London
and Saray Mahal only. Unfortunately
such attitude has become modus
operandi of our politicians.
At the end, I want to give some
recommendations and accoutrements
which are inevitable to make
democracy a successful saga in
Pakistan and to strengthen the
fraternity of the nation in general.
Sweatshops of feudalism should be
closed and traditions of inherited
politics must be abolished. Education
and social liberty should be given to
the all nation in general and to the
rural community in particular. There
should be social equality, justice and
rule of law across the country.
Irrespective of their social status and
level of wealth, all the citizens should
be considered equally accountable of
their deeds. Youth must be promoted
and young, energetic and educated
people should be encouraged in every
sphere of life. When our nation will be
literate and social freedom will be
there, then genuine and competent
leadership will emerge from bottom of
our society and it will focus on the
social welfare and security of general
public and sovereignty of our land. A
successful execution of all these
pragmatic measures may can lead
towards a strong democratic Pakistan
in true sense and this task is not
insurmountable. Otherwise game of
Chess between politicians and Military
will continue as it was in the past.

Causes of Failure of Democracy in Pakistan

In Pakistan, democracy has been failed very time. People of Pakistan had given many chances to democracy but every time it is failed more badly. Failure of democracy in country is causing unbearable loss to the economy of country. Democracy has failed very time to facilitate people and fulfill their expectations. Democracy has failed to provide poor people of Pakistan education, health and jobs. People are deprived from all basic necessities of life. Majority of people in Pakistan are deprived of clean drinking water, they have to food to eat, no money for treatment, no facilities for education. Corrupt politicians are busy in filling their foreign bank accounts day and night. They have no concern with the people of Pakistan as their families and businesses are outside Pakistan.

People of Pakistan are facing severe electricity shortage since last 2 decades. Most of the industries, factories and businesses are closed because of electricity crisis. The labor of Pakistan is living hand to mouth life as they have no work. Politicians are failed to provide security to country, terrorism in Pakistan is at its extreme. Politicians’ fake slogans can’t win empty stomach people hearts they need jobs, education and health facilities. Public servants are acting like royal prince. Pakistani politicians are day and night wasting poor people’s tax memory to improve their life style and are adding new assets to their personal properties. Just few people take all the decisions regarding all matters. Parliament doesn’t play its role most of the decisions regarding country’s integrity and administration are taken outside the country’s parliament.

Political system is very biased and is based on Feudalism and on self imposed inherited leaders. Politician and all leading posts are the inherit property of politicians daughters and sons. Poor people can’t take part in Politics as it requires lots of money. The upper class who is holding the entire political structure is leading luxurious life. They have no problems like food, education and health. Their families live in abroad and get education form world’s reputed and expensive universities. Politicians wear branded outfits where as people have to cloth to cover their body. There is lack of sincere politicians in Pakistan who sincerely and delicately work for the progress of country and welfare of poor Pakistani people

Democracy is here in Pakistan but in a failed and a flopped form. Peoples do not have any awareness about political. Second are that mostly the leaders of political parties in Pakistan is uneducated. They play important role in the failure of democracy in our country. And the important reason is the un-effective role of political parties.  There is no security system for the citizens and people are being killed like rats on the name of target killing and in bomb blast. Political parties in our country are not well organized and effective. If one Political party takes good decision then other parties reject it. . So democracy is not successful in Pakistan.

 

I discussed two major causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan. So far as current democratic government is concerned, it has been failed comprehensively to deliver as well. Democracy is here now but in a failed and a flopped form. It has become just a slogan of exploitation in Pakistan and nothing else. A democratic government is required to do provide justice, social welfare and security to the public. But in the present setup, government has not perceived or made any such integrated package for the nation. On the other hand. Now in 2011, in Pakistan, maximum population comprising youth. But them and they are being underutilized. The sovereignty of our country and land has been simply auctioned to the Uncle Sam and Pakistan has been reduced to a colony of Ammerica. In such a way, all the state departments and institutions have been failed from bottom to top. When Pakistani public is fed up with the governance of corrupt democratic government, then sometimes they propagate that there was enough prosperity during previous military regimes and there is no doubt, military coups of the past were the consequence of failed democratic governments.

But issue is that our democratic rulers are not divine and we as a nation elect them. How we can challenge their aunthticity? Yes we cannot and they are our representatives. When general public will be socially impoverished, deprived and illiterate, it will produce incompetent, opportunist and corrupt leadership. Such leaders just exploit people and they secure their vote bank on the name of democracy. Our leaders assert that they are for the people but actually, they entertain their vested interest only. Provision of social welfare, education and justice is not their priorities. The priorities of our gluttonous leadership are to secure Swiss Bank Accounts, flats in London and Saray Mahal only. Unfortunately such attitude has become modus operandi of our politicians. 

At the end, I want to give some recommendations and accoutrements which are inevitable to make democracy a successful saga in Pakistan and to strengthen the fraternity of the nation in general. Sweatshops of feudalism should be closed and traditions of inherited politics must be abolished. Education and social liberty should be given to the all nation in general and to the rural community in particular. There should be social equality, justice and rule of law across the country. Irrespective of their social status and level of wealth, all the citizens should be considered equally accountable of their deeds. Youth must be promoted and young, energetic and educated people should be encouraged in every sphere of life. When our nation will be literate and social freedom will be there, then genuine and competent leadership will emerge from bottom of our society and it will focus on the social welfare and security of general public and sovereignty of our land. A successful execution of all these pragmatic measures may can lead towards a strong democratic Pakistan in true sense and this task is not insurmountable. Otherwise game of Chess between politicians and Military will continue as it was in the past. There exist many reasons for which the democracy has failed in developing countries, some out of them are following.

1. People are politically unsocialised, and they are not clear that whether people ruling them are righteous in ruling or not.

2. Second most important reason is that mostly the population of the developing countries is uneducated. Their literacy rate is low,

3. IIIrd. They have a big share in the establishment of democratic setup. But in developing countries political parties are unorganized people have no share in political parties. The success of political parties could be possible only because of existence of political parties could possible only because of the existence of effective and organized political parties but in developing countries political parties are not well organized and effective.

DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN

It is generally argued that democracy has failed in Pakistan and that is does not suit the genius of the people. Many authors have blamed the selfish, corrupt and incapable leadership of Pakistan for debacle of democracy. Some of the western writers, while discussing the factors responsible for the failure of democracy in Pakistan, have also alleged that Islam, which is the sheet anchor of this country, does not encourage democratic values. “Islam has not encouraged systematic opposition” writes Keith Callared. “This vision of good government possessed by many Muslims is that of a people united under a strong leader and confident in the possession of certain truth.”

The logic of the first argument that democracy does not suit the genius of the people is open to serious doubts. Certainly, there was no inherent defect in the people that blocked the growth of democracy in Pakistan. Their past history bears witness to the fact that they always supported such movements as represented their aspiration.

But after the creation of Pakistan, there was no popular movement or political party or national leadership that could project the collective will of the people their opinion was never ascertained on national issues. The political scene of the country was mostly dominated either by bureaucrat or by the politicians who had no mandate from the nation. For several years the country was ruled without a chance given to the people to participate in the affairs of the state.

If people’s participation is to be accepted as the fundamental principle of democracy, the system of government introduced in Pakistan during these years cannot be absorbed as democratic. It was a type of bureaucratic rule in which power was concentrated in the hands of the governor general, the governor and the bureaucracy. The system of government, which was gradually evolved in Pakistan, did not allow democratic institutions to flourish, nor did it impart political training to the masses.

The ideal of democracy was never challenged in Pakistan. It has rather been accepted as the final destiny of the nation. The ideology of Pakistan envisaged a democratic system of government based on the tents of Islam. The assumption that democracy has failed in Pakistan is, therefore, not justified. In fact, democracy, in the real sense of the word, was never introduced in this country. General elections to the national logic lecture were deliberately kept out of the political scene.

For them politics was nothing more than a game played by the self-seeking leaders hankering after offices. In these circumstances how could the genius of the people be tested?

There can be no disagreement on the fact that politicians, with a few honourable exceptions, were corrupt and incapable political parties were disorganized. They did not strike roots among the masses; the self-styled leaders reduced parliamentary institutions to force eventually, their intrigues, changing loyalties and floor crossing lead to the collapse of parliamentary government in Pakistan. The fact is that the bulk of these politicians were a discredited lot. If general elections had been held at regular intervals, most of these leaders would have been eliminated from form the political landscape and the rest would not have dared to repeat their performance. Thus, one cannot justifiably assume that the people have rejected democracy.

Democracy, infact, is not a form of government. It lays down broad principles such as equality, accountability justice, liberty and responsibility, for the governance of a country. Any form of government whether parliamentary or presidential, based on these principles, can be called democratic. If these principles are thrown over board by a set of leaders, the people can not be declared unfit for democracy.

As for the allegation of some western that since Islam does not encourage democratic values, and that the people of Pakistan did not inherit democratic traditions, it seems to be based on certain misconceptions and prejudice. Islam expanded the concept of on elected ruler at a time when it was impossible to visualize a system of government based on popular will. The basic characteristics of the Islamic system were election of the Head of the state, of caliph, by majority vote, equality, accountability, justice and freedom of expression. No doubt, the system was not perfect and had certain flaws, but these had to be removed gradually as all democratic practices undergo slow evolution. Thus the Islamic system degenerated in course of time and its essence and spirit disappeared. Anyway, Islam does not become a hindrance in the evolution of democracy. On the contrary, it helps the development of democratic values.

Democracy can still be nourished in Pakistan provided political institutions are allowed to flourish freely. The socio-economic conditions in India were not very different form those in Pakistan at the time of partition of the subcontinent. If the Muslim league established an undisputed rule in Pakistan, the Congress becomes the undisputed master of India. Them how is it that the parliamentary form of government has worked successfully in India, while it met a tragic fate in Pakistan? The answer to this lies in a comparative study of the leader ship in the two countries.

The factors responsible for the unsuccessful operation of parliamentary form of government in Pakistan can be traced by bringing into focus the major political developments in the last two decades.

The constituent assembly of Pakistan combined two functions in itself that is providing the country with a democratic constitution and a responsible government.

It took a long time, probably the longest, in producing a constitution which could have been produced in the earlier years. The assembly no longer derived its authority form the electorate and was therefore, not capable of resisting pressure exerted by the provincial or religious groups. “Having rendered it self unrepresentative through laps of time, the government it supported in office were not responsible governments. Control of the majority in the House was not secured through popular policies and programmes but by bestowing ministerial offices and pecuniary benefits on the members that nearly one third of the ministers between 1947 and 1954 were drawn from outside the assembly,” indicated the poverty of talent in the assembly. General character of the members is reflected by the fact that they were always anxious to secure high positions for themselves at any cost. “Sixteen of the 28 ministers becomes ambassadors, governors and over generals in the life time of the assembly, only half a dozen of them continued to be in politics, one of whom (Sardar Amir Azam Khan) had on astonishingly unbroken record of cabinet membership from the day he was made a minister in December, 1953 up to 7 October 1958, save for a brief interlude of a few months

 

Failure of Democracy in Pakistan

Democracy is a form of government in which supremacy of power is vested in the people of the voters collectively, and it is administered by them or the officers appointed by them. according to Chambers Dictionary it also means a state of society characterized by recognition of equality of right and privileges political, social and legal equality. The most accepted definition of democracy is Government of the people, for the people, and by the people (Abraham Lincoln).

Liberty, equality and fraternity are the helpmates of modern democratic political creed. Irrespective of religious belief , clime and country democracy has become a watchword and political philosophy in the free world, as opposed to dictatorship and despotic rule.

Scene its inception, the most difficult challenge Pakistan has struggled to meet has been to establish a true democratic system, which could guarantee its survival, stability and development. Unfortunately, the plant of democracy in Pakistan has not taken its roots deep enough to make the country “a durable democratic state”, despite this fact that Pakistan blossomed in the soil of democracy. Pakistan was conceived on the basis of Islam, which is democratic both in letter and spirit. It is indeed very unfortunate and a sad testimony that the plant planted by Quaid-e-Azam and watered by the blood of millions of Muslim men, women and children has not thrived in the country. In other words we have not proved worthy of the freedom achieved after immense sacrifices and constant vigilance as the price of liberty. After the sad demise of Quaid-e-Azam and Shaheed-e-Millat Liaquat Ali Khan, the spirit of freedom movement died down and selfish interests and political intrigues dominated the national scene.

Again Pakistan began as a democratic country. It is imperative to have constitution when a country. It is imperative to have constitution when a country starts fresh. Sudden and unexpected events within the body politics of Pakistan not only delayed the making of a constitution according to the needs and ideology of the country but also thwarted the process shaping the opinion in favour of democracy as a modern political necessity. The Draft Resolution was thrown into cold storage. Anyhow, the country had a Constitution in 1956 that was strangled and killed after military coup by General Ayub Khan in 1958. As no country can run without Constitution, which provides checks and imposes certain limitations, the second constitution was drawn in 1962 to give a semblance of democracy in the form of Basic Democracy and to suit the purpose of one man who was a dictator in guise of a president. Not Parliamentary but presidential form of government with wide powers was imposed on the people. It also served the seeds of regionalism and disintegration in the country. There was democracy in name only.

Experimentation in politics is always dangerous because it kills continuity of democratic convention and gives rise to instability in the country. It is only a strong constitution that is always above the ordinary law and gives stability and inspires sense of nationhood among the people. When the experiment failed, second Marshal Law was imposed in 1969. No direct elections, that are essential for healthy democratic process and to change the government according to the choice of the people, had been held in the country.

Wide based political parties are essential for running democratic government by the elected representatives of the people. The representatives should not only enjoy the support of the people or the voters but they should also be answerable before them. Otherwise democracy becomes a force. This is what happened in Pakistan. Some ambitious politicians, right hand men to the despotic rulers, rose on the political horizons and started ganging their own gait. The cloud of disintegration had already assumed dark colour. 1970 Elections were held in free atmosphere on party basis to put the country on road to democracy. What followed is the darkest chapter in the history of the country.

The country was dismembered as a result of lack of political foresight, sense of compromise and undemocratic attitude on the part of some political leaders. The war of 1971 maimed Pakistan; broken shred were put together. The breaking of the country necessitated making of a fresh constitution and the result was 1973 Constitution democracy in Pakistan.


Nothing had been provide in 1973 Constitution to secure this, though it ought to have been so to make it a lasting document. The very fact that it that id had been amended time and again is a clear proof of its weakness. Constitution is an instrument by which government can be controlled but it was otherwise. The next elections were held in1977. The elections were far from being fair and had been rigged as accepted by the then government. Power was used to prolong power. People came out into the streets and again power was used to suppress the public. Thousands lost their lives for the sake of democratic rights. The country was on the verge of civil war; the Army Chief General Zia stepped in and the country was again thrown into the lap of Marshal Law.

In the late 1980’s democracy was again at the crossroads in Pakistan after the demise of General Zia due to natural calamity. Prime Ministers Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif also failed comprehensively. Four General elections in the 1990’s brought each of them twice to power. They did not seem interested in developing of the democratic norms in the country. Neither respected constraints on the use of power rather they trimmed and amended the constitution for their personal convenience. Their behavior brought ruin to the democracy. It also brought the military back to power.

Thus we see that the main causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan had been lack of regard for the country’s constitution and misuse of powers. The country’s constitution have been ignored and tampered with time and again. There has been plenty of the lip service paid to the constitution and to the constitutional practice in the country. Deviation from the constitution had been the main reason why the sapling of democracy could not flourish and thrive in the country.

Another reason for the break up of the democratic rule had been the contending political ideologies propagated by the political parties. The political profession is much to be blamed for playing the game for political gains and for seeking power instead of serving the people and the country. The very purpose of creating Pakistan has been thrown into the background. The practice of political aggrandizement led to side spread administrative and social corruption. We have still to see real rule of law in the country. Democracy can never exist without rule of law, justice, civil liberties and equality of opportunities. Representative ruler ship could not uphold these values due to favoritism, nepotism and obstructing the curse of law.

Treasury benches and opposition are the essential constituents of democracy. The nascent institutions of democracy can be strengthened. They are essential for making the democratic set up work. In fact democracy was revived in Pakistan, these democratic conventions were shown poor respect. The rulers were too proud to listen and to bear criticism. Such limping democracy could not serve long.

A survey of democracy in Pakistan can not be completed without assessing the electorate, the voters who are the makers and of leaders and mainstay of democracy. Right of franchise is the bedrock of democracy. Three elections on party basis in 1970, 1771 and 1998 indicated that the majority of the voters did not exercise their right. Again in three election in 1990’s the average turnout was very dismal.

Unless the people are educated and use their votes intelligently, democracy can never prosper and run smoothly in the county. One of the reasons of constitution’s weakness in Pakistan is vast uneducated and uniformed electorate. Aristotle has rightly remarked: “To neglect the education of the young ones, is to weaken the constitution of the country”. Democracy is a function of education. It can not be managed effectively and justly without sound education of the voters and their high level of information.

In conclusion, it can be analyzed that it is not democracy that has failed but the politicians who have failed to run the country on correct democratic principles of equality, justice and fraternity. Moreover, the electorate has been unable to check and control the professional politicians that have changed colour like a chameleon.

The remedy lies in the words of Lord Beveridge, “Power as a means of getting things done appeals to that men share with brutes; to fear and greed; power leads those who wield it to desire it for its own sake, not for service it am render, and to seek its continuance on their own hands. Influence as a means of getting things done appeals to that which distinguishes men from brutes. The way out of worlds troubles today is to treat men as men, to enthrone influence over power and to make power revocable”.

If we want to make Pakistan a really lasting democracy, we must act on the above advice. Thin only will enter in the reign of true democracy and the people will manage their own affairs instead of being dupes and pawns in the hands of dishonest men.

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