Latest Activity In Study Groups

Join Your Study Groups

VU Past Papers, MCQs and More

We non-commercial site working hard since 2009 to facilitate learning Read More. We can't keep up without your support. Donate.


PAK301 - GDB No. 01 Discussion Fall Spring 2013 Open Date: July 11,2013 & Close Date: Jul 12,2013

Dear students,

 

All the students are informed that they will post their comments on GDB link. Comments for GDB sent via email or posted on regular MDB will not be accepted. 

 

Graded MDB for Pak301 will be opened on July 11, 2013 and will remain open till July, 12, 2013. The topic of this GDB will be,

 

"How do you see Pak-China relations in the current scenario?

 

Post your comments after inferring the above topic. Your comments should NOT exceed from 100 to 120 words.

 

 Read the instructions carefully before sending your comments:

 

1. Graded MDB carries 5% weightage.

 

2. Your comments should be relevant to the topic i.e. clear and concise.

 

3. Post your comments on the GDB, not on the Regular MDB. Both will run in parallel during the time specified above.

 

4. Do not copy the comments of other Students, as no marks will be awarded for Plagiarism.

5. Do not copy from internet or any other website, and try to create in your own words.

 

6. Comments sent via e-mail or posted on regular MDB will not be graded.

 

7. Don’t send your comments twice.

 

Views: 560

Replies to This Discussion

Please Discuss here about this GDB.Thanks

Our main purpose here discussion not just Solution

We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning and do not appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions.

 China-Pakistan relations

People's Republic of China–Pakistan relationsbegan in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to break relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and recognize the PRC. Following the 1962 Sino-Indian War, both countries has placed considerable importance on the maintenance of a extremely close and supportive relationship. Since then, the two countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements. The PRC has provided economic, military and technical assistance to Pakistan and each considers the other a close strategic ally. 

Bilateral relations have evolved from an initial Chinese policy of neutrality to a partnership that links a smaller but militarily powerful Pakistan, partially dependent on China for its economic and military strength, with China attempting to balance competing interests in the region. Diplomatic relations were established in 1950, military assistance began in 1966, a strategic alliance was formed in 1972 and economic co-operation began in 1979. China has become Pakistan’s largest sup¬plier of arms and its third-largest trad¬ing partner. Recently, both nations have decided to cooperate in improving 
Pakistan's civilian nuclear program.

Favorable relations with China is a pillar of Pakistan's foreign policy. China supported Pakistan's opposition to the Soviet Union's intervention in Afghanistan and is perceived by Pakistan as a regional counterweight to India and the United States. China and Pakistan also share close military relations, with China supplying a range of modern armaments to the Pakistani defense forces. China supports Pakistan's stance onKashmir while Pakistan supports China on the issues of Xinjiang, Tibet, and Taiwan. Lately, military cooperation has deepened with joint projects producing armaments ranging from fighter jets to guided missile frigates.

Chinese cooperation with Pakistan has reached economic high points, with substantial Chinese investment in Pakistani infrastructural expansion including the Pakistani deep water port at Gwadar. Both countries have an ongoing free trade agreement. Pakistan has served as China's main bridge between Muslim countries. Pakistan also played an important role in bridging the communication gap between China andthe West by facilitating the 1972 Nixon visit to China.

Background

Pakistan has a long and symbiotic relationship with China. The long-standing ties between the two countries have been mutually supportive. A close identity of views and mutual interests remain the hallmark of bilateral ties. Since the 1962 Sino-Indian War, Pakistan has supported China on most issues of importance to the latter, especially those related to the question of China's sovereignty like Taiwan, Xinjiang, andTibet and other sensitive issues such as human rights. 

The Chinese leadership has acknowledged Pakistan's steadfast support on key issues. Pakistan helped China in reestablishing formal ties with the West, where they helped make possible the 1972 Nixon visit to China. Pakistan has collaborated with China in extensive military and economic projects, seeing China as a counterweight to India and the United States. Pakistan has also served as a conduit for China's influence in the Muslim world. China also has a consistent record of supporting Pakistan in regional issues. During the Pakistan-Indian tensions in 2008, it implied that it would support Pakistan in the event of a war. Pakistan's military depends heavily on Chinese armaments, and joint projects of both economic and militaristic importance are ongoing. China has supplied equipment to support Pakistan's nuclear program, and has been accused of giving nuclear technology to Pakistan.

Diplomatic relations

Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China were established on 21 May 1951, shortly after the defeat of the Republic Of China in 1949. While initially ambivalent towards the idea of a Communist country on it's borders, Pakistan hoped that China would serve as a counterweight to Indian influence. India had recognized China a year before, and Indian Prime Minister Nehru also hoped for closer relations with the Chinese. However, with escalating border tensions leading to the 1962 Sino-Indian war, China and Pakistan aligned with each other in a joint effort to counter perceived Indian encroachment. One year after China's border war with India, Pakistan ceded the Trans-Karakoram Tract to China to end border disputes and improve diplomatic relations.

Since then, an informal alliance that initially consisted of joint Indian opposition has grown into a lasting relationship that has benefited both nations on the diplomatic, economic and military frontiers. Along with diplomatic support, Pakistan served as a conduit for China to open up to the West. China has in turn provided extensive economic aid and political support towards Pakistan.

Pakistan's military initially depended almost entirely on American armaments and aid, which was increased during the covert U.S. support of Islamic militants in theSoviet war in Afghanistan. America under US President Richard Nixon supported Pakistan in the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.[13] However, the period following the Soviet withdrawal and the dissolution of the Soviet Union led indirectly to the increasing realignment of America with the previously pro-Soviet India. The Pressler Amendment in 1990 suspended all American military assistance and any new economic aid amidst concerns that Pakistan was attempting to develop a nuclear weapon.[ Given the support that Pakistan had given them during the War in Afghanistan, many Pakistanis saw this as a betrayal that sold out Pakistani interests in favor of India. This belief was further strengthened as India had developed a nuclear weapon without significant American opposition, and Pakistan felt obligated to do the same. Consequently, the primarily geopolitical alliance between Pakistan and China has since 1990 branched out into military and economic cooperation, due to Pakistan's belief that America's influence and support in the region should be counterbalanced by the Chinese.

With the war in Afghanistan leading to renewed relations with the U.S., there is a general sentiment in Pakistan to adopt a foreign policy which favors China over the United States. Washington has been accused deserting Pakistan in favor of a policy that favors stronger relations with India, while Pakistan sees China as a more reliable ally over the long term.

Since 9/11, Pakistan has increased the scope of Chinese influence and support by agreeing to a number of military projects, combined with extensive economic support and investment from the Chinese. This is partially due to Pakistan's strategy of playing off the two powers against each other, but also a genuine effort to prevent America's influence in the region from becoming too strong. In return, the Chinese hope to strengthen Pakistan as a counterbalance to American and Indian influence.

Military relations

The People's Republic of China enjoys strong defense ties with Pakistan. This relationship between two adjoining Asian countries is important in the world's geo-strategic alliances. The strong defense ties are primarily to counter regional Indian and American influence, and was also to repel Soviet influence in the area. In recent years this relationship has strengthened through ongoing defence projects and agreements between Pakistan and China.
Since 1962, China has been a steady source of military equipment to the Pakistani Army, helping establish munition factories, providing technological assistance and modernizing existing facilities. The countries are involved in the joint venture of several projects to enhance military and weaponry systems, which include collaborating in the development of JF-17 Thunder fighter aircraft, K-8 Karakorum advance training aircraft, space technology, AWACS systems, Al-Khalid tanks and the Babur cruise missile. The armies have a schedule for organising joint military exercises. 

China is the largest investor in the Gwadar Deep Sea Port, which is strategically located at the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz. It is viewed warily by both America and India as a possible launchpad for Chinese naval operations in the Indian Ocean. However the Gwadar Port is currently delayed due to a multilateral diplomatic standoff between the project leaders and the Singapore government.China has offered Pakistan military aid in order to fight against terrorism in Pakistan. Pakistan has purchased military equipment from China in order to bolster their efforts against Islamic militants.

In the past, China has played a major role in the development of Pakistan's nuclear infrastructure, especially when increasingly stringent export controls in Western countries made it difficult for Pakistan to acquire materials and uranium enriching equipment from elsewhere. China has supplied Pakistan with equipment to advance their nuclear weapons program, such as the Chinese help in building the Khushab reactor, which plays a key role in Pakistan's production of plutonium. A subsidiary of the China National Nuclear Corporation contributed in Pakistan's efforts to expand its uranium enrichment capabilities by providing 5,000 custom made ring magnets, which are a key component of the bearings that facilitate the high-speed rotation of centrifuges. China has also provided technical and material support in the completion of the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex and plutonium reprocessing facility, which was built in the mid 1990s. China may also have supplied nuclear technology to the Pakistanis, enabling Pakistan to become a nuclear state with an estimated 100 warheads as of 2011. 

Economic relations

Economic trade between Pakistan and China are increasing at a rapid pace and a free trade agreement has recently been signed. Military and technological transactions continue to dominate the economic relationship between the two nations, although in recent years China has pledged to vastly increase their investment in Pakistan's economy and infrastructure. Among other things, China has been helping to develop Pakistan's infrastructure through the building of power plants, roads and communication nodes. 

Both countries are keen on strengthening the economic ties between the two, and have promised to 'propel' cross-border trade. This has led to investment in Pakistan's nascent financial and energy sectors, amidst a surge of Chinese investment designed to strengthen ties. Pakistan has in turn been granted free trade zones in China. The economic relationship between Pakistan and China is composed primarily of Chinese investment in Pakistani interests. China's increasing economic clout has enabled a wide variety of projects to be sponsored in Pakistan through Chinese credit. Pakistani investment in China is also encouraged, and cross-border trade remains fluid. 

Pakistan-China relations

The relations between Pakistan and China are marked by deep rooted strategic harmony that reflects at every level individual, national, and international. The recent visit by the Chinese premier to Pakistan symbolizes the level of importance the Chinese leadership keeps for Pakistan. But unfortunately these relations are not properly translated into a workable mechanism where both could exploit the opportunities equally and sufficiently.

Pakistan and China are two different countries having different cultures, values and ideas. Over the years the mutual trust and understanding between these two neighbours has nurtured the relationship and enriched it day by day to the level of complete mutual harmony. Besides this, both countries are maintaining the relationship at diplomatic level as well as people to people level. The recent visit of Chinese Prime Minister opens a new chapter of bilateral ties and strengthens the traditional relations.

China is Pakistan’s largest trade partner in the world and Pakistan is China’s second largest trade partner in South Asia, after India. Pakistan’s exports to China were worth US$ 3.1 billion and imports worth US$ 9.2 billion in 2012. Bilateral trade between the two countries has reached $12 billion, and both sides are committed to bring it up to $15 billion over the next two to three years. However, there is trade imbalance which is mostly tilted towards China. It needs to be overcome to make the trade flow harmonious. Pakistan needs to chalk out policies which can promote Pakistani exports to Chinese market so that the Pakistani local business community can benefit more. Another aspect of Pak- China economic and trade relation is that the economic exchange is mainly at governmental level which should be rather at micro level. The non-government commerce has been far below its potential which is needed to augment further. There are multiple factors which are directly or indirectly impinging upon the Pakistan’s export to China which are detrimental in some ways to further development of bilateral economic co-operation. In this backdrop, it would be a thaw in these bad economic times to have persistent Chinese economic assistance and support to sustain economic and trade activities in Pakistan. Furthermore, the recent visit is a gesture to improve and promote strategic cooperation and bilateral economic ties. It will also strengthen the connectivity and will help to resolve the looming energy crisis of Pakistan.

Dear Students Don’t wait for solution post your problems here and discuss ... after discussion a perfect solution will come in a result. So, Start it now, replies here give your comments according to your knowledge and understandings....

China-Pakistan relations

Pakistan is now facing the worst economic crises of its whole history. These crises are caused by many direct and indirect factors like; energy crises, political instability, terrorism, no FDI (Foreign direct investment) etc. All these factors are related to each other, one factor causes the other factor and as a whole these factor affects the economy in a bad way. No investors want to invest in Pakistan due to the instable conditions, even the investors who already had invested their investments for years in Pakistan they are pulling their investments and transferring it to Malaysia and Bangladesh. Inflation is high in Pakistan and basic necessities of life are expensive, HDI (human development index) is low, so the cost of living here is very high. In this scenario it is very difficult for locals to establish business and make investments. 

Government of Pakistan is taking many initiatives to stabilize the economy of Pakistan and resolving other issues. State Bank of Pakistan has presented a good monetary policy this year, due to that GDP is raising. This year GDP is comparatively better than the previous 5 years, but it is still too low to compare it with other developed and developing countries. According to strategic position of Pakistan, it needs to have a companion who can share its investments with Pakistan. Considering all the factors it is very difficult for Pakistan to come out of these crises alone because it is difficult to win war against terrorism or leaving it. Energy crises will take time to cover up them, political situation is moving towards stable side.

China and Pakistan have very friendly relation in each aspect. China and Pakistan have military collaborations time to time; they produced JF-17 thunder and lot of other engineering projects. China has always been interested in investing in Pakistan due to its strategic and trade interest.

China had invested a huge amount of capital in Pakistan in major fields; China Mobile Communications Corporation (CMCC), parent company of Zong invested $300 million in Pakistan in 2010, Zong invested $1.66 billion in Pakistan and produced 1700 direct and 40,000 indirect jobs,

China invested $13 billion on Gawadar deep sea port which is connected with the Karachi sea port through “coastal highway”, a “karakoram Highway” is made for trading purpose which connect china with Pakistan. China has invested in “coal mining”,

Karot, Taunsa, Kohala, Sukkur Barrage Hydro power projects and “wind power” projects in Pakistan. There are 19 projects ongoing in Pakistan with the help of China. Chinese investment has always supported Pakistan’s economy directly and indirectly.

China is always been a guardian angel to Pakistan. China wants to invest huge amount of capital in Pakistan in the energy sector and in Pakistan Railway, it has already purposed to the upcoming government of the Pakistan. The stability and growth of industrial sector is very important for Pakistan.

Chinese investment in Pakistan will resolve many issues which can lead the state to a progressive side. Energy sector could become stronger and efficient with the Chinese investment, when there will be no energy crises, the industrial sector will grow and the industry turnover will stop.

There is great amount of human capital in Pakistan at cheaper cost, when there will no issues of energy; the foreign investors will be attracted to provide Pakistan Foreign direct investment, the existing companies will perform more better and efficiently, unemployment will decrease, more opportunities will be available to entrepreneurs to explore themselves. When all these factors come along it will be a blessing on Pakistan with respect to current situation.

Pakistan economy will go for boom in future because of these investments, after Chinese investment the other countries and investors will be motivated to invest in Pakistan.

The stock Exchange index will be showing high values, the prices of petroleum products will decrease and become stable. The whole economic situation will become stable.

China & Pakistan: The iron brothers

Syeda Wajiha Yasmin
So the newly elected Prime Minister of China Li Keqiang visited Pakistan. It was his first official visit since his tenure. He was escorted with JF-17 Thunder pilots and was given Guard of honor and Nishan-e-Pakistan. Li's visited Pakistan after he paid visit to India. In India Li made agreements relating to trade and their Border issues. It was necessary for China to pay this visit to India because a couple of weeks back some border issues were going on between them in Himalaya region.
Talking about Pakistan and China's friendship, it is often remarked as "All-Weather Strategic Partners", in Li's recent visit to Pakistan he termed the Pak-China relation as Pakistan is China's "Iron Brother". 
The reason behind such friendship lies in the history, in 1950 when China got separated from Taiwan and was having quite an international pressure, at that time China's diplomatic relations got frozen, that was the time Pakistan was the one to recognize China as People Republic of China for the first time. 
Again in Sino-Indian war of 1962 Pakistan supported China, so today's growing relations is the outcome of historical support by Pakistan to China.
China in return has heavily invested in Pakistan. Currently China is involved in approximately 250 projects which include Gwadar Port in which China has invested more than 80% and this would open new energy corridors for both states. Other mega projects include Bhasha Dam, widening of Karakoram Highway, Saindak, Gold & Copper project and 6 mega projects in Gilgit Baltistan. 
In Military sector China collaborated in making of JF-17 Thunder jets and also K-8 training aircraft. Other than that many missiles and tanks are worked out with the collaboration of both states. 
Pakistan's first Communication satellite Pak-stat 1R was prepared and launched with the assistance of China in 2011. So this shows how much both states have worked together.
The recent visit of Chinese PM has a great impact in Pakistan during current scenario. The gesture which China is showing is what need of Pakistan now. There are many reasons why Pakistan at this moment of time needs China's support. The first and foremost is the energy crisis. Because of energy crisis Pakistan's economy is facing a huge set back to overcome this China could be helpful. Currently China is working on many Hydropower projects inside Pakistan. Li in his recent visit showed concern over energy crisis in Pakistan and showed willingness to work to eradicate it.
Similarly another reason is that in 2014 US is going to withdraw their forces from Afghanistan. If they do so then Pakistan will no longer be a charm for America. At that moment of time US will not collaborate with Pakistan at any level because they will have no more interest. On other hand Afghanistan's government is showing aggression, they deny the Durand line and made open statements against Pakistan. So for this instance Pakistan have a good chance to get the support of China.
Another factor is of India. Li's this visit was made after he went to India. With India he made quite agreements on trade and co-operation. India and Pakistan being the historical rivals and competitors can't see each of them gaining an upper hand. To compete is what the strategic culture of both states. So Pakistan's warmth and welcome was just another way to show China that they are still far better friends than India.
But what the matter of concern is that this visit by Li Keqiang was paid when the newer government still didn't take charge, the Chinese Premier met with President Zardari of former government and prime minister of Interim Government. The upcoming government has to met with this challenge that to whom they would keep relation. They have to set priorities by seeing the challenges faced by them and by seeing the ground realities. The upcoming government must devise effective Foreign policy. Because of lack of effective foreign policy we are confusing ourselves that with which side are we. We should see our national goals, future prospects and changing dimensions of International politics then should go for any Foreign policy option. And for this instance China being "The Iron Brother" should be Pakistan's priority.
The writer is a student of Defense and Diplomatic Studies, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi.



Pakistan is now facing the worst economic crises of its whole history. These crises are caused by many direct and indirect factors like; energy crises, political instability, terrorism, no FDI (Foreign direct investment) etc. All these factors are related to each other, one factor causes the other factor and as a whole these factor affects the economy in a bad way. No investors want to invest in Pakistan due to the instable conditions, even the investors who already had invested their investments for years in Pakistan they are pulling their investments and transferring it to Malaysia and Bangladesh. Inflation is high in Pakistan and basic necessities of life are expensive, HDI (human development index) is low, so the cost of living here is very high. In this scenario it is very difficult for locals to establish business and make investments.

Government of Pakistan is taking many initiatives to stabilize the economy of Pakistan and resolving other issues. State Bank of Pakistan has presented a good monetary policy this year, due to that GDP is raising. This year GDP is comparatively better than the previous 5 years, but it is still too low to compare it with other developed and developing countries. According to strategic position of Pakistan, it needs to have a companion who can share its investments with Pakistan. Considering all the factors it is very difficult for Pakistan to come out of these crises alone because it is difficult to win war against terrorism or leaving it. Energy crises will take time to cover up them, political situation is moving towards stable side.

China and Pakistan have very friendly relation in each aspect. China and Pakistan have military collaborations time to time; they produced JF-17 thunder and lot of other engineering projects. China has always been interested in investing in Pakistan due to its strategic and trade interest. China had invested a huge amount of capital in Pakistan in major fields; China Mobile Communications Corporation (CMCC), parent company of Zong invested $300 million in Pakistan in 2010, Zong invested $1.66 billion in Pakistan and produced 1700 direct and 40,000 indirect jobs, China invested $13 billion on Gawadar deep sea port which is connected with the Karachi sea port through “coastal highway”, a “karakoram Highway” is made for trading purpose which connect china with Pakistan. China has invested in “coal mining”, Karot, Taunsa, Kohala, Sukkur Barrage Hydro power projects and “wind power” projects in Pakistan. There are 19 projects ongoing in Pakistan with the help of China. Chinese investment has always supported Pakistan’s economy directly and indirectly.

China is always been a guardian angel to Pakistan. China wants to invest huge amount of capital in Pakistan in the energy sector and in Pakistan Railway, it has already purposed to the upcoming government of the Pakistan. The stability and growth of industrial sector is very important for Pakistan. Chinese investment in Pakistan will resolve many issues which can lead the state to a progressive side. Energy sector could become stronger and efficient with the Chinese investment, when there will be no energy crises, the industrial sector will grow and the industry turnover will stop. There is great amount of human capital in Pakistan at cheaper cost, when there will no issues of energy; the foreign investors will be attracted to provide Pakistan Foreign direct investment, the existing companies will perform more better and efficiently, unemployment will decrease, more opportunities will be available to entrepreneurs to explore themselves. When all these factors come along it will be a blessing on Pakistan with respect to current situation.

Pakistan economy will go for boom in future because of these investments, after Chinese investment the other countries and investors will be motivated to invest in Pakistan. The stock Exchange index will be showing high values, the prices of petroleum products will decrease and become stable. The whole economic situation will become stable.


Attachments:

                    People's Republic of China–Pakistan relations began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to break relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and recognize the PRC. Following the 1962 Sino-Indian War, both countries has placed considerable importance on the maintenance of a extremely close and supportive relationship. Since then, the two countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements. The PRC has provided economic, military and technical assistance to Pakistan and each considers the other a close strategic ally.

                    Chinese cooperation with Pakistan has reached economic high points, with substantial Chinese investment in Pakistani infrastructural expansion including the Pakistani deep water port at Gwadar. Both countries have an ongoing free trade agreement. Pakistan has served as China's main bridge between Muslim countries. Pakistan also played an important role in bridging the communication gap between China and the West.

                     Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China were established on 21 May 1951, shortly after the defeat of the Republic Of China in 1949. While initially ambivalent towards the idea of a Communist country on it's borders, Pakistan hoped that China would serve as a counterweight to Indian influence. India had recognized China a year before, and Indian Prime Minister Nehru also hoped for closer relations with the Chinese. However, with escalating border tensions leading to the 1962 Sino-Indian war, China and Pakistan aligned with each other in a joint effort to counter perceived Indian encroachment. One year after China's border war with India, Pakistan ceded the Trains-Karakoram Tract to China to end border disputes and improve diplomatic relations.

                     Due to good relationship with both I hope we can control our electric problem in Pakistan and also open the door of China for Pakistani Students & workers.

                    People's Republic of China–Pakistan relations began in 1950 when Pakistan was among the first countries to break relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and recognize the PRC. Following the 1962 Sino-Indian War, both countries has placed considerable importance on the maintenance of a extremely close and supportive relationship. Since then, the two countries have regularly exchanged high-level visits resulting in a variety of agreements. The PRC has provided economic, military and technical assistance to Pakistan and each considers the other a close strategic ally.

                    Chinese cooperation with Pakistan has reached economic high points, with substantial Chinese investment in Pakistani infrastructural expansion including the Pakistani deep water port at Gwadar. Both countries have an ongoing free trade agreement. Pakistan has served as China's main bridge between Muslim countries. Pakistan also played an important role in bridging the communication gap between China and the West.

                     Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and China were established on 21 May 1951, shortly after the defeat of the Republic Of China in 1949. While initially ambivalent towards the idea of a Communist country on it's borders, Pakistan hoped that China would serve as a counterweight to Indian influence. India had recognized China a year before, and Indian Prime Minister Nehru also hoped for closer relations with the Chinese. However, with escalating border tensions leading to the 1962 Sino-Indian war, China and Pakistan aligned with each other in a joint effort to counter perceived Indian encroachment. One year after China's border war with India, Pakistan ceded the Trains-Karakoram Tract to China to end border disputes and improve diplomatic relations.

                     Due to good relationship with both I hope we can control our electric problem in Pakistan and also open the door of China for Pakistani Students & workers.

RSS

© 2021   Created by + M.Tariq Malik.   Powered by

Promote Us  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service