Latest Activity In Study Groups

Join Your Study Groups

VU Past Papers, MCQs and More

We non-commercial site working hard since 2009 to facilitate learning Read More. We can't keep up without your support. Donate.

PAK301 Pakistan Studies Assignment No 01 Solution & Discussion Due Date: 16-05-2014

Assignment No. 1

Pak301

Spring 2014
Assignment # 01                                                                    Total Marks: 10
Due Date: May, 16, 2014

Guideline:
Try to be genuine in your approach.
Assignment
Question No. 1                                                    5 Marks
Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?
Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents:
Question No. 2                                                        5 Marks
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?

Justify your answer with at least five advantages of learning English with special focus on the state of English as a discipline in Pakistan.

Views: 3023

Replies to This Discussion

Please Discuss here about this assignment.Thanks

Our main purpose here discussion not just Solution

We are here with you hands in hands to facilitate your learning and do not appreciate the idea of copying or replicating solutions.

 

Assignment No. - Pak301- Spring 2014

Assignment # 01                                                                    
Total Marks: 10

Due Date: May, 16, 2014

Objectives:

To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject.

 Instructions

  1. Late assignments will not be accepted.
  2. If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.
  3. Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own.
  4. If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action.
  5. Your answer should be very clear and comprehensive, not exceeding more than 200 words for each question. 25 words more or less are acceptable.
  6. No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
  7. The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman.

 Guideline:  

Try to be genuine in your approach.

Assignment

Question No. 1                                                    5 Marks

Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?

Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents:

Question No. 2                                                        5 Marks

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?

 Justify your answer with at least five advantages of learning English with special focus on the state of English as a discipline in Pakistan.    

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?

Yes he was right ,after the fight of 1857 Muslims where treated v badly in subcontinent as before 

I was also announced in Newspapers that Muslims were not capable for the government jobs they are fired from their jobs and Hindus were given there places

After this the Muslims left the hope for having  respectable place in sub continent sir syed want to make muslims educated that time very few muslims were educated and know english but on the other hand Hindus were educated in large quantity 

t was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who urged the Muslims to learn English as it was now the official language and played a great role in reconciliation between the Muslim and British communities.

All of this was done in the regard to end the discriminatory approach of the British against the Muslims and enable Muslims to avail the opportunity to develop in the field of education. With his writings, he motivated the Muslims to learn and prosper and went a step further by establishing the Aligarh University, which became a great learning centre for the Muslims and provided a platform for them to learn and develop in the educational as well as in the societal regard. In short, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers in the subcontinent to re-establish the contact between science, technology and the glory of Islam.

He want Muslims to learn Islam .Technology and Science and not to be back from any one 

Yes he was right as world is progressing v rapidly we are back now also because we are not still much educated we have no knowledge of technology etc ......

Thats was one of the reason he asked Muslims not to join congress or politics 

Question No. 1 5 Marks

Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?

Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents?

Answer:

Jinnah had always advocated the cause of Hindu Muslim unity and while still member of the Congress, he joined All India Muslim League in 1913 to become a bridge between the two major communities of India. This bridge resulted into the signing of famous Congress - Muslim League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Lucknow Pact - the only pact ever signed between the two political parties. The Lucknow Pact conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weight-age in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. It also meant that henceforth All-India Muslim League will be the representative platform for the Muslims. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this and Jinnah came to be recognized among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. 
However, while being proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity, Jinnah rejected the injection of violence into politics and Gandhi's Satyagrah (civil disobedience) which meant boycott of government-aided schools and colleges, courts and councils and British textiles. Jinnah felt that Gandhi's doctrine of non-cooperation will lead to despair and resentment. He felt that there was no short-cut to independence and that Gandhi's extra-constitutional methods could only lead to lawlessness and chaos, without bringing India nearer to the threshold of freedom. Therefore Jinnah left the Congress in 1919 to devote himself fully to the cause of the Muslims and the Muslim League.

Jinnah left the Congress ‘because he could not adapt himself to the new and more advanced ideology and even more so because he dislike the crowds of ill-dressed people talking in Hindustani

Gandhian methodology for the solution of political problems would do great harm than good to  especially the Muslims, as indeed it did.

thnx sir its helpful

PAK301 Assignment No 01 Solution Due Date: 16-05-2014


Idea Solution ::::::::::::::::::::::::

Question No. 1 5 Marks
Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?
Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents?

Answer:

Jinnah had always advocated the cause of Hindu Muslim unity and while still member of the Congress, he joined All India Muslim League in 1913 to become a bridge between the two major communities of India. This bridge resulted into the signing of famous Congress - Muslim League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Lucknow Pact - the only pact ever signed between the two political parties. The Lucknow Pact conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weight-age in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. It also meant that henceforth All-India Muslim League will be the representative platform for the Muslims. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this and Jinnah came to be recognized among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. 
However, while being proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity, Jinnah rejected the injection of violence into politics and Gandhi's Satyagrah (civil disobedience) which meant boycott of government-aided schools and colleges, courts and councils and British textiles. Jinnah felt that Gandhi's doctrine of non-cooperation will lead to despair and resentment. He felt that there was no short-cut to independence and that Gandhi's extra-constitutional methods could only lead to lawlessness and chaos, without bringing India nearer to the threshold of freedom. Therefore Jinnah left the Congress in 1919 to devote himself fully to the cause of the Muslims and the Muslim League.
Jinnah left the Congress ‘because he could not adapt himself to the new and more advanced ideology and even more so because he dislike the crowds of ill-dressed people talking in Hindustani
Gandhian methodology for the solution of political problems would do great harm than good to especially the Muslims, as indeed it did.


Question No. 2 5 Marks
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?
Justify your answer with at least five advantages of learning English with special focus on the state of English as a discipline in Pakistan.

answer:::::

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?
Yes he was right ,after the fight of 1857 Muslims where treated v badly in subcontinent as before 
I was also announced in Newspapers that Muslims were not capable for the government jobs they are fired from their jobs and Hindus were given there places
After this the Muslims left the hope for having respectable place in sub continent sir syed want to make muslims educated that time very few muslims were educated and know english but on the other hand Hindus were educated in large quantity 
t was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who urged the Muslims to learn English as it was now the official language and played a great role in reconciliation between the Muslim and British communities.
All of this was done in the regard to end the discriminatory approach of the British against the Muslims and enable Muslims to avail the opportunity to develop in the field of education. With his writings, he motivated the Muslims to learn and prosper and went a step further by establishing the Aligarh University, which became a great learning centre for the Muslims and provided a platform for them to learn and develop in the educational as well as in the societal regard. In short, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers in the subcontinent to re-establish the contact between science, technology and the glory of Islam.
He want Muslims to learn Islam .Technology and Science and not to be back from any one 
Yes he was right as world is progressing v rapidly we are back now also because we are not still much educated we have no knowledge of technology etc ......
Thats was one of the reason he asked Muslims not to join congress or politics

Question No. 1 5 Marks
Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?
Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents?

Answer:

Jinnah had always advocated the cause of Hindu Muslim unity and while still member of the Congress, he joined All India Muslim League in 1913 to become a bridge between the two major communities of India. This bridge resulted into the signing of famous Congress - Muslim League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Luck now Pact - the only pact ever signed between the two political parties. The Luck now Pact conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weight-age in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. It also meant that henceforth All-India Muslim League will be the representative platform for the Muslims. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this and Jinnah came to be recognized among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. 
However, while being proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity, Jinnah rejected the injection of violence into politics and Gandhi's Satyagrah (civil disobedience) which meant boycott of government-aided schools and colleges, courts and councils and British textiles. Jinnah felt that Gandhi's doctrine of non-cooperation will lead to despair and resentment. He felt that there was no short-cut to independence and that Gandhi's extra-constitutional methods could only lead to lawlessness and chaos, without bringing India nearer to the threshold of freedom. Therefore Jinnah left the Congress in 1919 to devote himself fully to the cause of the Muslims and the Muslim League.
Jinnah left the Congress ‘because he could not adapt himself to the new and more advanced ideology and even more so because he dislike the crowds of ill-dressed people talking in Hindustani
Gandhian methodology for the solution of political problems would do great harm than good to especially the Muslims, as indeed it did.

 

Question No. 2 5 Marks
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?
Justify your answer with at least five advantages of learning English with special focus on the state of English as a discipline in Pakistan.

answer:::::

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?
Yes he was right ,after the fight of 1857 Muslims where treated v badly in subcontinent as before 
I was also announced in Newspapers that Muslims were not capable for the government jobs they are fired from their jobs and Hindus were given their places
After this the Muslims left the hope for having respectable place in sub-continent sir syed want to make Muslims educated that time very few Muslims were educated and know English but on the other hand Hindus were educated in large quantity 
t was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who urged the Muslims to learn English as it was now the official language and played a great role in reconciliation between the Muslim and British communities.
All of this was done in the regard to end the discriminatory approach of the British against the Muslims and enable Muslims to avail the opportunity to develop in the field of education. With his writings, he motivated the Muslims to learn and prosper and went a step further by establishing the Aligarh University, which became a great learning Centre for the Muslims and provided a platform for them to learn and develop in the educational as well as in the societal regard. In short, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers in the subcontinent to re-establish the contact between science, technology and the glory of Islam.
He want Muslims to learn Islam .Technology and Science and not to be back from any one 
Yes he was right as world is progressing v rapidly we are back now also because we are not still much educated we have no knowledge of technology etc. ......
That was one of the reason he asked Muslims not to join congress or politics

can  u help me plz tell me in which way i write my assignment .

i've got an assignment to write favorable words for sir syed ahmed khan and his philosophy of english learning. hun. A freemason, a qadiani, ... how could i respect that killer of Islamic Ideology.

PAK301 Assignment No 01 Solution Due Date: 16-05-2014

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?

Yes he was right ,after the fight of 1857 Muslims where treated v badly in subcontinent as before 

I was also announced in Newspapers that Muslims were not capable for the government jobs they are fired from their jobs and Hindus were given there places

After this the Muslims left the hope for having respectable place in sub continent sir syed want to make muslims educated that time very few muslims were educated and know english but on the other hand Hindus were educated in large quantity 

t was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who urged the Muslims to learn English as it was now the official language and played a great role in reconciliation between the Muslim and British communities.

All of this was done in the regard to end the discriminatory approach of the British against the Muslims and enable Muslims to avail the opportunity to develop in the field of education. With his writings, he motivated the Muslims to learn and prosper and went a step further by establishing the Aligarh University, which became a great learning centre for the Muslims and provided a platform for them to learn and develop in the educational as well as in the societal regard. In short, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers in the subcontinent to re-establish the contact between science, technology and the glory of Islam.

He want Muslims to learn Islam .Technology and Science and not to be back from any one 

Yes he was right as world is progressing v rapidly we are back now also because we are not still much educated we have no knowledge of technology etc ......

Thats was one of the reason he asked Muslims not to join congress or politics 

Question No. 1 5 Marks

Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?

Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents?

Answer:

Jinnah had always advocated the cause of Hindu Muslim unity and while still member of the Congress, he joined All India Muslim League in 1913 to become a bridge between the two major communities of India. This bridge resulted into the signing of famous Congress - Muslim League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Lucknow Pact - the only pact ever signed between the two political parties. The Lucknow Pact conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weight-age in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. It also meant that henceforth All-India Muslim League will be the representative platform for the Muslims. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this and Jinnah came to be recognized among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. 
However, while being proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity, Jinnah rejected the injection of violence into politics and Gandhi's Satyagrah (civil disobedience) which meant boycott of government-aided schools and colleges, courts and councils and British textiles. Jinnah felt that Gandhi's doctrine of non-cooperation will lead to despair and resentment. He felt that there was no short-cut to independence and that Gandhi's extra-constitutional methods could only lead to lawlessness and chaos, without bringing India nearer to the threshold of freedom. Therefore Jinnah left the Congress in 1919 to devote himself fully to the cause of the Muslims and the Muslim League.

Jinnah left the Congress ‘because he could not adapt himself to the new and more advanced ideology and even more so because he dislike the crowds of ill-dressed people talking in Hindustani

Gandhian methodology for the solution of political problems would do great harm than good to especially the Muslims, as indeed it did.







Question No. 1 5 Marks
Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founding father of Pakistan after coming into politics struggled hard for Hindu Muslim unity when he was a member of both organizations Congress and Muslim League. He resigned from the membership of Congress in 1920, and started working for the betterment and welfare of the Muslim community of the Subcontinent. What were the main events in the history of Subcontinent that led to the transformation of Jinnah from an Indian nationalist to Muslim Nationalist?
Justify your answer with at least 5 such incidents?

Answer:

Jinnah had always advocated the cause of Hindu Muslim unity and while still member of the Congress, he joined All India Muslim League in 1913 to become a bridge between the two major communities of India. This bridge resulted into the signing of famous Congress - Muslim League Pact of 1916, known popularly as Luck now Pact - the only pact ever signed between the two political parties. The Luck now Pact conceded Muslims the right to separate electorate, reservation of seats in the legislatures and weight-age in representation both at the Centre and the minority provinces. It also meant that henceforth All-India Muslim League will be the representative platform for the Muslims. And to Jinnah goes the credit for all this and Jinnah came to be recognized among both Hindus and Muslims as one of India's most outstanding political leaders. 
However, while being proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity, Jinnah rejected the injection of violence into politics and Gandhi's Satyagrah (civil disobedience) which meant boycott of government-aided schools and colleges, courts and councils and British textiles. Jinnah felt that Gandhi's doctrine of non-cooperation will lead to despair and resentment. He felt that there was no short-cut to independence and that Gandhi's extra-constitutional methods could only lead to lawlessness and chaos, without bringing India nearer to the threshold of freedom. Therefore Jinnah left the Congress in 1919 to devote himself fully to the cause of the Muslims and the Muslim League.
Jinnah left the Congress ‘because he could not adapt himself to the new and more advanced ideology and even more so because he dislike the crowds of ill-dressed people talking in Hindustani
Gandhian methodology for the solution of political problems would do great harm than good to especially the Muslims, as indeed it did.



Question No. 2 5 Marks
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?
Justify your answer with at least five advantages of learning English with special focus on the state of English as a discipline in Pakistan.

answer:::::

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a distinguished leader of his time. He always emphasized that the Muslims of Subcontinent must learn English language so that they might have the capability to deal with the changed circumstances. Even today we are far behind than the Hindus in this particular discipline. Was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan right?
Yes he was right ,after the fight of 1857 Muslims where treated v badly in subcontinent as before 
I was also announced in Newspapers that Muslims were not capable for the government jobs they are fired from their jobs and Hindus were given their places
After this the Muslims left the hope for having respectable place in sub-continent sir syed want to make Muslims educated that time very few Muslims were educated and know English but on the other hand Hindus were educated in large quantity 
t was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan who urged the Muslims to learn English as it was now the official language and played a great role in reconciliation between the Muslim and British communities.
All of this was done in the regard to end the discriminatory approach of the British against the Muslims and enable Muslims to avail the opportunity to develop in the field of education. With his writings, he motivated the Muslims to learn and prosper and went a step further by establishing the Aligarh University, which became a great learning Centre for the Muslims and provided a platform for them to learn and develop in the educational as well as in the societal regard. In short, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers in the subcontinent to re-establish the contact between science, technology and the glory of Islam.
He want Muslims to learn Islam .Technology and Science and not to be back from any one 
Yes he was right as world is progressing v rapidly we are back now also because we are not still much educated we have no knowledge of technology etc. ......
That was one of the reason he asked Muslims not to join congress or politics

Sir Syed's first and foremost objective was to acquaint the British with the Indian mind; his next goal was to open the minds of his countrymen to European literature, science and technology.

Therefore, in order to attain these goals, Sir Syed launched the Aligarh Movement of which Aligarh was the center. He had two immediate objectives in mind: to remove the state of misunderstanding and tension between the Muslims and the new British government, and to induce them to go after the opportunities available under the new regime without deviating in any way from the fundamentals of their faith.

Until 1913 Jinnah had steered well clear of the main Muslim political organisation, the Muslim League. This had been founded in 1906 in order to safeguard Muslim political rights. Its outlook was conservative and loyal to the British and it reflected in the main the priorities of the Muslim educated elite of the United Provinces, from where it drew its leaders and its greatest support. Elsewhere in India it had little influence. In April 1913 Jinnah agreed to lead the Muslim League in the hope of bringing its views into line with the Congress. He arranged its 1915 session to coincide with the Congress' and played a leading role in the negotiations which took place between the two parties. They resulted in the famous Lucknow Pact of 1916, the only occasion in modern lndian history in which the Muslim League and the Congress came to a voluntary agreement about the political future of India. The Pact granted the Muslims many of the safeguards which they had demanded, including separate electorates and 'weightage' in the Legislative Councils of those provinces in which they formed a minority of the population. However, despite the hopes which it raised, the Lucknow Pact had only a temporary effect on Muslim-Hindu relations.

It only represented the agreement of the tiny political elite of the two communities and was therefore vulnerable to the emergence into politics of new social groups and classes. Jinnah and many others who believed in a liberal constitutional approach to the communal and national issues, felt ill at ease when Gandhi launched his first Civil Disobedience Campaigns against the British in the aftermath of the First World War. Jinnah refused to abandon his traditional approach to politics and resigned from the Indian National Congress shortly after Gandhi had gained control of it at the December 1920 Nagpur session.

The new political environment created by the British constitutional reforms of 1919 represented, however, a far greater setback to Jinnah's career than Gandhi's temporary radicalisation of Indian politics. As a result of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, such subjects of provincial administration as education, local self-government and public works were transferred to the control of ministers responsible to elected assembly members. This system, known as dyarchy, offered great opportunities for politicians with strong local support. For those like Jinnah, who had no landed or tribal powerbase, it spelt disaster: throughout his career he had operated at the All-India level of politics; under dyarchy, however, real power and influence lay at the local level. For a time he attempted to soldier on as leader of an independent group in the Central Assembly and as a broker between the powerful local Muslim politicians and the Congress during constitutional negotiations. Even this role was denied him after the rejection of his proposals by the Congress and the all-party scheme produced by Motilal Nehru in 1928. His mediatory role was increasingly taken over by Mian Fazl-i-Husain, the Punj abi Muslim leadez whose strong provincial powerbase and membership of the Viceroy's Executive Council gave him much greater authority in negotiating on behalf of the Muslims.

Jinnah settled once more in London in 1931, determined to retire from politics and to concentrate on his legal career. He was only left in peace, however, until 1933 when Nawab Liaqat Ali Khan, his future right-hand man and Premier of Pakistan, visited him in his Hampstead house. Liaqat stressed the Indian Muslims' need for Jinnah's experienced leadership. Jinnah was given a further indication of the importance which was attached to this in October 1934, when the Muslims of Bombay elected him in his absence as their representative for the Central Legislative Assembly. However, it was not these entreaties which decided Jinnah to return but rather that the 1935 Government of India Act presented him with an opportunity to regain his former influence. Jinnah arrived back in Bombay in October 1935. Within twelve years he was to become the Governor-General of an independent state of Pakistan.

Numerous questions arise concerning Jinnah's role in the Pakistan movement. How did he make the transition from being an able debater in the refined atmosphere of the Central Legislative Council to that of the Quaid-i-Azam , the great leader beloved throughout the thousands of villages of Muslim India? Did he create the desire for Pakistan within the Muslim community or merely guide it, using his legal talents to plead its case before the British and the Indian National Congress? Did he really believe in the possibility of achieving Pakistan at all, or was his demand for it merely a bargaining counter which he adopted to safeguard Muslim rights as British rule drew to its close? Finally, was he in control of events or was he merely swept along by the tide of an Islamic revolution?

The opening of government and private archives in India, Pakistan and Britain has enabled historians to answer at least some of these questions which so perplexed Jinnah's contemporaries. The picture which emerges of him is not that of a charismatic leader guiding his people to the promised land, but rather that of an able, single-minded political tactician who took full advantage of the dramatic political changes which occurred after India's entry into the Second World War.

In 1937 elections were held throughout India for control of the autonomous provincial assemblies which had been created by the 1935 Government of India Act. Despite its reorganisation by Jinnah, the Muslim League won only 109 out of the 482 Muslim seats. This stemmed from its poor showing in the two major centres of Muslim population, the Punjab and Bengal. It had fared dismally in the former province, losing all but one of the eighty-six Muslim constituencies to the Unionist Party. The Unionist Party owed its success to the support of the large landowners who controlled the votes of the overwhelmingly rural electorate. Sikander Hayat Khan had succeeded Mian Fazl-i-Husain as its leader in 1936. Like his late predecessor he used his strong provincial powerbase to dominate All-India Muslim politics. Jinnah wisely recognised his own dependence on the Punjabi leader by allowing him to control the Muslim League organisation in his province from October 1937 onwards, in return for his support in national politics.

By 1939 the Muslim League had considerably increased its influence, thanks to the blunders of the Congress, whose success in the 1937 elections had enabled it to form ministries in seven of India's eleven provinces. For the first time large numbers of Muslims came under Hindu rule. The provincial Congress governments made no effort to understand and respect their Muslim populations' cultural and religious sensibilities. The Muslim League's claims that it alone could safeguard Muslim interests thus received a major boost. Significantly it was only after this period of Congress rule that it took up the demand for a Pakistan state, although the idea of a separate Muslim homeland in north-west India had been aired by the poet Sir Muhammad Iqbal as early as 1930 and the actual word 'Pakistan' had been coined in 1933 by Rahmat Ali, a Cambridge undergraduate. (The word 'Pakistan' is made up of the initial letters of Punjab Asghania – the North-West frontier province – Kashmir and Sind, and the endingstan – land. Pak , an Urdu word, also means 'spiritually pure, or clean.)

RSS

© 2021   Created by + M.Tariq Malik.   Powered by

Promote Us  |  Report an Issue  |  Privacy Policy  |  Terms of Service