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PAK301 Pakistan Studies Assignment No 1 Solution & Discussion Due Date:08-11-2012

What is the significance of the Aligarh Movement for the revival of the Muslims of Subcontinent and why Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to avoid active politics?             

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Pak 301  Solved Assignment

 

Rewrite it in your own words, don’t copy and past

 

 

Answer:

Sir Syed message to Muslims was to gwet western education and to improve their relations



1. Sir Syed advised the Muslims against joining active politics and to concentrate instead on education. Later, when some Muslims joined the Indian National Congress, he came out strongly against that organization and its objectives, which included the establishment of parliamentary democracy in India. He argued that, in a country where communal divisions were all-important and education and political organizations were confined to a few classes, parliamentary democracy would work only inequitably. Muslims, generally, followed his advice and abstained from politics until several years later when they had established their own political organization i.e. Muslim League.



2. He says, Ignorance is the mother of poverty (deficiency).




3. Another place defined as:
a. Encouraged Muslims of the sub Continent to get education.
b. Tried to build up the gap between the Muslims and the Hindus.
c. In the form of Aligarh University a political platform was given to the Muslims of the sub continent



Significance and contribution of the Aligarh Movement:

The contribution and significance of Aligarh Movement for the revival and regeneration of the Muslims of Sub-Continent are commendable. Aligarh developed as the most important centre of the intellectual development for the Muslims of South Asia and its students those who studied at Aligarh College came from all over India from different parts of India; they were coming from Punjab, Bengal Frontier and were also from South India. In a way it had become a focal point for the Muslims of South Asia for their education.

In addition to this there were a lot of intellectual activities going on for example publication of different books and the activities of Scientific Society and through these activities there was a lot of intellectual stimulation which was provided by the Aligarh Movement.

Then this movement created students who were combined to different traditions. The students learned modern knowledge English language, modern western philosophy and they also acquired Islamic knowledge and this was a significant feature of this Aligarh College that while giving modern education to the students they should not be de-linked from their roots and if you are de-linked from your roots you become rootless. In order to deal with the criticism that western education would alienate our young people from its teachings and principles Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and his colleagues proved that modern education and Islamic education can be brought together.

 

The 3rd major achievement of the Aligarh Education System was that it brought forward a group of students who were very conscious of what was happening in India and outside India. This educated class that developed in India was instrumental in promoting Muslim identity and also advocating the Muslim demands to the govt and to others because on the one hand this educated class could communicated with the rulers because they knew the language and modern knowledge philosophy and the thinking that had developed there.

So, they were able to communicate with the rulers. On the other hand they held their roots in culture therefore they could also communicate with the ordinary people for mobilization and make them conscious of what made them different from others.

Another, important contribution of this movement was that it inspired educational movements in India. And the last major contribution of this movement was that the Mohammedan Educational Conference that was created by these Muslim leaders had become a kind of a forum where Muslims from different parts of India would come together and they would discuss not only education but all those issues which were of great concern to Muslims and since the meetings of Mohammedan Educational Conference were being held in different places it was able to communicate the message of the Aligarh Movement all over India.

It also brought together like minded Muslims to pursue the goals and ideals of promotion of education and improvement of Muslims all over India. We can say that the Aligarh Movement played a pivotal role in generating the Muslims who were facing a serious psychological depression and economic setback after 1857.

Sir Syed advice to the Muslims to avoid active politics:

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and his colleagues advised the Muslims to avoid joining active politics. He was of the opinion that at that stage Muslims should not get involved in active politics. He was not inherently opposed to politics. The point he was presenting was that at that stage and given the problems and conditions of the Muslims at that time, they should stay away from active politics and concentrate on education.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan used to say that at that time Muslim needed education, education and education. If, we look at the facts and the data that was available at that time about the education of Muslims and others in India then we can understand why Sir Syed was so particular about education. From 1859 to 1875 only 20 Muslims were able to get graduation degree from the educational institutions which the British colonial administration had set up in India. Against this during the same period 715 Hindus got the graduation degrees, so you can compare the figure 20 verses 715.

The concern at that time was that if they get involved in active politics and they don’t pay attention to acquiring modern education they will be left behind and the gap between the Muslims and others will widen and ultimately the Muslims would suffer. He wanted that over a period of time, there should be a group of Muslims who had modern education and who could fit into the modern system which the British had introduced, “The Modern State System” the administration which was set up by the British and you can only fit in this system if you get jobs and you had an interaction with this system only if you could get modern education and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan thought that if Muslims have an education then they become relevant to the changed conditions and they will be able to meet with the challenges of the time.

There was another reason why he was emphasizing on education at that much. He thought that if Muslims get too much involved in active politics then the perception that Muslims are against the British will be reinforced and the misunderstandings that had developed between the Muslims and the British would increase but if they have education, they get the requisite qualification that misunderstanding will be removed and they will be among those people who could be playing important role under the British.

A number of other developments during the same period influenced the advice which Sir Syed and his colleagues were giving that is advice to acquire modern knowledge,

Aligarh Movement was a religio-political Movement which contributed a lot for the regeneration and revival of the Muslims of the Sub-Continent. Sir Syed and his colleagues by their combined efforts tried to equip the Muslims community of Sub-Continent with modern knowledge and English language. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a visionary leader and he envisioned that without acquiring modern knowledge the Muslims cannot compete with the Hindus. That’s why he advised the Muslims to acquire modern language to regain their lost glory in the Sub-Continent.

 

What is the significance of the Aligarh Movement for the revival of the Muslims of Subcontinent and why Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to avoid active politics?                       



Shor introduction about Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. 

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the greatest muslim  political leader of the 19th Century . After receiving education in Persian and Arabic he had gone the Government service for study.

  Aligarh Movement Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.

 

 After the war of Independence 1857, Muslims of united India were in great problems and difficulties. British and Hindus both were fight with the Muslims and their civilization. At that time Sir Syed Ahmed Khan came forward set up the relation with United India. He advised them to get education specially the English language which was the master language of at that time. He started a great movement to educate the Muslims of South Asia called Aligarh Movement.

 

Educate the Muslims of called Aligarh Movement.Sir Syed Ahmed Khan wanted to bring closer the Muslims and the British, so that problems and hardships of the Muslims would bereduced. He started Aligarh Movement with high objectives.

 

Aims and objectives of  Aligarh movement. 

Following were the main some aims and objectives of Aligarh Movement.

(i)   Sir Syed Ahmed Khan stressed the Muslims that their golden era had passed and now they were ruled by the British. They should accept this reality, and leave out form living in past. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan tried to improve a lot of the Muslims.

(ii)Sir syed try to mainting the relation between Muslim and Hindu. He worked to convince the British that the Muslims were  real friend of Britist and also accepted their roles. He also realized the British that its role in the war of independence was not up to the mark and they failed to understand the Indian society and its problems.

(iii) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to keep themselves away from the politics till the time they establish the pleasant relations with Englishmen.

(iv) Aligarh Movement rendered great services to educate the Muslim of United India. For this propose following steps had being taken.

 

Q: why Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to avoid active politics?                      

A: However, Political views of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan were strong aversion to the emerging nationalist movement, which was composed largely of Hindus. Sir Syed opposed the Indian National Congress on the grounds that it was a Hindu-majority organization, calling on Muslims to stay away from it. While fearful of the loss of Muslim political power owing to the community's backwardness, Sir Syed was also averse to the prospect of democratic self-government, which would give control of government to the Hindu-majority population:

    At this time our nation is in a weak state in about education and wealth, but God has given us the strong strength of Education. Now God has made them rulers over us. Therefore we should cultivate friendship with them, and should adopt that method by which their rule may remain permanent and tempary, and may not pass into the hands of the Bengalis… If we join the political movement of the Bengalis our nation will reap a loss, for we do not want to become subjects of the Hindus instead of the subjects of the "people of the Book.

Fall2012_PAK301_1_Solution

See the attached file please

Attachments:

MAJOR POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1857-1918?

last date 8/11/12

total marks:-10

Idea solution:-

The year 1857 brought decline to the Muslim rule in India. Muslims and Hindus participated in the War of Independence but the British held only Muslims responsible for the rebellion. The Muslims were persecuted ruthlessly and left at the mercy of time. The post war era was disastrous for the Muslims but some personalities emerged on the national scene and played excellent role to guide their people in this critical situation. The Central Mohammedan Association of Justice Amir Ali Syed and the Aligarh movement are very prominent in this regard. Their efforts for revival of the self-identity and political positioning in the Indian society enabled them to face any challenge in the future.

events during 1857-1900

• Decline after the 1857 Uprising
• Sir Syed and his colleagues’ efforts for revival
• Removal of misunderstanding between the Muslims and the British
• Educational movement or acquisition of modern knowledge and English
• Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the issue that unearthed the hatred and enmity of Hindu community towards the Muslims.
• Formation of the Congress was a method to incorporate the Muslims in Hinduism. It popularized the agitational politics that Muslims could not afford because they were still recovering the past gaps.
• Hindu Revivalist movements mostly targeted the Muslims that accelerated the pace of widening the gulf between the two nations.

Events Since the Beginning of 20TH Century

1. Partition of Bengal, 1905
2. Simla Deputation, 1906
3. Formation of the Muslim League, 1906
4. Changes in the Goals of the Muslim League, 1913
5. Lucknow Pact, 1916

1: Partition of Bengal: 1905

United Bengal’s area covered 189,000 sq. miles with 80 million populations. Dr Abdul Hameed writes in his book, Muslim Separatism in India, that the partition was imperative even if Curzon had not initiated it. A Lt. Governor had problems in looking after the eastern areas. Mainly Muslim suffered because of the rotten administration by the British. Before 1905, many proposals of partition of Bengal had been under consideration but Lord Curzon decided to practice this administrative scheme. East Bengal became incidentally a Muslim majority province having 13000000 out of 31000000. West Bengal was a Hindu majority province. Muslims were very happy on the partition as this had enabled them to promote their life conditions. It was rightly an opportunity for compensation. The Muslim community supported it strongly but Hindus retaliated furiously saying it the division of motherland. The Congress joined the anti-partition movement. They started widespread agitation, violence and boycott of foreign goods. The main reason of Hindu protest was that they had loosened grip over the eastern parts.

2: The Simla Deputation 1906

In fact Simla Deputation was in line with a kind of thinking that was developing amongst the Muslims during that time i.e. they had certain interests and they must stand up to protect their rights and unless they do that that objective would not be achieved. The Simla Deputation of 1906 was the first systematic attempt on the part of the Muslims to present their demands, to the British government and to seek their acceptance. The Simla deputation comprised 35 Muslims from all over India. It was a galaxy of Muslims leaders from all the provinces, from one end of India to the other and it had Muslims of all background. Therefore, when in 1906, this deputation called on the Viceroy, it was the most representative Muslim delegation. This delegation was led by Sir Agha Khan and Nawab Mohsin ul Malik served as a secretary and this delegation met the Viceroy in Simla that was why it was called as Simla Deputation. The memorandum which they presented was a kind of demands which were the uppermost in the minds of the Muslims at that time. The delegation emphasized that the Muslims should not be viewed simply in numerical terms but they should take into account their historical importance and the kind of contribution the Muslims had made to British India and keeping in view that importance they should work towards accommodating their demands. The delegation emphasized that democratic principle should be
introduced keeping in view the peculiar conditions and circumstances of India. The diversity, the fact that there different kinds of people living in India and the fact that the Muslims consider themselves to be a separate entity, all these things had to be taken into account because the India was not a homogenous amalgamated or monolithic political identity. It was a political identity comprising diversity, divergence in view, divergence in outlook and when you introduce some kind of system then these realities had to be accommodated. In view of this submission they presented some demands:

• Representation more than their population because of their importance.
• Separate electorate
• Reservations of Muslims seats in government jobs.
• Special share in Municipal or district boards University senates and syndicates
• Muslim representation in Viceroy Executive Council.
• Muslim University at Aligarh.
3: Formation of the Muslim League in Dhaka: December 30, 1906

Time had come to formally organize the Muslims after the success of the Simla Deputation. The Muslim leaders desired to create a permanent political forum. After the meeting of the Mohammedan Educational Conference, the Muslim leaders met to set up the All India Muslim League. Wiqar-ul-Mulk chaired the meeting. Nawab Salimullah proposed Muslim League and Hakim Ajmal Khan and Maulana Zafar Ali Khan seconded. In the Karachi session Dec. 1907 its constitution was approved and in March 1908 at Aligarh, Agha Khan was formally elected its president.

London Branch: May 1908

Justice Amir Ali Syed organized a branch of Muslim League at London and responded effectively to the misunderstandings and conspiracies of the Hindus against the Muslims.

GOALS:

1. Protection and promotion of political rights and interests of the Muslims.
2. Cooperation with other communities without prejudice to the above goal.
3. Fostering sense of loyalty, among the Muslims, towards the government.

4. Change in the Goals of the Muslim League 1913

Important developments occurred during the first decade of the 20th century like annulment of the Partition of Bengal and Western aggression towards Muslim countries, Balkan wars, Libya-Italy war, Demolition of the mosque in Kawnpur (1913), etc. weakened Muslim faith in the British. This led to a major drift in the Muslim League’s policy. In 1913, the League changed its goals:

• Self government under the British Crown keeping in view the peculiar conditions in India.
• Good relations with other communities’ cooperation with any party working for similar goals.

This change brought the ML and Congress closer. In this way the era of cooperation between Hindus and Muslims set in. The role of the Quaid-i-Azam is highly noteworthy to bring the Congress and the Muslim League to the table. He joined the Muslim League in 1913.

5: Lucknow Pact, 1916

The Lucknow pact was the product of Hindu-Muslim unity envisaged by M. A. Jinnah. In December 1915, the ML and Congress met separately in Bombay. Both the parties set up committees for making a scheme for constitutional changes in consultation with other political parties.

note:-frnds this is just an idea soluution plz ap log is my koch changing kr k is ko kam ya zayda kr k apni assi bnaa sakty han




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PK301



History:
Aligarh movement was a movement of culture, survival, Muslims values, society literature and for the uplift of the Muslims of the subcontinent .After the war of 1857 Muslims were in great trouble because the British had believed that Muslims were responsible for the anti British uplift so they decided to push them in a ruthless and punish them hard .After 1857 this phenomena had become more intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and push the Muslims in suppress forever. At that time Hindus of the subcontinent felt the opportunity and make progress in every walk of life with the help of their support to British and the English language. At that time Sir Syed Ahmed Khan took the responsibility to streamline the Muslims and started Aligarh movement.
Aligarh movement:
When sir Syed Ahmed Khan was posted to Aligarh by the east India Company here he started Aligarh movement, his view was to instead of thinking the past, of their past glory muslins should recognized the reality of the time, according to his views Muslims should accept the changed conditions and circumstances these conditions were that Muslims should recognize that British had established their rule in India and now Muslims are minority they should deal with British who were in movement now. Sir Syed Had also feels that Muslims of the Indian Subcontinent are far behind in education and English language the need of hour is to make them progress in education and English so that they can be able to stand with Indians and British and to fight for their rights .This concept and ideology established the foundation of the Aligarh movement.
Significance of the movement:
Focusing on Education:
The first and the most important significance of the Aligarh movement is the focus on the educational Activities. Sir Syed Was of the view that Muslims should learn modern education, and learn English and to equip them with the modern techniques and knowledge. This would made the Muslims able to stand with Indians and British in every field of life for the uplift of the education of Muslims Sir Syed established educational institutions like Mohammadan Anglo oriental collage at Aligarh (1875) , Aligarh Institute (1866) , Gazi pure and muradabda schools were the institutes for the educational uplift of the Muslims of the subcontinent which had a great impact on the revival of the Muslims of subcontinent.
Other Significance of the Movement was that this movement introduces the new version of Islam equipped with vustudents.ning scientific knowledge and other technical skills.
This makes the Urdu as a official language along with English to maintain and establish Muslims identity and inheritance.
Eliminate the misconceptions between Muslims and British and redefine the relationship among Muslims and British of the subcontinent.
Got quota for Muslims in the government jobs .
Give Islam Protection from conventional thought and minds.
Part (b)
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to not take active part in the politics of the subcontinent and to concentrate on their educational activities, the Muslims in India were in minorities while the Hindus were in majority, at that time there is only one political party in the subcontinent is congress which is purely a Hindus party and it has nothing for Muslim just a slavery for muslins and for to deviate their efforts form education,  when some Muslims had joined Indian National congress he strongly condemned their act because he was of the view that in this country political organization were restricted to few class of people parliamentary democracy would not work with equality so Muslims should focus on their education and learning of new skills Muslims of that time got his words and remained abstained form political activities in the subcontinent for many years after a long time they establish Muslim league for the freedom of their rights.  This party work for the betterment of the Muslims of the subcontinent.

pak301 idea solution fall 2012. assignment 1st

Attachments:

What is the significance of the Aligarh Movement for the revival of the Muslims of Subcontinent and why Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to avoid active politics?                       

Shor introduction about Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. 

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was the greatest muslim  political leader of the 19th Century . After receiving education in Persian and Arabic he had gone the Government service for study.

  Aligarh Movement Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.

 

 After the war of Independence 1857, Muslims of united India were in great problems and difficulties. British and Hindus both were fight with the Muslims and their civilization. At that time Sir Syed Ahmed Khan came forward set up the relation with United India. He advised them to get education specially the English language which was the master language of at that time. He started a great movement to educate the Muslims of South Asia called Aligarh Movement.

 

Educate the Muslims of called Aligarh Movement.Sir Syed Ahmed Khan wanted to bring closer the Muslims and the British, so that problems and hardships of the Muslims would bereduced. He started Aligarh Movement with high objectives.

 

Aims and objectives of  Aligarh movement. 

Following were the main some aims and objectives of Aligarh Movement.

(i)   Sir Syed Ahmed Khan stressed the Muslims that their golden era had passed and now they were ruled by the British. They should accept this reality, and leave out form living in past. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan tried to improve a lot of the Muslims.

(ii)Sir syed try to mainting the relation between Muslim and Hindu. He worked to convince the British that the Muslims were  real friend of Britist and also accepted their roles. He also realized the British that its role in the war of independence was not up to the mark and they failed to understand the Indian society and its problems.

(iii) Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to keep themselves away from the politics till the time they establish the pleasant relations with Englishmen.

(iv) Aligarh Movement rendered great services to educate the Muslim of United India. For this propose following steps had being taken

Q: why Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to avoid active politics?                      

A: However, Political views of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan were strong aversion to the emerging nationalist movement, which was composed largely of Hindus. Sir Syed opposed the Indian National Congress on the grounds that it was a Hindu-majority organization, calling on Muslims to stay away from it. While fearful of the loss of Muslim political power owing to the community's backwardness, Sir Syed was also averse to the prospect of democratic self-government, which would give control of government to the Hindu-majority population:

    At this time our nation is in a weak state in about education and wealth, but God has given us the strong strength of Education. Now God has made them rulers over us. Therefore we should cultivate friendship with them, and should adopt that method by which their rule may remain permanent and tempary, and may not pass into the hands of the Bengalis… If we join the political movement of the Bengalis our nation will reap a loss, for we do not want to become subjects of the Hindus instead of the subjects of the "people of the Book.

The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they made them the subject of ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power. With the rebellion of 1857, this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British crown. 

After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835. This spawned a negative attitude amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community. 

Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress within the Muslim community of India. He was convinced that the Muslims in their attempt to regenerate themselves, had failed to realize the fact that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e., an era of science and learning. He knew that the realization of the very fact was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for regeneration of the Indian Muslims. He tried to transform the Muslim outlook from a medieval one to a modern one. 

Sir Syed's first and foremost objective was to acquaint the British with the Indian mind; his next goal was to open the minds of his countrymen to European literature, science and technology. 

Therefore, in order to attain these goals, Sir Syed launched the Aligarh Movement of which Aligarh was the center. He had two immediate objectives in mind: to remove the state of misunderstanding and tension between the Muslims and the new British government, and to induce them to go after the opportunities available under the new regime without deviating in any way from the fundamentals of their faith. 

Keeping education and social reform as the two planks of his program, he launched the Aligarh Movement with the following objectives: 

1. To create an atmosphere of mutual understanding between the British government and the Muslims. 

2. To persuade Muslims to learn English education. 

3. To persuade Muslims to abstain from politics of agitation. 

4. To produce an intellectual class from amongst the Muslim community

Fall 2012
Assignment # 01 Total Marks: 10
Due Date: November, 8, 2012


What is the significance of the Aligarh Movement for the revival of the Muslims of Subcontinent and why Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to avoid active politics? 


Solution:

Describe the significance and contribution of Aligarh Movement for the revival and regeneration of the Muslims of Sub-Continent.

Syed Ahmad Khan's Aligarh Movement played a significant role in bringing about an intellectual revolution among the Indian Muslims. Thus it succeeded in achieving its major objectives, i.e. educational progress and social reform. His efforts earned Sir Syed the title "Prophet of Education". Virtualinspire.com 
Aligarh Movement was the movement led by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, to educate the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent after the defeat of the rebels in the Indian rebellion of 1857. It had enormous success and had a profound impact on the future of the subcontinent. Its most significant achievement was the establishment of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh, which later became Aligarh Muslim University. 

* Why did Sir Syed advise the Muslims to avoid joining active politics?


Syed advised the Muslims against joining active politics and to concentrate instead on education. Later, when some Muslims joined the Indian National Congress, he came out strongly against that organisation and its objectives, which included the establishment of parliamentary democracy in India. He argued that, in a country where communal divisions were all-important and education and political organisations were confined to a few classes, parliamentary democracy would work only inequitably. Muslims, generally, followed his advice and abstained from politics until several years later when they had established their own political organisation i.e. Muslim League. 


Describe the significance and contribution of Aligarh Movement for the revival and regeneration of the Muslims of Sub-Continent. 

The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they made them the subject of ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power. With the rebellion of 1857, this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British crown. 

After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835. This spawned a negative attitude amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community. 

Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress within the Muslim community of India. He was convinced that the Muslims in their attempt to regenerate themselves, had failed to realize the fact that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e., an era of science and learning. He knew that the realization of the very fact was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for regeneration of the Indian Muslims. He tried to transform the Muslim outlook from a medieval one to a modern one. 

Sir Syed's first and foremost objective was to acquaint the British with the Indian mind; his next goal was to open the minds of his countrymen to European literature, science and technology. 

Therefore, in order to attain these goals, Sir Syed launched the Aligarh Movement of which Aligarh was the center. He had two immediate objectives in mind: to remove the state of misunderstanding and tension between the Muslims and the new British government, and to induce them to go after the opportunities available under the new regime without deviating in any way from the fundamentals of their faith. 

Keeping education and social reform as the two planks of his program, he launched the Aligarh Movement with the following objectives: 

1. To create an atmosphere of mutual understanding between the British government and the Muslims. 

2. To persuade Muslims to learn English education. 

3. To persuade Muslims to abstain from politics of agitation. 

4. To produce an intellectual class from amongst the Muslim community

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