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PAK301 Short and Long Questions Answers PAK301 Short Notes For Mid & Final Term Papers

PAK301 Short and Long Questions Answers PAK301 Short Notes For Mid & Final Term Papers

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Question No: 17    ( Marks: 2 )
 Write down the partition process forBengal?

ANS: The Partition of Bengal in 1947 divided Bengal into the two separate entities of West Bengal belonging to India, and East Bengal belonging to Pakistan. This was part of the Partition of India and officially took place during August 14-August 15, 1947.East Bengal was renamed East Pakistan, and later became the independent nation of Bangladeshafter the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971.

Question No: 18    ( Marks: 2 )
 What did Muslim gain from the Lucknow Pact?

ANS: The most significant achievement of this pact for the Muslims was that for the first time the Congress had recognized the Muslim League as a representative body of the Muslims of the sub-continent and they were granted separate electorates in the provincial as well as in Imperial Legislative Council.

Question No: 19    ( Marks: 3 )
 Write a short note on The Quit India Movement 1942?

ANS: The Quit India Movement (Bharat Chhodo Andolan or the August Movement) was a civil disobedience movement launched in India in August 1942 in response to Mohandas Gandhi's call for immediate independence. Gandhi hoped to bring the British government to the negotiating table. Almost the entire Indian National Congress leadership, and not just at the national level, was put into confinement less than twenty-four hours after Gandhi's speech, and the greater number of the Congress leaders were to spend the rest of World War II in jail...
Question No: 20    ( Marks: 5 )
 Explain the Evolution of Two-Nation Theory in the Subcon?

ANS: The Two-Nation Theory was the basis for the Partition of India in 1947. It stated that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations by every definition, and therefore Muslims should have an autonomous homeland in the Muslim majority areas ofBritish India for the safeguard of their political, cultural, and social rights, within or without a United India.
The Two-Nation Theory is the ideology that the primary identity of Muslims in the Indiansubcontinent is their religion, rather than their language or ethnicity, and therefore Indian Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nationalities, regardless of ethnic or other commonalities.This Theory was a founding principle of the Pakistan Movement (i.e. the Ideology of Pakistan), and the Partition of India in 1947.

Question No: 21    ( Marks: 10 )
 What were Delhi Muslim Proposals? Discuss in detail.?

Important Muslim leaders on the initiative of the Quaid met in Delhi to discuss constitutional and political issues. The major demands were:
_ Punjab and Bengal: statuary Muslim majorities
_ No Weightage in provinces
_ Sind to be separated from Bombay
_ Constitutional Reforms in NWFP
_ One-third seats for Muslims in Central Legislature
_ On communal issues, no law will be passed if three-fourth members of the
concerned community oppose it.
If these demands are accepted, they will give up ‘separate electorate.’ Subsequently, the Muslim
League was divided in the Punjab, Shafi League and Jinnah League. Sir Muhammad Shafi
opposed Jinnah on the issues:
_ Separate electorate
_ Attitude towards the Simon Commission. Jinnah continued his unremitting efforts
to promote Hindu-Muslim unity.

Question No: 17    ( Marks: 2 )
 Write a very short note on Pakistan National Movement in 1940?

 ANS:   The Pakistan Movement  refers to the independence movement of Pakistanfrom the British Indian empire and its emergence as a sovereign country. It has its origins in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.  The movement was led by lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah and such leaders as Allama Iqbal, Liaqat Ali Khan, Fatima Jinnah,Bahadur Yar Jung, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, A.K. Fazlul Huq, and Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Sir Ziauddin Ahmed.

Question No: 19    ( Marks: 3 )
 What were the main points of Lucknow Pact?

ANS: The main clauses of the Lucknow Pact were:
1. There shall be self-government in India.
2. Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government
3. There should be separate electorates for all the communities until a community demanded for joint electorates.
4. System of weightage should be adopted.

Question No: 20    ( Marks: 5 )
 Write a note on The Communal Award, 1932?
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the Communal Award:
1. Separate electorate for all minorities ofIndia.
2. Weightage to minorities
3. No Muslim majorities in Punjab andBengal as was followed in Lucknow Pact
4. One third representation for Muslims in Central legislature
5. One fourth representation for Muslims in services
6. Sind to be made a province

ANS: Question No: 21  ( Marks: 10)
What were the main steps that were adopted towards the partition of Indian Subcontinent?


Question No: 1 ( Marks: 20 )

Write a detailed note on the impacts of Khilaphat Movement on Indian politics.

The Khilafat movement (1919-1924) was a pan-Islamic, political campaign launched byMuslims in British India to influence the British government and to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of World War I. The position of Caliph after the Armistice of Mudros of October 1918 with the military occupation of Istanbul and Treaty of Versailles(1919) fell into a disambiguation along with the Ottoman Empire's existence. The movement gained force after the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920) which solidified the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire[1].
In India, although mainly a Muslim religious movement, the movement became a part of the wider Indian independence movement. The movement was a topic in Conference of London (February 1920). The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English-educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements.After World War I, the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the Muslims of South Asia launched the historic Khilafat Movement to try and save it. Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi linked the issue of Swaraj with the Khilafat issue to associate Hindus with the movement. The ensuing movement was the first countrywide popular movement.The Muslims of India had a strong feeling of identity with the world community of Islam. They had seen the decline in the political fortunes of Islam as the European powers conquered the Muslim lands one after the other. The Anglo-Russian convention of 1908 had reduced their next-door neighbor Iran to a mere dependency.Afghanistan also suffered as it was a bone of contention between Russia and Britain, and was now under the latter's sphere of influence.The general impression among the Muslims of India was that the western powers were waging a war against Islam throughout the world in order to rob it of all its power and influence. The Ottoman Empire was the only Muslim power that had maintained a semblance of authority and the Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction.
As an institution, the Khilafat had a checkered past. It had originally migrated from Medina to Damascus and fromDamascus to Baghdad. For sometime it was located in Egypt, then it fell to the lot ofTurkey, very much as a prize. The Turkish Sultans had claimed to be the caliphs of the Muslim world. As long as the Mughal Empire had been in existence, the Muslims of India had not recognized their claim. At this critical juncture, when the Muslims of the Sub-continent had no sovereign ruler of their own, they began to see the necessity of recognizing the Sultan of Turkey as their caliph. Tipu Sultan was the first Indian Muslim who, having been frustrated in his attempts to gain recognition from the Mughals, had turned to the Sultan of Turkey to establish a legal right to his throne.
The European powers had played a leading role in reducing the might of Turkey inEurope to Eastern Thrace, Constantinopleand the straits in the Balkan Wars (1912-13). To seek revenge, the Turks decided to side with the Germans against the Allied Forces. The Indian Muslims supported this decision.
Muhammad Ali argued that for Muslims to accept mandates over Iraq, Syria andPalestine would amount to a total disregard of the wishes of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). Thus the Muslims of India launched the Tehrik-i-Khilafat. The objectives were as follows:
1. To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.
2. To protect the holy places of the Muslims.
3. To maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire.
Although the Khilafat Movement failed to achieve its declared objectives, it carried political awakening to large masses of Muslims. It was during the Khilafat days that representatives of Indian Muslims came into contact with eminent personages from other Muslims countries to save the semblance of unity in the world of Islam.
The Khilafat Movement was an asset for the struggle of Pakistan. It made clear to the Indian Muslims to trust neither the British nor the Hindus, but to look to their own strengths for self-preservation.
Question No: 2 ( Marks: 20 )

Do you think that it was a failure of democracy which led to imposition of Martial Law in 1958? Give your opinion.


Question No: 3 ( Marks: 20 )

Write a short note on all the given topics (Answer should not exceed five lines each).

(a) Dissolution of the First Constituent Assembly 5
The first Constituent Assembly came into existence under Indian Independence Act 1947. The elections were held in July 1946 to decide the destiny of the All India Muslim League (AIML)’s claim that it is the only representative party of the Indian Muslims that desire separate homeland, Pakistan. The members from the districts that became part of Pakistan were declared members of the Constituent Assembly.
In October 1954, GG (Governor General) dissolved the cinstitutional assembly that was challenged in the Sindh court by Maulvi Tamizuddin. The court declared the dissolution illegal but the Federal Court upheld the GG action but asked for setting up an elected CA.


 (b) 1973 Constitution 5
Constitutional Committee comprising National Assembly (NA) members from all parties was set up in April 1972. Law Minister was the Chairman of this Committee.All parties agreed on the future political system in October 1972. The Committee reported on December 31, 1972. After long deliberations and compromises final draft was approved
unanimously on April 10, 1973. The new Constitution was enforced on August 14, 1973.

(c) General Mirza Aslam Beg 5

General Mirza Aslam Beg, born 2 August, 1931,is a retired four star rank general who was the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army succeeding General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, after the latter died in an air crash on August 17, 1988. He continued to hold the powerful post of Army Chief till 1991, when his political ambitions forced the then President Ghulam Ishaq Khan to nominate General Asif Nawaz as the new Army chief three months prior to Gen Beg’s retirement

(d) Importance of Cotton export 5
The importance of cotton can hardly be over emphasized in the economy of Pakistan. Pakistanis  the 3rd largest exporter of raw cotton and a leading exporter of yarn in the world. Cotton is not only an export-earning crop but also provides raw material to local textile industry. A profound investment in the form of over1000 ginning factories, over 400, textile mills heavily depends upon cotton. 

*Total Marks are 40


Question No. 1

What were the salient features of the Minto-Morley Reforms?
This act was another step towards giving Indians more representation in the Government.
This act provided,
_ Expansion of Legislative Councils
_ Central: Additional members up to 60
_ But official majority remained there.
_ Provincial: Size varied in different provinces.
_ Bombay, Madras, Bengal, UP: 50
_ Non-official majority
_ Not all the members were elected.
_ Powers of the Councils were increased. Now

_ Budget could be discussed. Members were allowed to present Resolutions and put up questions.
_ Executive Councils were formed forBombay, Madras and Bengal andLt.Governor Provinces.
_ Elections were to be held by University Senate, District Boards, Municipal Committees, Zamindars, and Chambers of Commerce.
_ Separate Electorate was accepted for minorities.

Question No.2
Marks: 20

Short Questions (Answer should not exceed more than five lines each).

(a) Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
The greatest Muslim reformer and statesman of the 19th Century, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born inDelhi on October 17, 1817.His early  life was spent in the atmosphere of the family of a Mughal noble.death of his father in 1838 left the family in difficulties. Thus young Syed was compelled at the early age of 21 to look for a career.His  greatest achievement was his Aligarh Movement,. He was mourned by a large number of friends and admirers.

 (b) Sardar Abdul Rab Nishtar
Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar was born on June 13, 1899at Peshawar.In College days, he joined Khilafat Movement In 1927. He took an active part in the boycott of Simon Commission.  In 1936, he was appointed a Member of the All India Muslim League Council. He was also a gifted poet. He died onFebruary 13, 1958 and was laid to rest in the courtyard of Quaid-e-Azam's mausoleum.

(c) The Fourteen Points of MA Jinnah
1. Federal system with residuary powers with the provinces
2. Provincial autonomy.
3. Separate electorate for Muslims.
4. Effective representation to minorities in the provinces but the majority should not
be reduced to minority
5. One-third representation of Muslims in Central Legislature.
6. One third Muslim representation in cabinets.
7. No changes in the boundaries of thePunjab and Bengal that would adversely
affect Muslim majority.
8. Religious freedom to all.
9. No law will be passed if three-fourth elected members of a community declare
that it is against their interests.
10. Sind to be made a separate province.
11. Constitutional Reforms in NWFP and Balochistan.
12. Muslim representation in govt. jobs.
13. Constitutional safeguards for Islamic culture and civilization, education,
language, personal laws and Muslim institutions. Government should provide financial
14. No constitutional amendment unless all constituent units of the federation agree
to it.

(d) Sir Sikandar Hayat

Hayat, Sikandar, Sardar Sir (1892-1942) Statesman. A political figure in *British India and a graduate of the Aligarh and London universities, Sir Sikandar was a major land-owner of northern *Punjab. From 1935 to 1936, he served as Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India, and was a member of the Boards of eleven major commercial and industrial companies. Between 1935 and 1942, he served as President of the Punjab National Unionist Party. After signing the Liaquat-Sikandar pact in 1937, under which Muslim members of the Unionist Party could also enjoy membership of the *Muslim League, he was also simultaneously a member of the *All-India Muslim League. From 1937 to 1940, he served as Chief Minister of Punjab. Elevated as Governor Punjab, he died in office in 1942. 
 (e) Separate Electorates
The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-I Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state.

Total Marks: 40

Total Questions: 6
What were the problems faced by the newly state of Pakistan in 1947?

ANS: The attainment of independence brought an end to one phase of the struggle and marked the beginning of a new one for setting up and running a viable, stable and prosperous state. Pakistan began its independent life under very difficult and unfavorable circumstances. Pakistan faced serious problems in the initial stages.
1. New Administration
2. Division of Assets
3. Integration of Princely States
4. Communal Riots and Arrival of Refugees
5. Canal water and trade issues
1: New Administration
The shortage of trained human power especially senior officers was a serious problem in the
setting up of federal government in Karachi. Most of them had migrated to India. There was a
shortage of office space, equipment and furniture. This disturbed the direct connections between
the federal government and provincial governments. On the other hand, the provincial
governments were overburdened that needed very accurate connection between the centre and
the provinces to solve the problems of the Muslim refugees who had nothing to eat, drink, wear,
rest, etc. To counter the critical situation, the official system should have been efficient but due to
the lack of all these facilities the administrative authorities were painfully facing difficulties.
2: Division of Assets
The Indian government was not cooperative for transfer of record and equipment toPakistan.
The civil administration was not handing over the promised financial, military, and other shares
that created mountainous hurdles to eradicate the pains and miseries of the refugees.
Financial Assets
The full financial share of Pakistan was not transferred. Initially rupees 200 million were
transferred that were not sufficient to meet the expenditures of the newly born state. The
Indian government was so reactionary that it tried its level best to block these funds to
suffocate the newly born Muslim state as they expected foolishly that Pakistan would
collapse and rejoin India soon after its existence. They did not release the remaining
funds until Gandhi’s threat of marn bert (fast until death). Under this pressure, more funds
were sent in early 1948 but no installment was later paid.
Military’s Division
As far as the problem in dividing man power there was no serious setback because the
division was not in the hand of third person and Muslims were free to come to their
dreamland, Pakistan. Anyhow, their shifting was slow and insecure. There were
obstacles in the Pakistan’s share of weapons, equipment, and stores. The broken and
damaged stuff was sent by India. Pakistandid not get any ordinance factory.
Reorganization of the Armed Forces was another tough job and the there was no army
officer up to the rank of colonel. The shortage of experienced officers convinced British
officers to continue their services. This also accelerated undue promotion in the military
services to fill the gap.
3: Integration of Princely States
There were over 560 princely states in Indiaon the verge of the partition of India. About 500
states had joined India before August 15 because of the motivation by V. P. Menon and
Mountbatten. The princes were inclined to honour every gesture of the British representative so
they conceded what the member of the Royal family (Mountbatten) wished. The Hindu-British
conspiracy blocked states to join Pakistan.
It was a small state with access to sea having about 7 lakh population and 3377 mile
area. The ruler was Muslim while the majority of its population was Hindu. The ruler
decided to accede to Pakistan and Pakistanalso accepted the accession. In November
1947, the Indian troops entered the state and took its control. The referendum favoured
It was geographically big and financially a rich state. Its ruler was Muslim and majority
population was Hindu. It was surrounded byIndia from all sides. The Nizam wanted to
stay independent. Mountbatten discouraged him and signed Standstill Agreement. But
India built pressure on the Nizam by sending its troops in September 1948 claiming that
serious law and order situation had developed. The state was integrated inIndia.
The most important state was Kashmirnaturally connected with Pakistan. Its ruler was
Hindu while population was Muslim. The population inclined towards Pakistan but the
Hindu ruler declared to join India. The Kashmiri people revolt against the ruler in Poonch
area and soon it became widespread. The ruler sought Indian support. India demanded
accession. On October 27, 1947 Indian troops landed in Srinagar. The people continued
their struggle for independence and Indiapromised to finally settle the matter with
reference to the people under the UN Resolutions.
4: Communal Riots and Refugees
The Communal riots occurred earlier in August 1946. The killing of Muslims in Indian areas forced
them to leave India. The Sikhs and Hindus attacked the refugee caravans and trains. There were
organized gangs to kill the Muslims. The refugee problem created critical condition in the border
areas. The massive migration proved serious economic and humanitarian problems for the new
state. The military was asked to help cope with the refugee problem.
5: Canal Water Problem
The major rivers flow from Kashmir and some canal heads located in India. In 1948,India cut off
water to some canal that was a serious threat to agriculture in West Pakistan. The Indian plans to
build water storage on the rivers that are vital for Pakistan’s economy worsened the situation. It
also showed the traditional anti-Muslim attitude. The World Bank settled the problem in
September 1960 (Indus Water Treaty).
6: Trade Problem and the Economy
India devalued its currency in 1949 butPakistan refused to do so. It stopped trade that adversely
affected Pakistan’s economy as it depended on trade from India. Pakistan had inherited a weak
economy and poor industrial base. The beginning years of Pakistan were troubled and difficult
due to the India’s non-helpful policy and the war in Kashmir. It had profound impact onPakistan’s
worldview and its relations with India.Pakistan strived for its survival and security. Many Indians
and the British predicted the collapse ofPakistan. They were of the opinion that very soon the
Muslims would realize their blunder. They would be forced by the circumstances to go back to
join India. But PAKISTAN, by the grace of Almighty Allah, was able to meet the challenge even
with its problems.

Question No.2Question No.2Marks : 20
Short Questions (Answer should not exceed more than five lines each).
(a) Scientific SocietyThe establishment of the Scientific Society is landmark in the educational movement of Syed Ahmad. It was established in Ghazipur and then moved with Syed Ahmad toAligarh. First publication took place inAligarh, Jan 9, 1864. Its main objective was to translate the classical works of English (Literature, Science, Engineering and Agriculture) into Urdu. Its stated injective was to “bring the knowledge and literature of the Western world within reach of the immense masses of the people of the east. In 1866, the Society became “Aligarh Institute Gazette” and continued to be published until Syed’ death. 
 (b) The Allahabad Address of Allama Muhammad Iqbal. Iqbal presented a review of the political and social situation of India and solution of the illsbefalling India. He evaluated the importance of role of Islam in the lives of Muslims of British India. He said that the European view of duality of religion and state does not apply here in the Indian society. Rejecting the secularism he said, religion is not a totally personal affair.He explained that Islam offers an ethical order, socio-political structure, legal framework, code of life, culture and civilization. It is a living, dynamic force that has a profound impact on the lives of Indian Muslims. With the force of Islam the scattered and disoriented people have been turned into an organized force.The Muslims are not willing to submerge their religious individuality. They have lack of trust, fear of domination from Hindus. If the British want any sort of internal harmony it would be impossible unless the communal question is settled. It’s historical reality thatIndia is a continent inhabited by diverse people. No political arrangement may be acceptable without recognizing this reality.• If the Muslims have an opportunity to develop in accordance with their Islamiccivilization and tradition, they would be willing to sacrifice their lives for India.• Federalism cannot succeed without recognizing the national identity of theMuslims.• Territorial redistribution of British India on the basis of religion has become aneed of time.• Punjab, NWFP, Sind and Balochistan be amalgamated into a state, selfgovernment within the British empire or without it. The formation of such a consolidatedNorth Western Muslim state appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least ofNorth West India. To India, it will offer peace and security due to internal balance ofpower.• Islam is a people building force in India that has given moral consciousness andpolitical identity to the people.

(c) The Lahore Resolution The Muslim League held its annual session at Lahore on 22-24 March 1940. The LahoreResolution was moved by Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Ch. Khaliquzzaman that finallyapproved on March 24, 1940. Jinnah rightly expressed his valuable remarks about the politicalcircumstances of India and the Muslims stand. He said:“Indian problem is not communal but international. No Constitution can workwithout recognizing this reality. Muslims of India will not accept a constitutionthat establishes a government of the Hindu majority on them. If Hindus andMuslims are placed under one democratic system, this would mean HinduRaj.”
(d) Achhut community

(e) i
: Describe the causes of the division of Bengal and its impact on the Muslim politics in
the subcontinentANS: United Bengal’s area covered 189,000 sq. miles with 80 million populations. Dr Abdul Hameedwrites in his book, Muslim Separatism in India, that the partition was imperative even if Curzon had not initiated it. A Lt. Governor had problems in looking after the eastern areas. Mainly Muslim suffered because of the rotten administration by the British. Before 1905, many proposals of partition of Bengal had been under consideration but Lord Curzon decided to practicalise thisadministrative scheme. East Bengal became incidentally a Muslim majority province having 13000000 out of 31000000. West Bengal was a Hindu majority province. Muslims were very happy on the partition as this had enabled them to promote their life conditions. It was rightly an opportunity for compensation. The Muslim community supported it strongly but Hindus retaliated furiously saying it the division of motherland. The Congress joined the anti-partition movement.They started widespread agitation, violence and boycott of foreign goods. The main reason ofHindu protest was that they had loosened grip over the eastern parts.
Question No. 2. 20
Short Questions (Answer should not exceed more than five lines each).
a: Risala Asbab-i-Baghawat-i-hindRisala Asbab-i-Baghawat-i-Hind written by ser syed ahmed khan in 1858.ithelped both the nations to redress their grievances.

 b: Governor-GeneralGovernor General could assign special tasks to any members of the Executive Council.Important matters were to be discussed with the Governor General.Mountbatten wanted to be joint GG (Governor General) of India and Pakistanwhile ML decided to appoint Jinnah as the first Governor General of Pakistan in July.Oath taking ceremony for GG (Governor General) and PM (Prime Minister) was held on August 15 1947.
c: Home Rule League The All India Home Rule League was a national political organization founded in 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home RuleThe main aim of establishing the Home Rule League was to agitate for the achievement of Home Rule for India. Home Rule League made much progress and the cry of Home Rule resounded throughout the country. Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak were two prominent leaders of the Home Rule Leagued: Nawab Salimullah Khan http://www.vustudents.netNawab Salimullah belonged to the most prominent land owning family of Bengal and was born in 1884 at Dhaka Nawab Salimullah was hardly seventeen year old when his father died in 1901 and he became the 'Nawab of Dhaka' He was a great advocate and champion of the cause of the Muslim rights and supported the plan for the partition of Bengal.In 1908 Nawab Salimullah presided over the all India Muslim Educational Conference. Amritsar. . He. was a nominated Member of the Eastern Bengal andAssam Legislative Council in 1901.He was Vice President All India Muslim League in 1910 and 1913 and President of the League in 1912.The annulment of the partition of Bengal in 1911 had deeply hurt him and he died at the young age of 31 on January 16.1915.
 e: Sir Amir AliSyed Ameer Ali traced his lineage through the eighth Imam, Ali Al-Raza, to the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). He was born on April 6, 1849. His father, on the advice of some friendly British officers, made a break with the traditions and gave his sons an English education. Ameer Ali was educated at Hoogly College  He graduated in 1867 and became one of the first Muslim graduates in India. In 1868, he passed his MA in history, and law, and in the same year proceeded to England on a government scholarship to pursue his higher studies. In London, he joined the Temple Inn and made contacts with the elite of the city. He imbibed the influence of contemporary liberalism. He wrote a number of books on Islam and Islamic history. His most notable contributions are "The Spirit of Islam", "A Short History of the Saracens" and "Muhammadan Law". His book "Spirit of Islam", to some scholars, was the greatest single work on the liberal exposition of Islam.He died on August 4, 1928 in Sussex.

Explain the Cabinet Mission Plan and reaction of the political parties.
ANS: The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and plan for the transfer of power from the British Raj to Indian leadership, providing India with independence under Dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations. Formulated at the initiative of Clement Attlee, thePrime Minister of the United Kingdom, the mission consisted of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, did not participate. The Mission's purpose was:1.     Hold preparatory discussions with elected representatives of British India and the Indian states in order to secure agreement as to the method of framing the constitution.2.     Set up a constitution body.3.     Set up an Executive Council with the support of the main Indian parties.
The approval of the plans would determine the composition of the new government. The Congress Working Committee had initially approved the plan. However, on 10 July, Jawaharlal Nehru, who later became the first prime minister of India, held a press conference in Bombaydeclaring that the Congress had agreed only to participate in the Constituent Assembly and "regards itself free to change or modify the Cabinet Mission Plan as it thought best."[2] The Congress ruled out the June 16 plan, seeing it as the division of India into small states[citation needed]. Moreover,the Congress was a Centralist party. Intellectuals like Kanji Dawarkadas criticized the Cabinet Plan. Congress was against decentralization and it had been under pressure from Indian capitalists who wanted a strong Center. The plan's strongest opponent was the principal Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi, due to the reason that the territories had been grouped together on the basis of religion[citation needed].The Muslim League gave its approval to the plan. There was an impression that the Congress also had accepted the scheme and the Plan would be the basis of the future constitution of India[citation needed]. Jinnah, in his speech to the League Council, clearly stated that he recommended acceptance only because nothing better could be obtained[citation needed]. However, on declaration from the Congress President that the Congress could change the scheme through its majority in the Constituent Assembly, this meant that the minorities would be placed at the mercy of the majority. The Muslim League Council met at Bombayon 27 July. "Mr. Jinnah in his opening speech reiterated the demand for Pakistanas the only course left open to the Muslim League. After three days' discussion, the Council passed a resolution rejecting the Cabinet Mission Plan.
Question No: 17    ( Marks: 2 ) Express Gandhi-Jinnah Talks, September 1944?
ANS: MK Gandhi did not accept the Hindus and Muslims as Two Nations and emphasized on the freedom of united India. Jinnah told him that the Muslims could never budge even a single inch from their ideological and constitutional demand.
  Question No: 18    ( Marks: 2 ) Highlight The Second Roundtable Conference?
ANS: Maulana M. A. Jauhar had died after the first conference. Iqbal, Jinnah and othersparticipated in the second conference. Gandhi represented the Congress. The key issuesof the session were ‘Federation’ and ‘Minorities.Question No: 19    ( Marks: 3 ) Briefly tell The Direct Action Day August 16, 1946?
ANS: August 16,1946 The ML’s timely coercive political strategy brought the Congress on table with the British. The Interim Government was formed under Nehru on September 2, 1946 and the ML stayed away.They joined it on October 25, 1946:_ Liaquat Ali Khan_ Sardar Abdur-Rab Nishtar_ Raja Gazanfar Ali_ Chundrigar_ J. N. MandalThere were a number of problems of smooth functioning of the Interim Government due to the Muslim-Hindu differences.
   Question No: 20    ( Marks: 5 ) Explain the Cancellation of the Partition ofBengal?ANS: The cancellation of the Partition ofBengal was announced in 1911.The British government revoked the partition to avoid trouble on the visit of King George V. TheMuslims were disappointed by the government response to the violent strategy of protestsadopted by the Hindus.   Question No: 21    ( Marks: 10 ) Highlight Iqbal's vision of a separate Muslim state in the Subcontinent?
 ANS: VISION OF A SEPARATE MUSLIMSTATEMen like Allama Iqbal are born but in centuries. He was conscious of significance of Islam in livesof the Muslims. His first public appearance was in 1899 at the annual session of AnjumanHimayat-i-Islam in Lahore when he presented the poem, Nala-i-Yatim.At initial stages Dr Iqbal was a nationalist by ideas and his poetry contained verses like Tarana-i-Hind. His poetry was a critique of the existing societal conditions. Being educated from Europe,he knew all weak aspects of the Western culture. He criticized capitalism, materialism and lack ofspiritualism.IQBAL- Focus on the conditions of the Indian MuslimsIslam can salvage the MuslimsIslam has always saved MuslimIslam is a living and dynamic ideology that canmeet modern challengesIslam to help them to overcome their internaldiscord and enable them to meet external challengesWith spiritualism based derived from IslamIjtehad and Reinterpretation(READ: Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam)Address to the Muslim League Session,Allahabad, December 1930I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, Balochistanamalgamated into a single state as a self government within theBritish empire or without. This is the final destiny of theMuslims of N.W. India.

Question No: 21    ( Marks: 2 ) Briefly tell about the Relations betweenPakistan and Egypt?
ANS:    Egypt under Nasser had some reservations due to Pakistan’s ties with the West. Pakistan supported Egypt when it was attacked by Israel in 1956, 1967, 1973. The relations began to improve since 1967 and especially after the death of Nasser in 1970.
Question No: 22    ( Marks: 2 ) Write a very brief note on Land Reforms in Pakistan?
Ans: Land Reforms are introduced from time to time by different governments: in1959, 1972, and 1977. The aim was to reduce land holding and to strengthen theposition of tenants. It was done for improving yield per acre and poverty alleviation inagriculture field.
   Question No: 23    ( Marks: 2 ) What was the total strength of the National Assembly under the 1956 Constitution?    The President was to be elected by National Assembly (NA)PM would be appointed by President. President could not remove him unless he wassure that PM did not enjoy the support of majority in the National Assembly.National Assembly was the only house of the parliament having a membership of 300plus10 women seats.All legislative powers were rested with NA.NA could control the Executive.

Question No: 24    ( Marks: 2 ) Draw attention to Junagarh issue.    It was a small state with access to sea having about 7 lakh population and 3377 milearea. The ruler was Muslim while the majority of its population was Hindu. The rulerdecided to accede to Pakistan and Pakistanalso accepted the accession. In November1947, the Indian troops entered the state and took its control. The referendum favouredIndia.
Question No: 25 ( Marks: 3 ) Briefly tell about the issue of Islamic or Secular status of Pakistan as a State?From the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state will have close relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam and its heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly, and a few secularists.There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state will identify itself with Islam. The Constituent Assembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam.
   Question No: 26    ( Marks: 3 ) Write down some line about the educational career of Allama Iqbal. Iqbal began his education in a Maktab (Religious School).He passed his matriculation in 1893, and joined the Scotch Mission College (now called Murray College) for his intermediate examination. Iqbal passed intermediate with honour and shifted to Lahore and joined the GovernmentCollege. He graduated cum-laude and was also awarded a scholarship for further study leading towards a master’s degree in Philosophy.Question No: 27    ( Marks: 3 ) Write a note on the Geographical location of Pakistan.
Pakistan is located between 24_37 degrees North latitude 61_75 degrees East longitude.Its area is 796,095 sq Kilometers..Question No: 29    ( Marks: 5 )
 What do you know about the River/Cannal System in Pakistan?    The river system of Pakistan is consisted of Indus and other associated rivers. We have a well defined Canal system. The most important one is the Indus Basin project.What we require is the proper management of water, its conservation, effective use, storage,dams and flood control. Water is dangerous if it is too much, it become a problem if it is too little.It is used for Agriculture where it is the backbone of agro-economy. It is also a cheapest source of hydroelectric Power generation.Question No: 30    ( Marks: 5 ) Write a note on the industrialization inPakistan during Bhutto and Zia’s regimes.    New democratic government of PPP after assuming power adopted the policy of nationalisation.Ten basic industries were nationalised. Later some others were also taken over to have a greater state role. Initial euphoria ended and industrial output suffered. It also caused flight of capital from the country.
Question No: 31    ( Marks: 5 ) Outline the criticism raised against the First Report of Basic Principle Committee.  What were the policies adopted by the Congress Government after the elections of 1937?   

   Write down the names of the members of Simla Deputation?  The Simla deputation comprised 35 Muslimsfrom all over was the most representative Muslim delegation. This delegation was led by Sir Agha Khan and Nawab Mohsin ul Malik served as a secretary.  
  Briefly tell about The Cripps Mission, March 1942 


  Question No: 20      ( Marks: 5 )  
   What is the ideology of Pakistan?   
  Question No: 21      ( Marks: 10 )  This report was severely criticized throughout the country. It could not satisfy both the wings, East and West. The religious group objected that the report contained nothing about Islamisation. On the question of representation, the East Pakistan (EP) protested that their majority had been denied by the Report. They remarked that they were thrown into a permanent minority. The population of EP was slightly larger than that of the West Pakistan (WP) but it was treated as the small provinces because both the Houses were given equal powers. So the domination of WP was intolerable for the East wing. The language issue proved subversive to the national solidarity.

 Question No: 17      ( Marks: 2 )  


. First all Congress governments in the provinces launched anti-Muslim drive basically to exclude the ML and other Muslim organizations from the government making process. The Congress leaders had come to know that the ML had got roots in the masses. They started ‘Muslim Mass Contact’ movement to defame the ML in their favour. They were making cultural and educational policies that promoted the Hindu culture and symbols in the name of Indian culture. They introduced Banda-Mataram anthem from Annandmath in the institutions and offices etc. The Hindi language was given top most importance in their policies. Wardha Educational Scheme was to convert Muslims into Hindus through primary educational literature. Projection of Hindu heroes like Gandhi and distortion of Muslim history became their moral creed. They followed the policy ofdiscrimination in services or new recruitment for jobs. The Congress ministries adopted overall negative and cruel attitude, especially towards the Muslim activists. This unjust treatment compelled the Muslims to be disciplined in every sphere of life.

   Question No: 31    ( Marks: 2 ) Define Constitution?    Constitution is a set of basic principles and framework for governance and exercise of political power and legal authority. It clarifies the scope of power, relationship among various institutions within the government and society. It has precedence over ordinary laws and cannot be changed like ordinary laws.
Question No: 32    ( Marks: 2 ) How many seasons are there inPakistan?   Question No: 33    ( Marks: 2 ) What is Koh-e-Malik Siah?   Question No: 34    ( Marks: 3 ) In recent geopolitical scenario what rolePakistan's foreign policy should perform?    The main aims of features of ‘Foreign Policy’ are protection of- independence, Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity. Primary concern is the SECURITY through diplomacy and military security arrangements. National mobilization regarding Pakistan’s security vis-à-vis Indiainfluenced foreign policy options. Strong defense is indispensable for survival.
Question No: 35    ( Marks: 3 ) Define agriculture and its role in any country’s prosperity
   Question No: 36    ( Marks: 3 ) Write note on Islamic Research Institute under the 1962 Constitution?Islamic Research Institute It was designed for the Research and instructions in Islam for assisting the reconstruction of Muslim society on truly Islamic lines.
    Question No: 37    ( Marks: 5 ) Write a short not on Pakistan's Papulation and its features?    Pakistan is having a large population. The growth rate recorded over 3 percent in the 1970s toearly 1990s. Now declined due to a number of measures by the government but still it is higher ascompare to the other countries of the region. Census is taken after every ten years.
• More than 50 Percent population is under the age of 21. A large part of thispopulation is dependent.• Add to this people over 65 years.• About 30 percent population lives in urban areas.• Why migrations to urban areas: Education, jobs, facilities etc.• Impact of urbanization: Poor civic conditions, education, health, housing, townplanning etc.• Provincial population.Punjab 56-57 percentSind 23 percentNWFP 14 percentBaluchistan 5.3 percent• Low literacy rate: Official literacy rate is 46 percent but functional literacy rate is evenlower.• Women literacy rate is much lower. In certain areas of Baluchistan women literacy isnominal to non-existent.• Why population figures are important. For Planning and development, Socio-economicdevelopment and poverty alleviation etc.• Social development indicators are poor inPakistan. No ideal figure for populationcan be named. It depends upon the resources. High population is asset as well as aliability because we cannot feed them.• Efforts to manage population are being done by the Government as well as bynon-governmental organizations in the field of health care, family planning and education.
Question No: 38    ( Marks: 5 ) What were the Islamic Provisions introduced in the Constitution of 1962?    Islamic ProvisionsObjectives Resolution was the Preamble of the Constitution. Other Islamic provisions were a partof Principles of Policy and not the constitution.
Question No: 39    ( Marks: 10 ) Elucidate Pakistan’s relations with the world in detail? Pakistan has good relations with almost all the nations of the world on the basis of mutuality ofinterests, cordiality, peace and non-interference in internal affairs. Pakistanbelieves thatproblems to be resolved peacefully.Relations with Major Powers:The nature of relations with major powers has varied.United StatesPakistan-US relations have been generally friendly but problems developed from time to time onnuclear issue, arms sales, Kashmir etc.ChinaChina proved to be a reliable and consistent friend over the periods of decades. Pakistansupported China diplomatically in the UN and the Outside. Both the countries have developedclose relations in all the areas including economic development and industrialization, defense,science and technology, environment and trade.RussiaPakistan has working relations with Russiabut frequent problems remained unsolved during theperiod of Cold War. Russia remained favorable to India at the cost of its relations with Pakistan.On Kashmir issue, her attitude has been proIndia.Some economic relations strengthened the bilateral relations when Russia provided economicand technological assistance to Pakistan in establishing steel mill in Karachi. In post-Cold Warera, Pakistan is trying to normalize the relations. The recent tour of President Musharraf is a steptowards this goal.Economic Issues, Trade, Investment:Greater importance is attributed to the issues like economic development, direct foreigninvestment and trade relations in international relations. Foreign policy is linked with foreignassistance from the World Bank, IMF, Asian Development Bank, International Development Bankand other sources. Economic relations are both bilateral and multi-lateral. Technology, trade,access to market and investment are keys to the cordial relations between the two countries.Pakistan is also trying to establish its relations with other countries on the same footings.Muslim States:Being Islamic country, Pakistan has been always in search of good relations with the Muslimcountries. It has been a central point in the ideology of Pakistan even beforeIndependence.Solidarity with the Developing States:
    Pakistan had been concerned with the issues and problems of the states of Asia,Africa andLatin America. As it is developing countries it is well aware of the problems of underdevelopment,poverty, disease, famine, civil strife and border disputes, refugees and drug addiction.Pakistan always emphasized on the UN and developed countries to help them. Peace cannot bemaintained if humanity is suffering.Cooperation among developing countries in the areas of economic and technical assistance,trade and diplomacy support to these causes should be enhanced.
Question No: 40    ( Marks: 10 ) Comment on the importance of Education and why Pakistan’s position is low down in Literacy?Importance of Education:Education is a key to development for individual, society and state. It shapes natural qualities andtalents of the individuals. It has positive relevance to family and society. It also confers citizens’confidence to deal with environment, a sense of purpose. Education provides a goal orientationand is helpful to others by educating them.Education provides entitlement to job and professions. It gives effective tanning to the citizensabout their rights and duties. It plays a more constructive role in character building of the personand in turn society as a whole.Education should be integrated to nation building and should be able to transmit the primaryvalues. Education should be responsible for the formation of attitude.It should transmit socialization among individuals.Education system is designed according to the ideology of the state and its identity. Education isthe indicator of socio-economic development. For the real progress proper educational facilitiesshould be provided. Literacy rate should be enhanced. Trained and qualified human power canmake a nation success. Only such educated people can better be equipped to deal with changingsituations and challenges of the time. Education provides better understanding of internationalenvironment that affects all of us. Islam asks Muslims to get education. Other religions also valueeducation.Resource allocation for education is far from satisfactory. It is much less than what a largenumber of countries spend on education, especially those having developed after World War II.Most of these allocations go to salaries and administration.Fewer amounts are given for infrastructure, facilities of research and development.
    Low Literacy:In Pakistan literacy rate is 46 per cent. While meaningful literacy is far less. Female literacy islower. In rural areas literacy is much low.
Question No: 31    ( Marks: 2 ) Make clear International Relations as a field of Studies?
Question No: 32    ( Marks: 2 ) Who was Justice Shahabuddine?He was the former chief justice; he was the chairman of a constitutional commission in 1960.

   Question No: 33    ( Marks: 2 ) Very shortly describe Pakistan's Literacy Rate?    In Pakistan literacy rate is 46 per cent. While meaningful literacy is far less. Female literacy islower. In rural areas literacy is much low.Question No: 34    ( Marks: 3 ) How do you see Pakistan’s Surroundings Geographically?   Question No: 35    ( Marks: 3 ) Draw attention to the Criticism on the 2nd Basic Principles Committee Report 1952?The politicians particularly from the Punjabdeplored the Report because formation of the UH onthe basis of representation was not acceptable. It was declared against the principle of federation.The WP favoured equality only for Upper House. The political crisis removed Prime MinisterNazimuddin and attention diverted from the core issue.
   Question No: 36    ( Marks: 3 ) Very shortly describe Distance Education in PakistanPeople do not go to an institution but stay home and get education. This method is useful forpeople in service and for those living in remote areas. This is a method of Improvement ofqualification without actually going to an institution.It is a Flexible system in which Lectures and tutorial system are used through media.Examples are:• Allama Iqbal Open University.• Virtual University: TV and Internet.
Question No: 37    ( Marks: 5 ) What are the main problems thatPakistan Agriculture Sector is facing?There are number of problems in our agriculture, for instance:1. Outdated modes of cultivation, which cause low per acre yield.2. Water Logging and Salinity.Attention is being given to these since mid 1960.3. Crop diseases are big problem. Technical support is being provided byDepartment of Agricultural. It helped to overcome the problem. Our inputs have problemof quality, which cause low prices in market. Other handicaps are low quality seeds,costly fertilizers, non-availability of electricity or oil for tube well etc.4. Water related problem, sometimes it is too little, but sometimes it is too much.Cleaning of Canals is also necessary to provide water at the end of canal.5. Credit facilities are also problematic.6. Access to market is difficult.7. Availability of reasonable price should be ensured for the welfare of the farmersand high yield of crop.

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 5 ) Describe the Background of the Constitution of 1962?BackgroundMilitary took over on 7 October 1958 and consequently Ayub Khan became Chief Martial LawAdministrator. One major task was to frame a new Constitution. The administration was critical ofParliamentary system because it caused instability in the past. They sought stability of the nationin the gradual development of democracy.
   Question No: 39    ( Marks: 10 ) What were the main constitutional issues which Pakistan had to face at the beginning?Major IssuesThe major issues, the first constituent assembly faced, were about:1. Federalism2. Representation3. Separate or Joint Electorate4. The National Language Issue5. Parliamentary or Presidential system6. The Islamic or Secular State1: FederalismThere was consensus on federalism but yet there were many issues to be settled. The main wasthat Pakistan consisted of two territorial parts, East Pakistan (with more population, less territorybut administratively one unit) and West Pakistan (administratively 4 units). Federalism is meant toaccommodate such kind of diversity maintaining the unity of the state or country.Division of power:It was the most difficult question that how the power would be divided between Centreand the Provinces. The heritage of British rule gave the tradition of a Strong Centre. But theprovinces were demanding more Autonomy and Provincial Rights.In the Interim Constitution and the 1956 Constitution tradition of strong centre continued.2: RepresentationRepresentation at the federal level was another conflicting issue because East Pakistan andWest Pakistan were different in population and size. On the other hand there was diversity inWestern part of Pakistan. The provinces ofWest Pakistan were also different in population andsize. All of them were sensitive to their representation and provincial autonomy.To have a Standard Formula for the representation of units and population the ConstituentAssembly (CA) formed a Basic Principle Committee (BPC) on March 12, 1949. The primary taskof this committee was to frame a set of basic principles for the future constitution ofPakistan.
3: Separate or Joint ElectorateSeparate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government.But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as apart of heritage.East: decided for Joint Electorate.West: Separate electorate.1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for allPakistan by the National Assembly.4: The National Language IssuePre-independence: Muslim elite all overIndia adopted Urdu. In 1948 Jinnah declared that Urduwould be the national language but provinces could use their languages.Opposition against Urdu was there in East Bengal. This became more pronounced after the deathof Jinnah as controversies erupted on constitution making. Language Movement started in EastPakistan February, 1952.There was a complaint about anti Bengali language attitude of the federal government.Two-language formula was adopted in 1954. Since 1973 Urdu was adopted as national languagealong with the support for development of regional languages.5: Parliamentary or PresidentialThere was a consensus for parliamentary system. But there was a limited demand for presidentialsystem. Supporters of Presidential system became dominant after the 1958 military takeover.The 1962 Constitution was a Presidential constitution.7: The Islamic or Secular StateFrom the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state will haveclose relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam andits heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly,and a few secularists.There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state will identify itself with Islam. The ConstituentAssembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam.
                                                                       Question No: 40    ( Marks: 10 ) Write down a Comprehensive note onPakistan’s Natural Resources.          1: Natural Resources_ Mineral Resources_ Rivers and Canals_ Forests_ Animals2: Agriculture1: Natural Resources:The resources endowed by the nature to the country and the people are called NationalResources, e.g., Mineral resources, rivers, forests and animals. Agricultural lands hold key todevelopment and prosperity of a country.The rate of development and prosperity of a country depends on efforts to make use of it.Effective management and human efforts are needed to avail them. Modern technology is alsorequired to make use of it.Mineral Resources:Pakistan is blessed with considerable mineral resources. Some of them are explored but muchremains to be done for the search for more. Some important resources are:Iron Ore is used for industry, especially steel industry. It is found in limitedquantity and low quality. Most of the required Iron ore is imported from abroad. Itsdeposits are found in Chitral, Chaghai, Kohat, Kurram Agency, Mardan, Hazara,Mianwali (Kalabagh) and DG Khan.Chromite: is used in preparing other metals, leather tanning, making of steelproducts, armament and stainless steel. The deposits of Chromite are found in Zoab(Muslim Bagh), Chaghai, Malakand, Mahmand, Waziristan, Fort Sandaman etc.Gypsum is used for plaster of Paris, Paints and Cement. It is found in Jhelum,Mianwali, DG Khan, Kohat and Loralai.Sulphur is used by chemical industry. Its deposits are found in Kalat, Khairpur,Mardan, and Jacobabad etc.Coal is used in power generation. It is basically used as fuel. It is not found ingood quantity and quality. It is mostly found in Sindh (Thatta, Tharparkar, Manara)Balochistan (Deegari, Sharig, Soer, Khost, Maach, Hernai), Punjab (Makarwal, Dandot),NWFP (Cherat and Noshera).Oil: It is a major source of energy. It is mostly imported from Iran and Gulfstates. Now some valuable reserves are found in Jhelum, Mianwali, Attock, Balkasar,Mial, Chakwal, and Dhodak.Gas: it is itself a source of energy and fuel, and also used as a source of powergeneration. It is found in Sui, Mari, Uch, Khairpur, Jacobabad etc. Now some newdiscoveries are also found.Uranium: It is the basic element for atomic power, indispensable for the defence.Its deposits are in DG Khan, Hazara and Kohat.Rivers:The river system of Pakistan is consisted ofIndus and other associated rivers. We have a welldefinedCanal system. The most important one is theIndus Basin project.What we require is the proper management of water, its conservation, effective use, storage,dams and flood control. Water is dangerous if it is too much, it become a problem if it is too little.It is used for Agriculture where it is the backbone of agro-economy. It is also a cheapest source ofhydroelectric Power generation.Forests:Normally 25 percent area of a country should be covered with forest. But inPakistan it is only 4 to5 percent.Some areas are not suitable for plantation like deserts and dry mountains. It is because ofshortage of water and rainfall. Deforestation is also due to unplanned cutting of trees.Advantages:Forests have many advantages. They are helpful in improvement of weather. Protect againstwindstorms, help in slow melting of snow to stop floods. They add greenery, beauty and fresh airto the environment. Plants are source of food, medicine, timber, chemicals and fertilizers. Theyare the homes of animals, birds and insects. They are also used as fuel.Animals:Animals provide milk, meat, hide and skins, wool etc. They are also used for agriculture andtransportation. They are a source of foreign exchange.Their proper breeding requires planning and care. Animal husbandry and colleges of research areestablished to breed and cure useful species of animals. Department of Live Stock also providesSupport System for raising animals both privately and through Government Projects. Governmentfarms and military farms are also working for that purpose.Fisheries:It is also a source of food and income. Department of fisheries also encourage private farmers toinvest in this field and add to personal and national wealth.

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 2 )
Very shortly highlight Pakistan's Foreign Policy as an Islamic State?
 No state can live in isolation. There is a need of interaction. The linkages between internal &
external environment are very necessary to create harmonious relations among the peoples living
in the different regions. The national interests and identity, economic reasons, peace and stability
are the motives of foreign policy of a country.Pakistan functions at different levels: Bilateral and
Multilateral. It is also a member of the UN and other international organizations.

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 3 )
Give details about the 1977 Elections and Agitation
1977 Elections and Agitation:
As a result of elections of 1977 PPP won the elections. But joint opposition blamed a mass
rigging in the election results. They demanded fresh elections. Bhutto initially was stubborn but
later showed inclination to compromise but history has taken a U-turn. As he refused to negotiate
the elected majority party in 1971, now opposition refused to compromise and took the case to
the streets. Urban shopkeepers, businessmen, students, women and even the intelligentsia
joined hands against the government. The result was the third Martial Law and end of democracy.

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 3 )
Write a very brief note on the 2nd Constituent Assembly 1955?
2nd Constituent Assembly, June-July 1955
Ghulam Muhammad called a Convention onMay 10, 1955. All its members were to be elected
indirectly (by the provincial assemblies). In this way, the 2nd CA came into existence.

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 3 )
What is the situation of resources or budget allocation in education sector of
 Problem of Resources:
Resource allocation for education is far from satisfactory. It is much less than what a large
number of countries spend on education, especially those having developed after World War II.
Most of these allocations go to salaries and administration.
Fewer amounts are given for infrastructure, facilities of research and development.
Question No: 37 ( Marks: 5 )
How do you explain "Diversity in the nature of Territory" of Pakistan?
Diversity in the nature of territory:
North and Northwest: It includes Mountains of Himalayan and trans-Himalayan
Ranges, Korakoram & Pamirs, which includes some of highest peaks like K2, Nanga
Parbat etc.
West: Baluchistan Plateau is about 1000 feet in elevation with dry mountains
crossing it from northeast to the southwest. Here very little rainfall occurs.
Indus Plains: Main agricultural region in the middle of the Indus valley.
the Potohar Plateau is there in the East of upper Indus plains.
In South East of Indus Plains there is Deserts Thal, Cholistan and Thar.

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 10 )
Do you think that the policy measures adopted by Ayub Khan became the reasons of his downfall?
 Indo-Pakistan war started and at the end of war Tashkand Pact was signed with India. People
were not satisfied with this pact. They also resented the election results of 1965. Fruits of
economic development were not distributed at masses level. Wealth of nation was concentrated
in a few hands. This brought people to agitation and public demand resulted in resignation of the

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 10 )
Draw attention to the characteristics/features of the constitution of 1973?
 Features of the Constitution
3.1. Parliamentary System
It was a parliamentary constitution having powerful Prime Minister (PM) as head of government
with a very weak President.
President must act on the advice of PM. All his orders were to be countersigned by PM. Prime
Minister to be elected by the NA.
PM exercised all executive authority.
PM was answerable to the NA.
In 1985, powers of the President were increased. He enjoyed some discretion in appointments of
PM. He had power to dissolve the NA. He had the powers of appointment of caretaker PM.
He gives his assent to bills passed by the parliament or returns these.
3.2. President:
Must be at least 45 years of age, Muslim, qualified to become member of the NA. He is elected
by the Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies for 5 years.
3.3. Parliament with two houses:
• Upper House called Senate. In this house equal representation is given to Provinces.
Seats are reserved for the tribal areas, women and technocrats. Its original strength
was 63, which was later raised to 87 and then 100.
Senate is elected indirectly. It’s a permanent House as half of its members are elected
after three years.
• Lower House: National Assembly is elected on population basis. Its Original strength
was 210 but now it is 342. NA is elected for five years.
• Senate: Indirect elections
• National Assembly: Direct elections
• Voting age for the franchise is lowered from 21 to 18.
Parliament under 1973 constitution is a powerful legislative body. It enjoys all
legislative powers. It has control of the executive through questions, resolutions,
parliamentary committees etc.
• National Assembly is more powerful than the Senate. Budget is presented before NA.
Cabinet is answerable to National Assembly.
3.4. Federal System
Federation of Pakistan has four provinces and federally administered areas.
Two lists are given in the constitution: Federal list and Concurrent list. Residuary powers belong
to provinces.
3.5. Provincial Structure:
Provincial Governors are appointed by the President on the advice of the PM. Elected Chief
Minister exercises executive powers. Parliamentary system is there in the provinces.
Size of the provincial assemblies varies:
In 2002:
Punjab 371
Sindh 168
NWFP 124
Balochistan 65
Enough provincial autonomy is guaranteed. Tradition of strong centre continues.
Centre has emergency powers. Governor’s rule can be imposed if the government cannot
function in the provinces.
Provinces are dependent on centre for Finances.
3.6. Principles of Policy:
a. Islamic provisions are provided in Principles of Policy. Foreign policy
principles are also given under this heading.
3.7. Fundamental Rights:
b. Fundamental Rights are secured in the constitution and are implemented
through the highest court.
3.8. Islamic Provisions:
c. Title of the state is Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
d. The objectives resolution was the Preamble in the initial constitution but
through article 2-A of 8th amendment it was inserted in the constitution in 1985.
e. Islam was declared the State Religion of Pakistan.
f. Definition of Muslim was included by an amendment.
g. Principles of Policy also carry some Islamic clauses.
h. Council for Islamic Ideology is established under the constitution.
i. Federal Shariat Court was added in 1981.
3.9. National Language:
j. Urdu is declared National Language, however English may be used for
official purposes until arrangements would be made for its replacement by Urdu.
k. Provincial Assembly may prescribe measures for teaching, promotion
and use of a provincial language in addition to the national language.
3.10. National Security Council:
l. National Security Council was added in 2002 in advisory capacity.
3.11. Judiciary:
m. An independent judiciary is given under the constitution. Supreme Court
of Pakistan is the highest court. One High Court is established in each province
and one in Azad Kashmir. A chain of lower courts is there under the high courts.

Question   ( Marks: 2 )
Tell very shortly about the Modern Technology Education
Modern Technology and Education:
Technology education means education of IT, Computers- software and hardware. IT and regular
education, Access to knowledge and technical education.

Question No: ( Marks: 2 )
What was the issue of Separate or Joint Electorate in the begining years of
3: Separate or Joint Electorate
Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government.
But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a
part of heritage.
East: decided for Joint Electorate.
1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for allPakistan by the National Assembly.

Question ( Marks: 2 )
Who was Khawaja Nazimuddine?
He was the governal general of Pakistanduring Sept. 1948-Oct 1951
He was also the prime minister of Pakistandurig oct1951-apri1953

Question ( Marks: 3 )
Highlight the Shahabuddine Commission set up by Ayub Khan in 1960?
A Constitutional Commission was established in February 1960 under the chairmanship of
Justice Shahabuddin, former Chief Justice. The tasks assigned to the Commission were:
• To examine the causes of failure of Parliamentary system.
• Recommend a new system keeping in view the
(a) genius of people
(b) standard of education
(c) internal conditions of the country
(d) need of development

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 3 )
Give your opinion about Pakistan's Political development during 1972 to 2008

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 5 )
Describe the Presidential Referendum held in February1960?

thnkooo tariq bhaii


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