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Usually mobile phone battery require very low level DC voltage and current for charging, while our house hold wiring contains high level AC voltage (220V) and sinusoidal current(AC). How this issue is overcome for Charging phone battery? Describe the electrical principle and function in this process.

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PHY-301 GDB Solution:

  • A general type of battery charger will consist of two output terminals marked red and black.
  • It should also consist of an ammeter to display the charging current and a voltage selector switch.
  • Begin by selecting the appropriate charging voltage as per the battery used.
  • Taking due care of the polarity, you may just connect the red terminal to the positive and the black to the negative of the battery under charge.
  • The ammeter will instantly indicate the charging current. The battery will now gradually get charged, the ammeter reading will go down proportionately.
  • Once it reaches the zero mark, will mean that the battery is full and may be disconnected from the charger.


Converting AC to DC:

Rectification is the process of removing the negative part of the Alternate Current (AC), hence producing the partial DC. This can be achieved by using 4 diodes. Diodes only allow current to flow in one direction. In first half cycle of AC diode D2 & D3 are forward biased and D1 and D4 are reversed biased, and in the second half cycle (negative half) Diode D1 and D4 are forward biased and D2 and D3 are reversed biased. This Combination converts the negative half cycle into positive.


The output after the Rectification is not a proper DC, it is oscillation output and has a very high ripple factor. We don’t need that pulsating output, for this we use Capacitor. Capacitor charge till the waveform goes to its peak and discharge into Load circuit when waveform goes low. So when output is going low, capacitor maintains the proper voltage supply into the Load circuit, hence creating the DC. Now how the value of this filter capacitor should be calculated. Here is the formula:

C = I * t / V

C= capacitance to be calculated

I= Max output current 

  t= time period of current pulses

V = Peak voltage – voltage given to voltage regulator IC

aftab thanks for sharing 

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1) A battery charger has a transformer (step down) which convert high volatge to low.
2) After transformer A bridge rectifier configuration is used to rectify the low voltage AC into DC and is further smoothed by a high value electrolytic capacitor. (Rectifer converts AC to DC)

Note: after this you should right FiltrATION OF THE ABOVE post written by aftab brother

While In In automatic battery chargers a voltage sensor circuit is incorporated to sense the voltage of the battery under charge. The charger is automatically switched OFF when the battery voltage reaches the required optimum level.

Please Discuss here about this GDB.Thanks

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