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The topic is:

"Electrical components, Diode, Transistors are frequently used in electronic devices. By what materials these components are manufactured? Describe the reasons/ characteristic of these materials"

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Replies to This Discussion

lets start discussion?

wow very simple

Salicon or garmainmu becouse aik semi conducetr hi our aik good counducter


1) To protect circuits by limiting the voltage.
2) To convert AC into DC.
3) Use as voltage multipliers (e10.g. double input voltage)
4) Because it is non-linear mixing of two voltages (e.g. amplitude modulation)


• Transistors are the heart of modern electronics (replaced vacuum tubes)
voltage and current amplifier circuits
2)high frequency switching (computers)
3)impedance matching
low power
small size, can pack thousands of transistors in mm2
• In this class we will only consider bipolar transistors.


students hum ne diode ans transistor k material ki reason b gdb mn include krni hn

read for solution

Silicon Diodes

  • The construction of a silicon diode starts with purified silicon. Each side of the diode is implanted with impurities (boron on the anode side, arsenic or phosphorus on the cathode side), and the joint where the impurities meet is called the "p-n junction."

Silicon diodes have a forward-bias voltage of 0.7 Volts. Once the voltage differential between the anode and the cathode reaches 0.7 Volts, the diode will begin to conduct electrical current across its p-n junction. When the voltage differential drops to less than 0.7 Volts, the p-n junction will stop conducting electrical current, and the diode will cease to function as an electrical pathway.

Because silicon is relatively easy and inexpensive to obtain and process, silicon diodes are more prevalent than germanium diodes.

Germanium Diodes

  • Germanium diodes are manufactured in a manner similar to silicon diodes. Germanium diodes also utilize a p-n junction and are implanted with the same impurities that silicon diodes are implanted with. Germanium diodes, however, have a forward-bias voltage of 0.3 Volts.

Germanium is a rare material that is typically found with copper, lead or silver deposits. Because of its rarity, germanium is more expensive to work with, thus making germanium diodes more difficult to find (and sometimes more expensive) than silicon diodes.


 In solid state electronics, either pure silicon or germanium may be used as the intrinsic semiconductor which forms the starting point for fabrication. Each has four valence electrons; but germanium will at a given temperature have more free electrons and a higher conductivity. Silicone are by far the more widely used semiconductor for electronics, partly because it can be used at much higher temperatures than germanium.

plzz discusss about manufactring ????????


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