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We see that current can flow through metal conductors, in Semiconductors and even in Gases and Liquids. Discuss what types of charges are responsible for flow of current in each matter?
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Solution file by Adeel Ashfaq
Electric current is a flow of electric charge through a medium. This charge is carried by moving electrons in a conductor such as wire. In metallic solids, electricity flows by means of electrons, from lower to higher electrical potential. A solid conductive metal contains mobile or free electrons. Metals where the charge carriers (electrons) are negative, conventional current flows in the opposite direction as the electrons. In conductors where the charge carriers are positive, conventional current flows in the same direction as the charge carriers. The unit rate of change measuring ampere.
Electric currents in electrolytes are flows of electrically charged particles (ions). For example, if an electric field is placed across a solution of Na+ and Cl− (and conditions are right) the sodium ions move towards the negative electrode (cathode), while the chloride ions move towards the positive electrode (anode).
In air and other ordinary gases below the breakdown field, the dominant source of electrical conduction is via a relatively small number of mobile ions produced by radioactive gases, ultraviolet light, or cosmic rays. Since the electrical conductivity is low, gases are dielectrics or insulators.
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