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# Assignment 2(Spring 2013)

Circuit Theory (Phy301)

Marks: 25

Due Date: May, 14, 2013

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Q 1:

Find the source voltage Vs of the given network, if power dissipated across 9Ω resistance is 100 watts. Mention the units of calculated values.

Q 2:

Using Nodal analysis, determine the current Io through 6kΩ resistor for the given circuit. Label the diagram properly.

Q 3:

Write the functions of Resistor and Capacitor and their applications in every day         electronic equipments.

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### Replies to This Discussion

thank you very much unique you are really unique

here is the solution enjoy Attachments:

abd ul rehman thanks for sharing

for question 2 check page 50

some one please share idea solution of question 1

Q 2:

Using Nodal analysis, determine the current Io through 6kΩ resistor for the given circuit. Label the diagram properly.

Solution:

Labeling of above diagram capacitors, resistors, electric current.

First, I will reduce the 3 and 2 k ohm resistors to one

1/R=1/3+1/2
R=1.2 kohm

summing the voltages around the right
I*1.2 kOhm+(I-2 mA)*6 kOhm=3 V
This also took into account the current at the node where the 1.2 kOhm , the 6KOhm and 2 mA current source intersect.

Since V=I*R and the current through the 1.2 Kohm is the sum of the currents through the 6KOhm and 2 mA source

Also, since power is V*I and V=I*R, Power is I^2*R

solving for I
I=2.08 mA
check
2.08333*1.2+(.08333*6)
=3V checks out

So the current through the 6kOhm resistor is 0.8333 mA

P=0.8333^2*6/1000
=4.17 mW

First, the current through R4 is
3/8 A since the voltage is 3V

The current through R1 is 6A

summing the currents at the R3, R4, 3V node
I4-I3-I3V=0
At the R1, 4V, R2 node
I2+I3-6=0

at the bottom node
I4+I3V+I2+6=0

substituting and doing algebra
2*I4-2*I3+12=0
since I4=3/8

2*I3=3/4+12
I3=6.375 A

I2=6-I3
I2=0.375 A
I3V=3/8-6.375
I3V=-6A

Q 3:

Write the functions of Resistor and Capacitor and their applications in every day         electronic equipments.

CAPACITORS:

Capacitors have many uses in electronic and electrical systems. They are so ubiquitous that it is rare that an electrical product does not include at least one for some purpose.

APPLICATIONS OF CAPACITORS:

A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its charging circuit, so it can be used like a temporary battery. Capacitors are commonly used in electronic devices to maintain power supply while batteries are being changed. (This prevents loss of information in volatile memory.)

Conventional electrostatic capacitors provide less than 360 joules per kilogram of energy density, while capacitors using developing technology can provide more than 2.52kilo joules per kilogram.

In car audio systems, large capacitors store energy for the amplifier to use on demand.

Vintage paper in wax capacitor often found in antique tube radio circuits.

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can be equipped with maintenance-free capacitors to extend service life.

RESISORTORS:

resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. And its unit is ohm (Ω)

The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:

where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.

The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.

The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. In a high-voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.

Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance; these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp, the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and the position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.

APPLICATIONS OF RESISTORS:

There are two types of Resistors use in electronic equipments

1. Fixed resistors.
2. Variable resistors.

Resistors are the most widely used electronic component. Every day many millions are used to produce the electronic equipment from cell phones to televisions and MP3 players, and commercial communications equipment to high technology research equipment.

Q1

P=100 wat
R=9 ohm
V=?

Watt formula
P=vi ------------eq. 1
we know that
I=v/r
Put value of I in eq 1
And we get
P=v2/r
100*9=v2
V2=900
V=30volts         plz check it

Q 3:

Write the functions of Resistor and Capacitor and their applications in every day         electronic equipments.

CAPACITORS:

Capacitors have many uses in electronic and electrical systems. They are so ubiquitous that it is rare that an electrical product does not include at least one for some purpose.

APPLICATIONS OF CAPACITORS:

A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its charging circuit, so it can be used like a temporary battery. Capacitors are commonly used in electronic devices to maintain power supply while batteries are being changed. (This prevents loss of information in volatile memory.)

Conventional electrostatic capacitors provide less than 360 joules per kilogram of energy density, while capacitors using developing technology can provide more than 2.52 kilojoules per kilogram.

In car audio systems, large capacitors store energy for the amplifier to use on demand.

Vintage paper in wax capacitor often found in antique tube radio circuits.

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can be equipped with maintenance-free capacitors to extend service life.

RESISORTORS:

resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. And its unit is ohm (Ω)

The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. This relationship is represented by Ohm's law:

Where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units of volts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms.

The ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current in the circuit is called its resistance, and this can be assumed to be a constant (independent of the voltage) for ordinary resistors working within their ratings.

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.

The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. In a high-voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.

Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance; these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp, the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and the position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.

APPLICATIONS OF RESISTORS:

There are two types of Resistors use in electronic equipments

1. Fixed resistors.
2. Variable resistors.

Resistors are the most widely used electronic component. Every day many millions are used to produce the electronic equipment from cell phones to televisions and MP3 players, and commercial communications equipment to high technology research equipment.

Using Nodal analysis, determine the current Io through 6kΩ resistor for the given circuit. Label the diagram properly.

Labeling of above diagram capacitors, resistors, electric current.

First, I will reduce the 3 and 2 k ohm resistors to one

1/R=1/3+1/2
R=1.2 kohm

summing the voltages around the right
I*1.2 kOhm+(I-2 mA)*6 kOhm=3 V
This also took into account the current at the node where the 1.2 kOhm , the 6KOhm and 2 mA current source intersect.

Since V=I*R and the current through the 1.2 Kohm is the sum of the currents through the 6KOhm and 2 mA source

Also, since power is V*I and V=I*R, Power is I^2*R

solving for I
I=2.08 mA
check
2.08333*1.2+(.08333*6)
=3V checks out

So the current through the 6kOhm resistor is 0.8333 mA

P=0.8333^2*6/1000
=4.17 mW

First, the current through R4 is
3/8 A since the voltage is 3V

The current through R1 is 6A

summing the currents at the R3, R4, 3V node
I4-I3-I3V=0
At the R1, 4V, R2 node
I2+I3-6=0

at the bottom node
I4+I3V+I2+6=0

substituting and doing algebra
2*I4-2*I3+12=0
since I4=3/8

2*I3=3/4+12
I3=6.375 A

I2=6-I3
I2=0.375 A
I3V=3/8-6.375
I3V=-6A

Spring2013_PHY301_2_Solution

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