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PSC201 International Relations Assignment 01 Fall 2020 Solution / Discussion

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PSC-201 Assignment 1 Solution Fall 2020

 Question: 01
One of the most serious dilemmas of the South-Asian politics is the belligerent relations between Pakistan andIndia. What measures would you consider for normalization between the two neighbors

Answer no 1:

Since achieving independence in 1947, the relations between India and Pakistan have been such that the talks of trade, cooperation and peace have often taken place parallel to the threats of war. They have fought four wars and on more than one occasion mobilized their militaries with a credible threat of war. Since the early 1990s, the insurgency in Kashmir and terrorist incidents in other parts of India have affected bilateral relations in a profound way. Serious terrorist attacks in India causing huge loss of life, such as the Mumbai bombings in 2005 and Mumbai attacks in 2008, have often led to the loss of public support for dialogue with Pakistan. Groups targeting the peace process between India and Pakistan have exploited this reality to the extent of setting up a trend. For the past few years almost every Indo-Pakistan peace initiative has been followed by a terrorist attack.

India believes that space exists for a limited conflict where, if the need arises, doctrines such as ‘Cold Start’ can be executed, drawing the Pakistani army into battle and destroying its war fighting capability. India’s stand rests on the premise that while nuclear rhetoric is a good way to build and sway public opinions, empirically speaking the truth and action have generally sided with rationality and pragmatism.

Measures for normalizing between Pakistan and India:

The distinction between Conflict Avoidance and Confidence Building Measures is not easy to make and it is not a simple task to categorize various measures under the rubric of either the Conflict Avoidance Measures or Confidence Building Measures.



Conflict Avoidance Measures (CAMs):

 These are the steps undertaken in the early stages of the process and are aimed at avoiding unwanted wars and unintended escalation. The 1991 Agreement between India and Pakistan regarding pre-notification of large scale military exercises and establishment of no fly zones along their common border is a typical example of CAMS.

Confidence Building:

 This is a relatively more difficult stage which involves the difficult transition from Conflict Avoidance to Confidence Building. Its complexity is based on the fact that much greater political stakes are involved at this stage especially when the relations between the two parties are marred by deep seated mistrust.

Strengthening the Peace:

This stage encompasses the post-peace phase when after having avoided war and successfully negotiated peace, CBMs can still be employed to strengthen the fragile peace. This will entail institutionalization of existing cooperative arrangements and expanding their scope by developing socio-economic links. In this phase measures beyond pre-notification and invitation to military observers could be initiated such as placing constraints on the size and location of military exercises to make them as non-provocative as possible.

Question: 02
Discuss the concept of “Idealism”. Explain its core views briefly in peace building.
(Marks: 05)

Answer no 2:


It frequently means different things to different people. At the most general level idealism refers to an approach to international politics that seeks to advance certain ideals or moral goals, for example, making the world a more peaceful or just place.

Idealism in the foreign policy context holds that a nation-state should make its internal political philosophy the goal of its conduct and rhetoric in international affairs. In the broader, philosophical sense, this internationally-minded viewpoint can be thought of as an extension of the moral idealism advocated by different thinkers during and after the "Age of Enlightenment". That particular era involved multiple prominent individuals promoting a general sense of benevolence and government based upon strong personal character, with international conflict criticized as against the principles of reason. Idealism is also marked by the prominent role played by international law and international organizations in its conception of policy formation. One of the most well-known tenets of modern idealist thinking is democratic peace theory, which holds that states with similar modes of democratic governance do not fight one another. Wilson's idealistic thought was embodied in his Fourteen points speech, and in the creation of the League of Nations.




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